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The History of Georgian Architecture - Edinburgh New Town

I'm a graduate in Economic and Social History from the University of Strathclyde, a former Edinburgh Tour Guide and resident of the city.


A UNESCO Heritage site accorded its status for outstanding historical and architectural significance.

The so-called New Town of Edinburgh is over 250 years old but all descriptions are relative.

The name derived from a direct comparison with the medieval streets and wynds of the Old Town of the city which is centred around the Royal Mile.

The international accolades notwithstanding the New Town is a curious urban phenomenon. It could even be called an open-air museum to the Georgian style, except that the exhibits are perhaps over subscribed. Varied it certainly is not, save from some notable exceptions and subsequent additions.

The brainchild of this new civic era in Edinburgh was the precocious talent of a 26 year old named James Craig. His design for the new residential suburb was classic and grand but laid out on the base of a simple axial grid pattern.

The old Lord Provost George Drummond never lived to see this dream fulfilled for he was the inspiration for the New Town. As far back in the 1720's he had the vision for a splendid new area of Edinburgh north of the Old Town. His death in 1766 came on the eve of the excavations of the first foundations only 3 years later.

Inspiration came from the 'Grand Tour' of Europe conducted by architects and artists alike. Thus the New Town would be a neo-classical tribute to the symbols of ancient Rome and Greece. The values of virtue, wisdom and harmony would imbue the nascent streets of Edinburgh. This affinity gave the city its soubriquet of the 'Athens of the North' so prevalent is the influence of the classics.

The palatial style of Albyn Place

The palatial style of Albyn Place

'Heavenly Hanoverianism'

The New Town would also serve as a tribute to the great and the good as well as revelling in the patriotic glory of the recent 1707 Union of Scotland with England.

The names of the 18th century streets specifically laud the contemporary monarch King George III and the House of Hanover.

Therefore there is still to this day 'George Street', 'Frederick Street', 'Hanover Street' and of course 'Princes Street' the last of which is named after the sons of George III.

You will also find 'Queen Street' and 'Charlotte Square' which both refer to Queen Charlotte of Mecklenberg-Strehlitz who was the wife of the king. In between the main streets are 'Rose Street' and 'Thistle Street' which pay homage to the Union through the national emblems of England and Scotland respectively.

In one of his most expansive and alliterative phrases the poet Robert Burns described the New Town as a place of 'Heavenly Hanoverianism'. However this may have been served with lavish helpings of sarcasm as he was undoubtedly no admirer of the Royal Court.

Terraced mansions in Queen Street

Terraced mansions in Queen Street

A new religion written in stone

The New Town departed from the exuberant flourish of the Baroque with a religious zeal. The free-spirited wiles of curvature and ornate extravagance gave way to discipline and rectitude. Thus the graceful flow of bold and sweeping designs were stemmed by the sturdy and uncompromising ranks of the Georgian elevation. There would be little opportunity for the element of surprise.

The grey stone of the local Craigleith Quarry spawned buildings which were the physical embodiment of the Scottish Reformation. Their construction may have lagged some 200 years behind John Knox but the symbolic transformation from Catholicism to Protestantism is never more evident and lasting than in its architecture. Free of ostentation and idolatry.

Religious iconography is rarely worshipped by the disciples at the altar of Andrea Palladio.

The Baroque style was now considered 'Counter-Reformational' and to be banished from the walls of the House of Hanover.

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Of course the supreme ironies are to be found on the peripheries of the area and which owe their inspiration to religious expression.

Here you will find Gothic steeples which rise to the heavens in a hymn of praise and impose themselves on the Georgian vistas. Sir George Gilbert Scott's superlative creation of St Mary's Episcopalian Cathedral in the 1890's at Manor Place being the prime example.

St Mary's Episcopalian Cathedral in Manor Place

St Mary's Episcopalian Cathedral in Manor Place

Otherwise the repetitive, conformist and perhaps sometimes austere streets of Edinburgh New Town reject the individual and the eccentric. The template is enforced in the constant lines of mansion after mansion stretching along the straightened thoroughfares.

Once a local resident as a child and a young man, the writer Robert Louis Stevenson shared the lyricism of the visitor Robert Burns. But his descriptions of the streets of the New Town as "draughty parallelograms" reflected a prosaic insight that was undoubtedly far more influenced by his delicate health than his creative impulse.

Bute House in Charlotte Square

Bute House in Charlotte Square

Equating a mathematical formula

The late 18th century was also the time of the Scottish Enlightenment where reason and rationality were expounded by the greatest writers and thinkers in the country. The 'common-sense' school of philosophers would surely have approved of the practical, confident assertions of the city's new development. Visual hyperbole is eschewed in favour of plain statement.

Science was also gaining a stronger foothold within the academic literati behind the university walls. The physical, the observable and the provable transferred their deductive power from the laboratory onto the streets. Little room for unknown variables or ethereal contrivances in the buildings. This was a controlled experiment in civic design and social cohesion where concrete reality held sway over the meanderings of the spiritual muse.

A building in Queen Street

A building in Queen Street

This is exemplified in announcements which were published by the authorities in 1777 that invited house-building plans;

"by which buildings may be erected in the most regular, handsome and commodious manner"

Regularity was the keyword as a uniformity of style and size was imposed by the Edinburgh city elders.

As well as the type of materials used and the constraints of design, three floors would be the maximum height allowed for each building. This was in order to avoid the cluster of colour and variation that evolved in the Old Town of the city. The New Town was to be ordered and homogeneous with little room for variance or embellishment.

Architecture and design would be constrained and any departure from the median would be met with financial penalties and presumably loss of future commissions. It would be a brave man who attempted to fight Town Hall.

Dormer windows in George Street

Dormer windows in George Street

Hence you will witness the ubiquity of the dormer window if you cast up your eyes from street level.

Almost every original building is adorned with rows of attic room windows perched high on their rooftops.

These attic spaces under the slates provided the loophole for the addition of a 4th floor without contravening the directive.

Consequently through the Council edict the endless façades of the New Town manifest the hard canvas of the draughtsman's board with their slide-rule precision, their certainty and their symmetry. An arithmetical cityscape drawn from the calculated mores of the conventional and the authoritarian with a hint of the vernacular more than the artistic.

The industrial production line

Britain in the late 18th century was fusing the critical mass of its economy and society as the Industrial Revolution took hold of the nation. Populations moved, farms emptied, cities grew and the new factories and 'satanic mills' powered the economic engine.

In Scotland the iron, coal and steel of Glasgow was the heartland of the new-steam driven dynamic. In Edinburgh this was less so but urban development still mirrored the industrial machine. A production line of ashlar-clad dwellings was conceived and created.

The terraced houses of Circus Place

The terraced houses of Circus Place

They were manufactured from the mould and displayed for a new consumer market of the 'nouveau riche' among the Scottish higher classes including absentee noblemen in England. In judging London alongside Edinburgh in 1850, Charlotte Bronte had enthused that it was "prose compared to poetry" suggesting that the New Town had indeed raised the prestige of the Scottish capital.

This rigidity of style with it's rectilinear symmetry to the fore epitomises the Georgian New Town. The uniformity of the horizontal is therefore rarely disrupted. And how sensational it seemed in 1810 when the shallow arc of the new Abercromby Place was constructed under the disbelieving eyes of the locals. They were certain it would crumble in a heap.

But when a maverick dares to break the serried ranks it seems all the more remarkable for its uniqueness. Robert Adam however was not such an exception. His great reputation afforded him the luxury of the palatial splendour of Charlotte Square. The whole frontage of the north and south blocks were submitted to the faux style of a royal residence despite containing separate houses within. Impressive although nonetheless pretentious in its insinuation.

The Scottish National Portrait Gallery in Queen Street

The Scottish National Portrait Gallery in Queen Street

Exceptions to the slide-rule

However there are more honest transgressors of the rule along the streets of Edinburgh New Town. None more so than the breathtaking Venetian Gothic of the Scottish National Portrait Gallery. A tribute to the Doge's Palace in Scottish red sandstone it is an Italian importation of revivalist culture. Each morning since 1890 it has awaited patiently to bask brightly in the glow of the sun rising over the Forth Estuary.

Royal Society of Physicians building in Queen Street

Royal Society of Physicians building in Queen Street

Intricate and elegant it stands as a counterpoint to the absolute dominance of the Georgian mansion.

No rationality need apply even though it remained within the spirit of the confines of the long-expired municipal framework.

It is within these self-imposed restraints that Rowand Anderson exerted his creative freedom. Exuberant statues, arches and motifs adorn its external walls in a vivid recreation of Italian gusto and panache.

Nearby the Royal Society of Physicians building in Queen Street projects its classical heritage with the utmost confidence.

Thomas Hamilton's structure of 1845 is literally larger than life as huge figures grace the building. Hippocrates, Asclepius, the Greek God of medicine and Hygeia his daughter from which we derive the word 'hygiene' in modern parlance. They all guard the entrance reminding us that the healing arts owe themselves to the classical heroes and icons of the ancients.

The Manse in Queen Street

The Manse in Queen Street

Further along is the former Manse of the St Andrews Parish from 1852 and designed by John Henderson.

It stands as a Gothic interruption to the Georgian perspective along the length of Queen Street.

Naturally it has a theological demeanour patterned with medieval style windows and small turrets hovering above.

However its original devotional purpose has since long gone and it is now a commercial property. The worship of Mammon supplants the divine.

Modest in size and restrained in texture it still manages to outperform its secular neighbours in its boldness and authority.

The sheer incongruity of this dissenter magnifies its accomplishment and its uniqueness. This relational dynamic lends it an almost cathedral-like status albeit on a smaller scale in comparison with the uniformity of the rank and file in its immediate surroundings.

These are the exceptions that prove the rule as they are few and far between among the original buildings of Edinburgh New Town. When they fall upon the eye they are therefore all the more satisfying for that moment of respite.

Tudor House in Randolph Place

Tudor House in Randolph Place

Perhaps the Tudor style of the building behind the old St George's Church is taking the exception too far.

In the 1960s the old church was converted into the national archives of West Register House. Behind it in Randolph Place is the atavistic paen of the 1880's to the times of Elizabethan England.

Architect T Duncan Rhind's creation is today a popular restaurant and the colourful half timber and white-washed walls are certainly a startling discovery to the uninitiated.

A novelty indeed and almost hidden away as a guilty secret of frivolity and architectural sedition to the ashlar establishment. We may find ourselves in sympathy with the Edinburgh authorities of the 1770's in their rigorous adherence to the neo-classical model. Some things try to be a little too unusual in asserting the right to oddity and distinctiveness.

The Bank of Scotland building in St Andrews Square

The Bank of Scotland building in St Andrews Square

The currency of grandeur in the capital powers

Over in the bustling St Andrews Square, or the 'Golden Square' of the banking industry, is the magnificent Bank of Scotland building of 1852 with its Corinthian columns and exquisite statues sculpted by Handyside-Ritchie. Compare this with the admittedly impressive Palladian facade by Sir William Chambers of the earlier Dundas House of 1774. This is now the headquarters of the bank's nearest competitor, the Royal Bank of Scotland.

The opulence of both reflects the wealth and the power of the financial sector in the history of Scotland's capital. The bankers and the merchants gathered the immense funds from which the city grew. Their forays into 'conspicuous consumption', that 18th and 19th century equivalent of the modern status symbol provided a legacy of architectural marvels where "Edinburgh leaves itself open like a secret solved" as described by the Scottish writer Alan Bold.

The Royal Bank of Scotland Headquarters in St Andrews Square.

The Royal Bank of Scotland Headquarters in St Andrews Square.

Of course variety of style and period are in abundance in certain areas of the New Town.

Princes Street is now unrecognisable from the Georgian terraces of the late 18th century and today only four mansion buildings actually remain.

It is now a mixture of genres collected over the past three centuries and huddled together.

From the Victorian majesty of Jenners Department Store to the impersonal breeze-block of the post-war wilderness they stand shoulder to shoulder in an uneasy alliance.

It still remains one of the most significant streets in Scotland but has long since abandoned art and aesthetic cohesion having sold itself to the retail juggernaut.

George Street is less cosmetically damaged and there are many jewels to delight the eye. The imported white-grey Portland stone of the Royal Society of Edinburgh building is a welcome antidote to the omnipresence of Craigleith.

The Royal Society of Edinburgh building in George Street

The Royal Society of Edinburgh building in George Street

The individual touch of the private household

But all these monuments to artistic licence and free expression came after the main project of the building of the New Town. However within the strictures of the old guard you will still discover the decorative vocabulary of ancient Rome and Greece.

A door frontage in Queen Street

A door frontage in Queen Street

Certainly exhibiting a subtlety of purpose and perhaps more diffident in statement they nevertheless provide an invigoration to the staidness of the main structure.

Many ornate astragals delineate the floors with balustrades lining the balconies and rooftops.

In between the floors there are often pilasters to provide an extra articulation to barren wall space. Cornices and capitals may add punctuation.

At ground level glazed fanlights crown the entrances in welcome and wrought ironwork marks the narrow perimeters of the Georgian property.

They all succeed in being slightly rebellious without disrupting the unity of the norm. They add character and detail. The personal tastes and touches of both architect and owner manage to attach a badge of individuality to the private household.

Balustrades plus pilasters and columns with capitals in George Street

Balustrades plus pilasters and columns with capitals in George Street

The grander scheme of things

In the words of Hugh McDiarmid "Edinburgh is a mad god's dream" such is the beauty and variety of its cityscape. The New Town fits well into its surroundings alongside the Medieval, the Renaissance, the Victorian and beyond.

Among the manicured gardens and the rugged volcanic ridges of the post-glacial contours of the land the New Town sits proudly.

What began as an upper-class ghetto for the urban elites of the 18th century has become a cultural theme-park for the lucrative spoils of the 21st century tourist trade.

Eye candy for the masses and a picture postcard opportunity for the digital camera.

Nevertheless for those that wish to stroll the paving slabs, the cobbles and the tarmac of Edinburgh New Town you cannot fail to be impressed. It is an elegant experience, pleasing to the eye and satisfying to the soul. An early morning or late evening promenade will spare you the turmoil of the rush hour. Edinburgh New Town may not inspire the awe of ancient Rome or Greece but it will leave a special trace in the memory.


Shinkicker (author) from Scotland on March 24, 2012:

What a great wee video Linkusbless

Many thanks for that :-)

Linkusbless on March 24, 2012:

(Auld Toon Shuffle.)

Shinkicker (author) from Scotland on March 19, 2012:

An insightful analysis of the Big Hoose amillar :-) The best I've heard.

I actually love the Scottish Parliament building but I know it's not for everyone. Have you been on the guided tour? It might change your mind.

Thanks for reading and for a great comment.

amillar from Scotland, UK on March 19, 2012:

An excellent piece of work Shinkicker; you make me proud to be a Scot.

What ever happened to Scottish architecture? That new parliament building looks as if the Gods have emptied an ashtray on the town, complete with dud matches fag ends and an old piece of chewed gum. (I'm not referring to Alex Salmond here.)

Shinkicker (author) from Scotland on March 18, 2012:

Welcome back rLcasaLme

Now it makes sense LOL

Rael Casalme from Dubai, United Arab Emirates on March 18, 2012:

OMG Shinkicker! that comment should have been my answer to one of the questions asked in the Q&A section. I have this habit of putting the text first in a notepad before copying and pasting it here in the comment section.

Apparently, I've pasted this by accident. (embarrassed)

This hub has a tremendous wealth of information and details. You've made a wonderful document about Edinburgh New Town.

I love the architecture.

Shinkicker (author) from Scotland on March 18, 2012:

Hello Natashalh and Bldg an Architect

Thanks for reading and leaving comments. Glad you enjoyed it. The photos are easy when the city looks so good.

Best wishes

Natasha from Hawaii on March 18, 2012:

I love Edinburgh. I actually used to live there as a child. I also used to work in an 18th century Georgian mansion that is a historic site, so this hub definitely speaks to me! It is a great collection of photos and gives a lot of information without seeming overwhelming. Voted interesting and up!

Bldg an Architect on March 18, 2012:

Great hub. The amount of information here is amazing. The photos are beautiful. I hope to visit someday!

Shinkicker (author) from Scotland on March 18, 2012:

And on the 7th day he built Edinburgh. Have you not got the wrong Hub my friend?

Thanks for stopping by anyway

Rael Casalme from Dubai, United Arab Emirates on March 18, 2012:

God saw all that he had made, and it was very good. And there was evening, and there was morning--the sixth day.

Shinkicker (author) from Scotland on March 18, 2012:

Thanks for Reading Brian and your kind comments. I look forward to reading your Hubs too

All the best

BRIAN SLATER on March 18, 2012:

The best hub I have seen for a while. Teriffic insight, great photographs and historical knowledge. Well done Shinkicker one of your best:) Voted up awesome and shared.

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