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The MiG-15: The Soviet Answer to Western Jets

Development

The MiG-15 was the Soviet Union’s first “true” jet aircraft. Previous Soviet jets were made by fitting jet engines to existing piston engine airframes. When World War II ended the British and Americans had operational jet fighters.[i] The Soviet Union and their former Western allies had examples of German jets and related research. The early jet engines had short engine lives and jet aircraft had other development issues related to new technology. Having operational jet fighters gave the West an advantage in fighter development.

The Soviet Union needed better powerplants than they had to get an aircraft to compete with the British and American jet fighters. The British Rolls-Royce Nene engine was such an engine. Aviation minister Mikhail Khrunichev and aircraft designer Alexander Yakolev approached the United Kingdom. British Prime Minister Clement Atlee permitted the sale of the Nene to the Soviet Union and a licensing agreement for overseas production.[ii]

The Soviet Union reverse engineered the Nene engine and designed an airframe with sweptback wings. The Soviet Union designated the resulting aircraft, capable of 650 mph (1,100 Km/hr.), the MiG-15.[iii] The MiG-15 made its first flight on December 20, 1947.[iv] The first production MiG-15 flew on December 31, 1948. It entered service in 1949. NATO initially gave the MiG-15 the code name “Falcon” but decided it was too complementary. NATO changed the code name to “Fagot”.[v] The MiG-15’s armament was one 37mm and two 23mm cannons. It was a well armored aircraft. The Soviet Union began producing the MiG-15bis in 1950.[vi]


[i] The British had the Gloster Meteor and the Americans had the P-80 Shooting Star.

[ii] Thought.com, Korean War: MiG-15, https://www.thoughtco.com/korean-war-mig-15-2361067, last accessed 12/7/19. The Labor government also sold to the United States the rights to use, for any purpose, the jet technology they shared with the United States during World War II for wartime purposes.

[iii] Thought.com, Korean War: MiG-15, https://www.thoughtco.com/korean-war-mig-15-2361067, last accessed 12/7/19.

[iv] Vintage Aircraft Recognition Guide by Tony Holmes, © HapeCollins Publishers, 2003.

[v] The name’s meaning was a bundle of sticks bound together as fuel, not a pejorative for homosexual.

[vi] Thought.com, Korean War: MiG-15, https://www.thoughtco.com/korean-war-mig-15-2361067, last accessed 12/7/19.

The Korean War and Other Early Combats

The Soviet Union soon exported the MiG-15 to their Chinese Communist allies, along with Soviet “volunteer” pilots. On April 24, 1950 Soviet MiG-15 pilot Keleinikov shot down a Nationalist Chinese P-38.[i] This was the first MiG-15 kill and the first Post-World War II jet air victory.

On June 25, 1950 North Korea invaded South Korea. The United States Air Force (USAF) quickly provided air support and the United Nations (UN) forces soon overwhelmed the North Korean forces. On November 1, 1950 almost all of the Korean Peninsula was in United Nations hands. United Nations forces had air supremacy. The situation in the air changed that day and the situation on the ground would change within the month.

Soviet Flown MiG-15s and USAF F-80 Shooting Stars engaged in air-air combat. MiG-15 pilot, Senior Lieutenant Semyon F. Khominich shot down an F-80, flown by F. Van Sickle. This was the first case of a jet shooting down another piloted jet. The MiG-15 was clearly superior to any UN aircraft flying over Korea. MiG-15s also engaged USAF F-51s and a T-6 Texan. A MiG-15 pilot named Chizh shot down an F-51D flown by First Lieutenant (1Lt.) Aaron Richard Abercrombie. The Soviet pilots claimed 2 F-51s shot down.[ii] On November 6 MiG-15 pilot N. Kuznetsov shot down an F-51, serial number 44-73570, piloted by 1Lt. George M. Lukakis. The next day MiG-15s engaged F-51s in five inconclusive actions.[iii] On November 8th an F-80, flown by Lieutenant Russell J. Brown damaged a MiG-15. The MiG-15 pilot, Senior Lieutenant Kharitonov, recovered from what appeared a terminal dive and returned to base.[iv] The USAF erroneously credited Lieutenant Brown with an air victory. On November 9 MiG-15s, led by Captain Mikhail Grachev, engaged US Navy aircraft attacking the Sinuiju bridges. In the ensuing combat a Grumman F9F-2B Panther, flown by Lieutenant Commander William T. Amen, shot down Captain M. F. Grachev. Captain Grachev died in the crash. The Soviet pilots claimed at least 5 navy aircraft shot down. There were no US Navy losses.[v] Also on the 9th a MiG-15 shot down a B-29. MiGs damaged the RB-29, “Over Exposed”. The RB-29 limped to Johnson AFB on two engines then crashed on landing. Five of the seven crew members died in the crash and the RB-29 broke apart.[vi] On the 10th MiG-15s attacked a 7 ship B-29 formation. The piston engine F4U Corsair escort was useless against the MiGs. Major G.I. Kharkovshii and his wingman St/Lt Akimov shot down the B-29 serial number 45-21814. They were each credited with shooting down a B-29.[vii] MiG-15s also shot down two F-51s. On the 14th MiG-15s damaged two B-29s. One damaged B-29, “Sad Sac”, crashed into another aircraft at Kimpo. On December 4, Soviet MiG-15 pilot Aleksandr F. Andrianov shot down a USAF RB-45C Tornado. Tornado co-pilot Jules E. Young and navigator James L. Picucci died in the crash. Pilot Charles E. McDonough was seriously wounded. He died under North Korean and Soviet interrogation. Passenger John R. Lovell survived interrogation but was taken to a North Korean village where the villagers lynched him.[viii]

F-86 Sabres arrived in Korea on December 13. The first engagement between the F-86 and the MiG-15 occurred on December 17. Lt. Colonel Bruce H. Hinton shot down a MiG-15. The MiG pilot, Captain Yakov Nikanorovich Yefromenko, ejected.[ix] On December 22 F-86 pilots claimed 6 MiG-21s without loss. Soviet pilots claim to have shot down 3 F-86s on that day. Nikolai Vorobyev shot down an F-86A and its pilot, Lawrence Bach, was captured.[x]

On January 29, 1951 the Communist Chinese Air Force claimed its first MiG-15 victory in the Korean War. Le Han shot down an F-80C. The F-80C pilot, Captain Arthur Hutchinson, was killed.[xi] On April 12 MiG-15s attacked a force of 48 B-29s with a heavy escort of F-80Cs and F-84Es. The MiGs ignored the much slower enemy fighters and attacked the bombers. The MiGs shot down 5 bombers and heavily damaged 5 others. These losses caused the USAF to temporarily cease strategic B-29 missions. On October 2 Colonel Francis S. Gabreski, who shot down 28 Luftwaffe aircraft in World War II, shot down MiG-15 pilot I. Morozov. Then Soviet MiG-15 pilot Colonel Lev K. Shchukin heavily damaged Gabreski’s fighter.[xii] On January 11, 1952 an F-86E shot down and severely wounded Shchukin. Five F-86 pilots claimed MiG-15s that day, including Colonel Gabreski. [xiii]

In October 1951 the USAF attempted to use B-29s as bait so the F-86s could eradicate the MiG-15 threat. On October 23, Soviet flown MiG-15s shot down 6 B-29s out of the 9 sent on a bombing mission to Namsi. The surviving 3 returned with battle damage. Colonel Shchukin also shot down an F-84E, the pilot John Shewmaker was killed.[xiv] USAF fighters claimed three MiG-15s. Richard D. Creighton shot down and killed MiG-15 pilot Khurtin.[xv] The USAF ended daylight raids over North Korea.

MiG-15s shot down at least 4 B-29s at night. Major Anatoly Karelin scored a night victory on June 10, 1952. [xvi] Night fighting wasn’t one sided. USAF F-94s claimed two victories against MiG-15s.[xvii]

On November 18, 1952 U.S. Navy Task Force 77, which included the aircraft carrier USS Oriskany, was carrying out operations against Communist targets in Korea. The Soviet Air Force launched 7 MiG-15s from Vladivostok. A flight of F9F-5 Panthers on a Combat Air Patrol to protect the carrier spotted the MiGs. The F9F flight leader had a mechanical malfunction and had to return to the Oriskany with his wingman. The MiG’s seemed to be preparing for an attack against the two remaining Panthers, flown by Lt. Royce Williams and Lt.(jg) David Rowlands. In the ensuing dogfight Lt. Williams shot down four of the MiG-15s. The MiG-15 pilots, Captains Belyakov and Vandalov, and Lieutenants Pakhomkin and Tarshinov died in the shootdowns. Lt. Williams landed his plane safely on the Oriskany. It was severely damaged by the MiGs and the Oriskany crew pushed the F9F overboard.[xviii]

Both sides overclaimed their air-air victories. Some of the United Nations losses attributed to groundfire were lost to enemy aircraft. This makes an exact kill-to-loss statistics problematic. There were other factors, such as g-suits, unrelated to aircraft performance that would affect aircraft success. MiG-15 pilot skills ranged from novice to combat experienced experts.


[i] Propwashgang.org, http://sw.propwashgang.org/shootdown_list.html, last accessed 12/7/2019.

[ii] Korean War: How the MiG-15 put an end to American mastery over the skies, by Rakesh Krishnan Simha, April 27, 2017, last assessed 12/8/19.

[iii] Fighting Mustang: The Chronicle of the P-51, by William N. Hess © 1970.

[iv] Knez, Saso, Diego Fernando Zampini and Joe L. Brenan “Korean War Database” archived, June 3, 2013 at the Wayback Machine AirCombat Information Group (ACIG), October 28, 2018.

[v] First Jet-On-Jet Kill? That Accolade Goes to the Navy’s F9F Panther, by Dario Leone, The National Interest, August 25, 2019, https://news.yahoo.com/first-jet-jet-kill-accolade-064500811.html, last accessed 12/8/2019.

[vi] Korean War Educator, http://koreanwar-educator.org/topics/b29s/p_b29s_losses_damage.htm, last accessed 12/8/2019.

[vii] Korean War Educator, http://koreanwar-educator.org/topics/b29s/p_b29s_losses_damage.htm, last accessed 12/8/2019.

[viii] Propwash.org, Aircraft Downed During the Cold War and Thereafter, http://sw.propwashgang.org/shootdown_list.html, last accessed 12/11/19.

[ix] Knez, Saso, Diego Fernando Zampini and Joe L. Brenan “Korean War Database” archived, June 3, 2013 at the Wayback Machine AirCombat Information Group (ACIG), October 28, 2018.

[x] Air Combat Information Group, https://web.archive.org/web/20130606071937/http://www.acig.org/artman/publish/article_307.shtml, last accessed, 12/10/19.

[xi] Air Combat Information Group, https://web.archive.org/web/20130606081643/http://www.acig.org/artman/publish/article_311.shtml, last accessed, 12/10/19.

[xii] Air Combat Information Group, https://web.archive.org/web/20130606071916/http://www.acig.org/artman/publish/article_314.shtml, last accessed, 12/10/19.

[xiii] Air Combat Information Group, https://web.archive.org/web/20130606071916/http://www.acig.org/artman/publish/article_314.shtml, last accessed, 12/10/19. Colonel Lev K. Shchukin was credited with 15 kills and 2 shares during the Korean War. Colonel Francis S. Gabreski was credited with 6 ½ kills in the Korean War.

[xiv] Air Combat Information Group, https://web.archive.org/web/20130606071916/http://www.acig.org/artman/publish/article_314.shtml, last accessed, 12/10/19. Colonel Lev K. Shchukin was credited with 15 kills and 2 shares during the Korean War. Colonel Francis S. Gabreski was credited with 6 ½ kills in the Korean War.

[xv] Air Combat Information Group, https://web.archive.org/web/20130606071916/http://www.acig.org/artman/publish/article_314.shtml, last accessed, 12/10/19. Colonel Lev K. Shchukin was credited with 15 kills and 2 shares during the Korean War. Colonel Francis S. Gabreski was credited with 6 ½ kills in the Korean War.

[xvi] Korean War Educator.org, http://koreanwar-educator.org/topics/b29s/p_b29s_losses_damage.htm, last assessed 12/10/19.

[xvii] The 319th in Korea, http://www.319th.com/korea.htm, last accessed, 12/10/2019.

[xviii] Lieutenant Royce Williams US Navy – Fighter Pilot, http://www.mofak.com/Royce%20Williams-Navy%20Pilot%20MIG%20Killer.htm, last accessed, 12/10/19.

Two Famous Pilot MiG-15 Experiences

On September 21, 1953 North Korean Senior Lieutenant Kim Sok Ho defected with his MiG-15. This was the first MiG-15 to fall in to western hands. Famed test pilot, then Major, Charles E. Yeager[i] evaluated this MiG-15 in February 1954. He learned the MiG-15[ii]:

  • Could not recover from a spin.
  • Had problems oscillating, pitching up unexpectedly.
  • Didn’t have a stall warning.
  • Had “Lousy” pressurization.
  • An emergency fuel pump that had a tendency to cause an explosion when turned on.
  • Had a weapons system and equipment inferior to the F-86 Sabre.
  • Had a better rate of climb than the F-86.
  • Had a higher service ceiling than the F-86.
  • Had better acceleration than the F-86.
  • Could not break the sound barrier.

A Soviet Air Force MiG-15 crashed on a routine training flight on March 27, 1968. The pilot who died in this crash was the first human in space Colonel Yuri Alekseyevich Gegarin.


[i] Charles Yeager retired as a Brigadier General.

[ii] Yaeger, by Brigadier General Chuck Yeager and Leo Janus, © 1985 by Yeager, Inc.

Cold War Incidents

  • March 10, 1953 - Two USAF F-84G Thunderjets strayed into Czechoslovakia. Czech MiG-15 pilot, Jaroslav Sramek shot down one F-84. The Thunderjet pilot ejected safely.[i]
  • January 27, 1954 - MiG-15s attacked a USAF RB-45 with an F-86 escort. F-86 pilot Bertram Beecroft shot down one of the MiG-15s. [ii]
  • March 18, 1954 – A People’s Republic of China (PRC) MiG-15 shot down a Republic of China (ROC) P-47N Thunderbolt. The Thunderbolt pilot was killed. On May 22 ROC P-47 pilots Chien and Yen shot down a PRC MiG-15. On July 6 a PRC MiG-15 shot down a ROC P-47N. The Thunderbolt pilot was killed.[iii]
  • September 4, 1954 - Soviet MiG-15s shot down a US Navy P2V-5 40 miles (65 km) off the coast of Siberia. Roger H. Reid died in the incident. A USAF SA-16 rescued the other P2V crew members.[iv]
  • November 17, 1954 - A PRC MiG-15 scored an Air Combat Maneuvering (ACM) kill against a ROC RT-33A(2). The RT-33 pilot was killed in the crash.[v]
  • February 5, 1955 - MiG-15s attacked a USAF RB-45 with an F-86 escort. Sabre pilots Charles Salmon and George Williams each shot down a MiG-15.[vi]
  • April 17, 1955 - Soviet MiG-15 pilots Korotkov and Sazhin shot down a USAF RB-47E Stratojet.[vii]
  • May 10, 1955 - In a combat between MiG-15s and F-86s off the coast of Korea PRC MiG-15 pilot Xizhong Ni shot down an F-86. USAF Sabre pilots Robert Fulton and Burt Phythyon each shot down a MiG-15bis. [viii]
  • June 22, 1955 - MiG-15s shot down a US Navy P2V-5 Neptune. The attack was over the Bering Strait and the Neptune crash landed on St. Lawrence Island. The Soviet Union paid over $350,000 in compensation. [ix]
  • July 4, 1955 - A ROC F-84G shot down a PRC MiG-15. [x]
  • July 27, 1955 - Bulgarian MiG-15s, flown by Boris Vasilev Petrov and Konstantin Krumov Sankiyski shot down an El Al Airlines Lockheed 049 Constellation over Bulgaria. All 58 on board the airliner died in the crash. [xi]
  • October 15, 1955 - ROC F-86 pilot Tzu-Wan Sun shot down a PRC MiG-15. [xii]
  • April 14, 1956 - A ROC F-84G shot down a PRC MiG-15. [xiii]
  • July 20, 1956 - A ROC F-84G shot down a PRC MiG-15. The next day ROC F-84G pilot Ouyangi-Fang claimed two MiG-15s. [xiv]
  • February 18, 1958 - A PRC Naval Air Force MiG-15 shot down a ROC RB-57D. The RB-57D pilot was killed. [xv]
  • June 17, 1958 - PRC MiG-15bis fighters scored an ACM victory over an RF-84F. [xvi]
  • July 1, 1960 - Soviet MiG-15 pilot Vasili Poliakov shot down a USAF ERB-47H over the Barents Sea. Four of the six ERB-47H crew members died in the crash. [xvii]


[i] Propwash.org, Aircraft Downed During the Cold War and Thereafter, http://sw.propwashgang.org/shootdown_list.html, last accessed 12/11/19.

[ii] Propwash.org, Aircraft Downed During the Cold War and Thereafter, http://sw.propwashgang.org/shootdown_list.html, last accessed 12/11/19.

[iii] Propwash.org, Aircraft Downed During the Cold War and Thereafter, http://sw.propwashgang.org/shootdown_list.html, last accessed 12/11/19.

[iv] Propwash.org, Aircraft Downed During the Cold War and Thereafter, http://sw.propwashgang.org/shootdown_list.html, last accessed 12/11/19.

[v] Propwash.org, Aircraft Downed During the Cold War and Thereafter, http://sw.propwashgang.org/shootdown_list.html, last accessed 12/11/19.

[vi] Propwash.org, Aircraft Downed During the Cold War and Thereafter, http://sw.propwashgang.org/shootdown_list.html, last accessed 12/11/19.

[vii] Propwash.org, Aircraft Downed During the Cold War and Thereafter, http://sw.propwashgang.org/shootdown_list.html, last accessed 12/11/19.

[viii] Propwash.org, Aircraft Downed During the Cold War and Thereafter, http://sw.propwashgang.org/shootdown_list.html, last accessed 12/11/19.

[ix] Propwash.org, Aircraft Downed During the Cold War and Thereafter, http://sw.propwashgang.org/shootdown_list.html, last accessed 12/11/19.

[x] Propwash.org, Aircraft Downed During the Cold War and Thereafter, http://sw.propwashgang.org/shootdown_list.html, last accessed 12/11/19.

[xi] Propwash.org, Aircraft Downed During the Cold War and Thereafter, http://sw.propwashgang.org/shootdown_list.html, last accessed 12/11/19.

[xii] Propwash.org, Aircraft Downed During the Cold War and Thereafter, http://sw.propwashgang.org/shootdown_list.html, last accessed 12/11/19.

[xiii] Propwash.org, Aircraft Downed During the Cold War and Thereafter, http://sw.propwashgang.org/shootdown_list.html, last accessed 12/11/19.

[xiv] Propwash.org, Aircraft Downed During the Cold War and Thereafter, http://sw.propwashgang.org/shootdown_list.html, last accessed 12/11/19.

[xv] Propwash.org, Aircraft Downed During the Cold War and Thereafter, http://sw.propwashgang.org/shootdown_list.html, last accessed 12/11/19.

[xvi] Propwash.org, Aircraft Downed During the Cold War and Thereafter, http://sw.propwashgang.org/shootdown_list.html, last accessed 12/11/19.

[xvii] Propwash.org, Aircraft Downed During the Cold War and Thereafter, http://sw.propwashgang.org/shootdown_list.html, last accessed 12/11/19.

The Sinai Conflict

Egypt was the first country in the Middle East to receive the MiG-15. On October 30, 1956, the day the Sinai Conflict began, MiG-15s strafed Israeli forces. The MiGs destroyed some vehicles, destroyed a parked Piper Cub, and wounded six soldiers. Israeli Lieutenant Yosef Tsuk, flying a French built Mystere IVA, shot down a MiG-15. MiG-15s damaged Tusk’s fighter but it returned to base. A MiG-15 shot down an Israeli Piper Cub. The next day Egyptian MiG-15s and Gloster Meteors strafed and struck Israeli forces with rockets. The attack damaged some vehicle and the Israeli forces suffered over a dozen casualties. Mystere IVA pilot, Ya’acov Nevo, shot down two MiG-15s. MiG-15s did drive off some Israeli fighter bombers. On November 1 Egyptian aircraft flew to airbases in Syria, Saudi Arabia, and Southern Egypt.[i] The Israeli Air Force had air supremacy for the rest of the conflict.


[i] Fighters Over Israel, by Lon Nordeen, © 1990.

MiG-15 & Its Nemesis Aircraft

Source: Vintage Aircraft Recognition Guide by Tony Holmes (c) HarpersCollins Publishing 2005.

 MiG-15F-86Mystere IVA

Max Speed

667 mph (1,076 kmh)

678 mph (1,091 kmh)

696 mph (1,120 kmh)

Range

826 miles (1,330 Km)

850 miles (1,368 Km)

820 miles (1,320 Km)

Static Thrust

5,952 lb (26.4 kN)

5,970 lb (26.56 kN)

7,716 lb (33 kN)

Armament

1x37mm & 2x23mm

6x0.5" MG

2x30mm

This content is accurate and true to the best of the author’s knowledge and is not meant to substitute for formal and individualized advice from a qualified professional.

© 2019 Robert Sacchi

Comments

Robert Sacchi (author) on May 24, 2020:

Thank you for reading and commenting. I made the correction from F-15D to F-51D. That's one of the advantages of HubPages, mistakes can be corrected and articles can be updated.

Robert Sacchi (author) on May 24, 2020:

Thank you for pointing this out. It's a typo.

KC McGee from Where I belong on May 24, 2020:

Interesting Article. One question that needs to be asked. During the Koren war you stated the Mig-15 shot down a U:S: made F-15D. which was the first time a fighter jet shot down another fighter jet. Now my history could be a bit off, but the U.S. didn't have the F15 fighter until the mid to late 1970's. How did a Mig-15 shoot down a F-15D during the Koren war in the early 1950's? I could be wrong, please let me know

Aside from this, I believe this is a great article. Hope to read more of your work.

Robert Sacchi (author) on May 24, 2020:

Thank you for reading and comenting. Yes, I've read some of Emge's articles, good information there. I have been interested in aviation my who life. I have a good number of books on military aviation. There is of course the internet. The one thing I like about writing these articles is in the process I learn a lot.

manatita44 from london on May 24, 2020:

A lot of info. How did you put all this together? Emge is an Indian pilot and covers this topic sometimes. Great research!

Robert Sacchi (author) on December 17, 2019:

Thank you for reading and commenting. I'm glad you found the article informative.

Peggy Woods from Houston, Texas on December 17, 2019:

The name of the MiG-15 aircraft is well known to many people. With this article, you have filled in much of the background and history of the aircraft and those who flew in it. I found it interesting in reading the comments as to how you were able to research the stats, etc.

Robert Sacchi (author) on December 16, 2019:

Thank you all for reading and commenting:

Pamela Oglesby - It's fortunate information is so readily accessible on the net. Research that use to take weeks can now be done in hours. The Soviet Union didn't publicly admit their pilots flew in Korea for many years.

MG Singh - That had to be a great experience flying the MiG-15. It would make for a great article. The Russians do have a habit of blaming the foreign crew rather than their weapons systems when their equipment does poorly in combat. The Israelis somewhat discredited that in an air battle in 1969.

FlourishAnyway - With military equipment all sides reverse engineer. The initial concept for the F-86 was a straight wing aircraft. They got the idea of a swept back wing from the German Me 262. That boosted the F-86 speed by about 70 mph. The Me 262 swept back wing was to adjust the plane's center of gravity. Often advances are discovered by accident.

FlourishAnyway from USA on December 16, 2019:

Excellent research. I’m glad you put “that” footnote in there because I would not have known otherwise. I visited the old U.S.S.R. when I was a teen and have respect for their culture and technology but would never want to live there. Made me thankful to be American. They seem to be crafty at taking others’ ideas and running with them just like they reverse engineered this plane. No offense to them. Again, good article.

MG Singh emge from Singapore on December 16, 2019:

Nice article on the MIG 15. It was a good plane but needed good aircrew and earlier Chinese and Korean pilots were not too hot. I flew a version when visiting the Soviet Union and found it a bit heavy compared to the Gnat. It was the stock warplane of the communist Air Forces for 2 decades.

Pamela Oglesby from Sunny Florida on December 16, 2019:

This is a ver well-written article that gives us an important part of Russian histor. You certainly did a lot of good research to give us so much imformation.

Robert Sacchi (author) on December 15, 2019:

Thank you both for reading and commenting.

Ranjan dhar - I'm glad you found the article informative.

Liz Westwood - Soviet data is much easier to find than it was in the old days. Fair warning, Russians sill embellish their stories a lot, That hasn't changed much from the old days.

Liz Westwood from UK on December 15, 2019:

This is a well-researched article. How easy did you find it to come by Soviet data?

Ranjan dhar from Kolkata, INDIA on December 14, 2019:

Very nicely narrated and it is informative!