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The History And the Age of The Moors in Spain: How The Moors Civilized Europe - The History of Africa


Moors Photos in Spain

African Moors in Spain who introduced learning and civilization in Spain

African Moors in Spain who introduced learning and civilization in Spain

Tarik and his Black army swept up into Spain and defeated the Visigoths in successive stages - capturing and consolidating Spanish towns from the south including Toledo and Cordoba

Tarik and his Black army swept up into Spain and defeated the Visigoths in successive stages - capturing and consolidating Spanish towns from the south including Toledo and Cordoba

The mighty Moors of Spain and Portugal

The mighty Moors of Spain and Portugal

The Moors Head: The Ladino Moors. There is a history of the Jews of Cape Verde,the Guinea Rivers andGulf of Biafra

The Moors Head: The Ladino Moors. There is a history of the Jews of Cape Verde,the Guinea Rivers andGulf of Biafra

Some of the castles left-over from the rule of the Moors

Some of the castles left-over from the rule of the Moors

Early Geography Map of Europe Moorish Spain. This Map is Exhibited in Torre de la Calahorrra, Cordoba

Early Geography Map of Europe Moorish Spain. This Map is Exhibited in Torre de la Calahorrra, Cordoba

3 Bla-Maors(Libyan Moors)

3 Bla-Maors(Libyan Moors)

"Zenaga/Sanhaja clan: Berber clan of Southern Morocco, Mauritania and gave Senegal its original name. They united under the leadership of  Yusef bin Tashfin and created their dynasties in Morocco and Spain

"Zenaga/Sanhaja clan: Berber clan of Southern Morocco, Mauritania and gave Senegal its original name. They united under the leadership of Yusef bin Tashfin and created their dynasties in Morocco and Spain

The Alhambra, Masterpiece of Moorish Architecture of Spain. In Grenada the Moorish rulers of Spain built lavish palaces and forts.

The Alhambra, Masterpiece of Moorish Architecture of Spain. In Grenada the Moorish rulers of Spain built lavish palaces and forts.

Perfect Symmetry ... The Alhambra, Grenada. The Alhambra, today, is totally fresh and overwhelming, with its palace gardens is also amazing for its sale: few small courtyards and pavilions perched on the edge of a cliff and seem to go on and on.

Perfect Symmetry ... The Alhambra, Grenada. The Alhambra, today, is totally fresh and overwhelming, with its palace gardens is also amazing for its sale: few small courtyards and pavilions perched on the edge of a cliff and seem to go on and on.

Al-Andalus, an Arabic name given to the parts of the Iberian Peninsula governed by Arab Muslims between 711-1492

Al-Andalus, an Arabic name given to the parts of the Iberian Peninsula governed by Arab Muslims between 711-1492

Mosque of Cordoba, Spain

Mosque of Cordoba, Spain

Saint Maurice:Tarik Ibn Zayid led 300 Arabs and 6700 Africans in conquering Spain around 700 A.D.

Saint Maurice:Tarik Ibn Zayid led 300 Arabs and 6700 Africans in conquering Spain around 700 A.D.

The Ibrahim-al-Ibrahim mosqueThis is hailed as the most Southernly mosque in Europe, and was a gift to Gilbraltar and its people from the late King Fahd Al-Saud. Golbraltar was influenced by the Moors.

The Ibrahim-al-Ibrahim mosqueThis is hailed as the most Southernly mosque in Europe, and was a gift to Gilbraltar and its people from the late King Fahd Al-Saud. Golbraltar was influenced by the Moors.

Luce Morgan (1560?-1610)

Luce Morgan (1560?-1610)

Alessandro de' Medici, called "Il Moro" (The Moor") was born in the Italian city of Urbino is 1510. His mother was an African slave named Dimonetta who had been freed

Alessandro de' Medici, called "Il Moro" (The Moor") was born in the Italian city of Urbino is 1510. His mother was an African slave named Dimonetta who had been freed

Moorish Battle, 1636

Moorish Battle, 1636

The Moors and their material history and culture can be found by just reading the Roman historian Cornelius Tacitus

The Moors and their material history and culture can be found by just reading the Roman historian Cornelius Tacitus

Queen Charlotte of Britain. Queen Charlotte Sophie of Mecklenburg Strelits (1744-1818) was wife of George III. she was described by others i her time as 'a true mulatto face', 'brown' or yellow.. Her nose was wide and her lips thick

Queen Charlotte of Britain. Queen Charlotte Sophie of Mecklenburg Strelits (1744-1818) was wife of George III. she was described by others i her time as 'a true mulatto face', 'brown' or yellow.. Her nose was wide and her lips thick

The Historiography of Moorish Spain: The Narrative

According to Ivan Van Sertima. "It is generally assumed that the movement of Africans into Europe in significantly large numbers and into positions of real power, did not occur until the Muslim invasion of Spain in 711 A.D. In Al-Makkary's "History of the Mohammedan Dynasties in Spain", however, we learn of a great drought that afflicted Spain about three thousand years ago, a catastrophe that was followed not long afterwards by an invasion from Africa. This, of course, had nothing to do with the medieval Moors, but it is worth noting here because it actually established an ancient African Dynasty in Spain, a fact that is omitted from the 'official histories'.

The second major intrusion of an African Army into Spain before the Moors, occurs sometime around 700 B.C. during the period of the 25th Dynasty in Egypt, when the Ethiopian Taharka was a young general, but before he was succeeded to the throne by his uncle Shabataka. Africans in general were called the Ethiopians; in medieval times most africans were called Moors; in modern times some Africans were called Negroes. The Ethiopians were named by the Greeks. The Word Ethiopia means "burnt face" from the Greek names Ethios+face.

This description referred to these dark complexion of these Africans, which the Greeks attributed to sunburn. In the Literature on Africa, Africans are commonly identified in two groups: one progressive, the other, backward. The progressive peoples are called the Hamites, Kushites, Moors, etc., whereas the backward ones are called Negroes. The word Negro comes from the Latin word Niger, meaning black. Hamites, Kushites and Moors were also black, but they have been inducted into the White race. We need to put this history of Spain and Moors in its true perspective and context. The Historical account below needs some consideration.

After the destruction of the old city of Carthage in 146 B.C., the Romans established a group of five provinces in North Africa, which territory was called Africa Romana. The Ancient Libyan inhabitants of this region, originally a branch of the western Ethiopians became intermixed with the Phoenicians, Greeks, and Roman immigrants. The modern obsessions of racial and religious prejudice were unknown in the ancient world, and the various ethnic groups intermarried freely. The Romans called the indigenous dwellers of North Africa 'barbari' (barbarians), from whence we get the name "Berber"".

So, in medieval and even modern times, the Africans have generally been known as Berbers. The Romans dubbed these Africans "barbarians," not because of any cultural inferiority, but merely because certain social customs were different from those of the Romans. The Libyans or Berbers, possessed a matriarchal type of social organization, which was common to all African societies, but which seemed quite odd and strange to the Romans of Europe. The Roman Imperialists were able to conquer Carthage only because they were aided by the rulers of Numidia and Mauritania, and, by the citizens of the Phoenician colony of Utica. The tragic result of this misguided policy of the African brothers of the Carthaginians is well told by Professor J.C. deGraft-Johnson, as follows:

"The Numidian and Mauritanian kings and chief allied themselves to the Romans because they desired home rule or self-government, and for that reason they wanted the power of Carthage destroyed, as Carthaginian influence was already making itself felt in their internal and external affairs. But no sooner had the Numidian kings and chiefs assisted Rome to destroy Carthage, than Rome picked a quarrel with them and annexed their country. The Mauritanian kings, who occupied part of modern Morocco and Algeria, had hoped to exercise self-determination and enjoy full self-government, but this was not to be. Within the hundred-odd years from the fall of Carthage in 146 B.C., to 42 B.C., Rome incorporated or absorbed into her empire the regions equivalent to western Tripolitania, Tunisia, and all the coastal regions of Algeria and Morocco. Rome also annexed the old Greek colonies of Cyrenaica, and in 30 B.C., added the newly acquired territory of Egypt to the Cyrenaica possession in order to form a Roman province." (J. C. deGraft-Johnson)

"They are nearer to animals than men ... They are by nature unthinking and their manners crude. Their bellies protrude; their color is White and their hair is long. In sharpness and delicacy of spirit and intellectual perspicacity they are nil. Ignorance, lack of reasoning power and boorishness are common among them." (Davidson) Eurocentric Historians argue that Europe gave civilization to Africa, which is a complete inversion of the truth. The first civilized Europeans were the Greeks, who were chiefly civilized by the Africans of the Nile Valley. Davidson in the quote above was describing Europe before the coming of the Africans(Moors)

"The Greeks transmitted this culture to the Romans, who finally lost it, bringing on a dark age of five hundred years. Civilization was restored to Europe when another group of Africans, the Moors, brought this dark age in Europe to an end, meanwhile re-civilizing the Christian barbarians of Europe. After the end of the Helenistic culture of Alexandria, the Romans became the new custodians of civilization. But the Roman system of society was not built to last; for in its intellectual acumen, the Romans were greatly inferior to the Greeks. In the fields of pure science and abstract thought the Romans made a sorry showing.(Davidson)

Contrariwise, in the industrial arts, and in the applied sciences, their contributions to culture were of considerable merit. The defects of the Roman system, however, overshadowed its virtues, and in due time led to its disintegration. The main shortcomings of Roman civilization were slavery, militarism, and a bad fiscal system; and these vices gradually led the Empire into the debacle of the Dark Ages. As the Roman ruling class tried to postpone the looming crisis, they disestablished the old pagan cults and made Christianity the state religion, but this did not help. In the early part of the fifth century A.D., the Barbarians overran the Western Roman Empire, and by the end of the fifth century, the Roman civilization lay wasted in ruins. Sir Charles Oman gave an account of this transfer of power in the following manner:

"In the summer of 477 A.D., a band of ambassadors, who claimed to speak the will of the decayed body, which still called itself the Roman Senate, appeared before the judgement seat of the Emperor Zeno, the ruler of Constantinople and the Eastern Empire. They came to announce to him that the army of the west had slain the patrician Orestes, and deposed from his throne, the one of Orestes, the boy Emperor Romulus. But they did not then proceed to inform Zeno that another Caesar had been duly elected to replace their late sovereign. Embassies with such news had been common of late years, but this particular deputation, unlike any other which had yet visited the Bosphorus, came to announce to the Eastern Emperor that whose own mighty name sufficed for the protection of both East and West. They laid at his feet the diadem and purple robe of Romulus, and professed to transfer their homage and loyalty, to his August person."

When the fifth century ended, Europe had begun the long night of the Dark Ages, which lasted five hundred years(500-1000 A.D.). Although the fall of the Roman Empire was attributed to the Barbarians, Professor James Thompson intones: "The Dark Ages were at least as much due to corruption of the church as to the decay of Roman civilization or the Barbarian invasions. A teutonic group called the Vandals, who were dwelling by the Baltic Sea, moved southward by way of the Upper Danube into Gaul, and then into Northern Spain. By 411 A.D., they had attained an official status as subjects of the Roman Empire and were ceded grants of land from that body. Then the Visigoths invaded and caused the Vandals to retreat to southern Spain. Through luck they were invited to come and to settle in Africa Romana by Count Boniface, a Roman Legate in North Africa. Dr. J.C. deGraft-Johnson tells us some of the reasons why this was the case:

"When Count Boniface, Roman Legate in Africa , sent an invitation to the Vandals to come over in order to assist him to govern the five provinces of North Africa, he opened up a new chapter in African history. Boniface sought to protect himself as best as he could, by choosing to betray Rome and rebel against the Imperial might. The reason for all that was that after he was summoned to Rome, he learned that Empress Placida was dead set on ruining him. Calling in the Vandals was a way of self-preservation, and in the end turned traitor. Count Boniface's wife was a Vandal, and it was only natural that he should have sought help from that quarter.

"We do not know what other reasons Boniface had for inviting the Vandals to Africa, but the invitation was sent, in spite of the eloquent protest from St. Augustine, Bishop of Hippo. ... Count Boniface's invitation therefore was very welcome, and the Vandals there and then took the serious decision to leave Spain forever. ... This tremendous invasion found Africa unprepared. Count Boniface realized his mistake when it was too late - and the irony of the situation was that he found no city in which to seek refuge except Augustine's city of Hippo. Boniface held out in Hippo for fourteen months, but he had to surrender to the Vandals in the end. ... The city fell in 430 and with its fall began the rule of the Vandals in Africa."

King Genseric of the Vandals was recognized as a Vassal ruler by the Roman government in 435 A.D. The African subjects of the Vandal monarch were harshly treated. He seized the wealthiest African nobles and made them slaves to his sons and to his important followers. The best African land was seized and parceled out among the Vandals; while the African people were left with land of inferior quality and were afflicted with exorbitant taxes. "They found Africa flourishing and they left it desolate, with its great buildings thrown down, its people reduced to slavery, and the Church of Africa - so important in those early days of Christianity - was practically non-existent." (deGraft-Johnson)

Before I add on this story, it is important that those readers who detest my writing these "FACTS" go and read up on some of the stuff I have talked about, and if there is any repudiation to what I am writing about, present their own facts and historical data. Having said that, we will cite more from Al-Makkary who continues to inform us that "these Africans first cast anchor at a place on the western shore of Spain and settled at Cadiz. Advancing into the interior of the country, they spread themselves about, extended their settlements, built cities and towns and increased their numbers by marriage.

They settled in that part of the country between the place of their landing in the west, and the country of the Franks in the east, and appointed kings to rule over them and administer their affairs. They fielded their capital at Talikah (Italica) a city now in ruins, which once belonged to the district of Isbilah, which is the modern Seville. But after a period of one hundred and fifty seven years, during which eleven kings of the African race reigned over Andalus, they were annihilated by the Romans, who invaded and conquered the country."

The second major intrusion of an African Army into Spain before the Moors, occurs sometime around 700 B.C. during the period of the 25th dynasty in Egypt, when the Ethiopian Taharka was a young general, but before he had been ceded to the throne by his uncle Shabataka[I had to reiterate this point to make a historical connection to what I am discussing above-though I have hinted about Taharka above].(The Readers can read up on this saga in the Hub I have written titled "The Military Leadership of Egyptian Pharaohs: The Creation of Dynasties".

Africa's Civilizing of Spain

The first Islamic incursion into Africa was in 640 A.D., when General Amru captured Egypt. The Saracenic conquest was assisted by the Christians of Alexandria, who opposed the tyrant of Byzantium. These Christian heretics paid tribute to the Caliph, repaired roads and bridges and supplied provisions to the invaders. After a siege of fourteen months, Alexandria surrendered to the army of Amru in 642 A.D. Soon after the fall of Alexandria, General Abdullah, starting from Memphis with an army of forty thousand crossed the desert of Barca and laid siege to Tripoli, but the onset of a plague in his forces compelled them to retreat to Egypt.(de Graft

Twenty years later, General Akbah led an army from the Nile River to the Atlantic Ocean. Early in the eighth century, the caliph of Damascus ordered General Musa to invade Europe by way of Spain. Musa completed the conquest of North Africa in 708 A.D., and he rebuild all of Morocco except Ceuta, which was ruled by the Byzantine governor. Count Julian Musa was tired and the task was accomplished by the Moorish General, Tarik. de Graft-Johnson summarized the salient facts in the following manner:

"Among the African 'chiefs' converted to the Islamic faith during the Arab invasion of Morocco was a great General known as Tarik.... Tarikh was given the rank of General in the Arab army by Musa-ibn-Nusair. Musa later left Tarik in charge of Tangiers and made him governor or Mauritania.... The African Tarik, now Governor of Mauritania, entered into friendly relations with Count Julian, Governor of Ceuta. It was then that Tarik discovered that Julian was on very bad terms with his master Roderic, the Gothic King of Spain.

Roderic, a profligate prince, had ravished Julian's daughter, and Julian was looking for a way to avenge the dishonor done to his family. Count Julian urged the African Tarik to invade Spain, but the suggestion had to be carried out cautiously. Tarik, accordingly, informed Musa-ibn-Nusair who had appointed him governor that the intended crossing the straights to survey and examine the possibilities for an invasion."

The army, using four boats lent by Count Musa in the town of Tarifa which the Moors levied a tax, and this is from where we get the term 'tariff'. Tarif and his crew plundered and neighboring towns and returned to Africa, their boats filled to the brim with spoils of war. Professor deGraft-Johnson informs us that in 711 "Tarik crossed the straits and landed on the isthmus between the escarpment, then known as Mons Calpes and the continent....

"Tarik left a garrison at the foot of Mons Calpes (which the Africans renamed, in compliment to their General, Gebel Tarik- the Hill of Tarik - a name which was subsequently corrupted by the Spaniards into Gilbraltar). General Tarik and his African army surprised and captured several Spanish towns, among them Heraclea, which was only four miles from the rock of Gilbraltar. King Roderic soon heard about the invading army and he set about gathering a huge force to oppose Tarik. After a series of skirmishes, the two armies met near Xeres in Andalusia. The Conflict was a bloody one, but Tarik was victorious and soon became Master of Spain."

The Splendor and Affluence Of Civilization

In many of the history books, Islamic culture of the Middle Ages have been referred to as Arabic, but the Arabs were a minority in the so-called Arabic World, and their chief contribution was the Arabic language. deGraft Johnson explains this issue much more clearly:

"It was because the conquering army in Spain was largely made up of Africans from Morocco that we hear such phrases as "the Moorish invasion of Spain," and why Shakespeare's hero, Othello, is a Moor, and why the word "Blackamoor" exists in the English language - a word which leaves no doubt as to the color of the army of occupation in Spain.... The organization of education throughout the Moslem world began in the eighth century and by the ninth, learned men in the schools of Cordoba in Spain were corresponding with learned men in Kairowan, Cairo, Baghdad, Bokhara, and Samarkand. The Greek classics were rediscovered and Aristotle came into his own.

"The Museum at Alexandria, so long neglected, became the center of research and learning. Mathematics,medicine, and the physical sciences received fresh attention. The clumsy Roman numerals were soon ousted by the figures which we use to this day, and the zero sign first came into general usage. Arabic words like "algebra" and "chemistry" became universal words.... The term "Arabic" we intend in a cultural rather than a racial sense.... It was through Africa that the new knowledge of China, India, and Arabia reached Europe, and it was Africa which supplied men who protected Moslem Europe or Spain from attack, and thus made it possible for the new learning to take root and develop."

It must be recalled that the Iberian peninsula was made great by the labors of the Moors. They established the silk industry; they were highly skilled agriculturists; introducing cotton, rice, sugar cane, dates, lemons, and strawberries into the country. Abu Zaceria and Ibn Alaman wrote authoritative remarks on Moorish animal husbandry and agriculture. Ibn Khaldun, a Moorish agriculturist, wrote a treatise on farming and worked out a theory of prices and the nature of capital. (He was called the Karl Marx of the Middle Ages.) Caliph er Rahan of Cordova ordered the construction of an aqueduct, which conveyed pure water from the mountains to the city.

"Extensive irrigation systems were constructed by Moorish engineers, who also built large underground silos for storing grain. The mineral wealth of the land was utilized to the fullest. Copper, gold, silver, tin, lead, iron, quicksilver, and alum were extensively mined. Cordova and Morocco had the best tanneries in the world. The city of Toledo had the finest sword blades in the European continent . Almeria specialized in the making of sashes, which were famous for their fine texture and brilliant color. The world renowned carpets were form Teulala, and bright-hued woolens in Granada and Baza. High quality glass, pottery, vases,mosaics and jewelry were produced by Moorish artisans.

"The most wonderful city in the world of the age was Cordova: the streets were well-paved, with raised sidewalks for pedestrians. During the night, ten miles of strees were well illuminated by lamps. (This was hundreds of years before there was a paved street in Paris or a street lamp in London.) Cordova had a population of at least one million, and it was being served by four thousand public markets and five thousand mills. Public baths numbered in the hundreds.

"The amenity was present at a time when cleanliness in Christian Europe was regarded as a sin. Education was universal in Moorish Spain, available to the most humble, while in Christian Europe ninety-nine percent of the population were illiterate, and even kings could neither read nor write. The Moorish rulers lived in sumptuous palaces, while the monarchs of Germany, France, and England dwelt in big barns, with no windows and no chimneys, and with only a hole in the roof for the exit of smoke."

Education And Introduction of Europe to Moorish Culture, Foods And The Whole Bit: Architecture And Art, Diet Science, Agriculture En-vogue

In the tenth and eleventh centuries, public libraries in Europe were nonexistent, while Moorish Spain could boast of more than seventy, of which the one in Cordova housed six hundred thousand manuscripts. Christian Europe contained only two universities, while in the Moorish Spain there were seventeen great universities. The finest of these were located in Almeria, Cordova, Granada, Juen, Malaga, Seville and Toledo. Scientific progress in astronomy, chemistry, physics, mathematics, geography and philosophy flourished in Moorish Spain

Scholars, scientists and artists formed learned societies, and scientific congresses were organized to promote research and to facilitate the spread of knowledge. A brisk intellectual life flourished in all Islamic dominions, since both Caliphs of East and West were as a rule, enlightened patrons of learning. A vivid reconstruction of the splendors of Moorish Spain, as seen by Abd-er-Rhaman III, Caliph of Cordova and his companions, has been preserved for us by a recognized authority on the history of the period, Joseph McCabe as follows:

"The Germans would find Andalusia in those days a real garden of song and flowers and gaiety. It had tens of thousands of prosperous villages, and the Germans would for the first time in their lives see peaches, pomegranates, strawberries, apricots, lemons, almonds, dates, oranges and sugar-cane growing; while at the hostels they would find coffee, spinach, asparagus, the daintiest cooking, and all the spices of the East. Not an acre of ground was left untilled, and tunnels cut through mountains, aqueducts, dams and reservoirs provided ample irrigation where it was needed. The land bore a larger population than it does today - probably larger than that of Germany, France, England and Italy put together at that time - and an immeasurably happier and more prosperous population."

High culture And Civilization

McCabe continued to add:

"In Cordova, the old packed Cordova, they would find a city of 250,000 houses, 1,000,000 people when no city in Europe outside Moorish Spain had a population of 30,000. Its massive walls had a circuit of fourteen miles and had even large iron gates faced with brass. Its streets were paved - so soundly, indeed, that in some of them you tread the same stones today, just as you cross the Guadalquivir on the same noble bridge - drained by large sewers, flushed with water from the many fountains which sparkled in the sun, and lit by lamps at night.

"It had 80,455 shops besides 4,300 markets, and in these you could buy amber from the Baltic, Russian furs, Chinese tea, Indian spices, African ebony, and ivory, and such native products in leather, metal, silk, glass and pottery as could not be found elsewhere. It had 900 public baths - we are told that a poor Arab would go without bread rather than soap - and more than 1,000 mosques, the largest of which is still one of the architectural wonders of the world in spite of later Spanish disfigurements.

"Its low scarlet and gold roof, supported by 1,000 columns of marble, jasper and and porphyry, was lit by thousands of brass and silver lamps which burned perfumed oil, the largest being thirty-eight feet in circumference containing 46,000 silver plates for reflecting the light. The exquisite prayer chamber (Mihrab), the unique pulpit, and the Caliph's private section with floors of silver and gold plated doors completed this wonderful monument of opulence and art. ..."

Skill and Knowledge Refine A Constant Feature Of Moorish Civilization

McCabe points out that: "Some five miles along the broad road which let to it from the city, they would enter the most wonderful garden or park in the world. Engineers, who had a skill that was unequalled until modern times, so directed its water-supply that there were lakes, cascades and superb fountains on every side, while every shrub that would grow in Andalusia had been brought from the end of the earth.

"At the further side of it were the 400 white mansions of officials, visiting merchants, and distinguished travelers, and above the waving palms and dark cypresses and slender white manarets one saw, on the lower slope of the Sierra, framed by a higher slope which was entirely planted with roses,the white-marble palace of Al Zahra. ...

"From first to last it seems to have cost more than 30,000,000 pounds ($120,000,000) in our money; and the Spaniards have not left a stone of it. Silk awnings shut the sun from the broad marble courtyard, and the monks would surely cross themselves when they entered the great hall. Its eight large doors were scented wood and were decorated with gold, jewell ivory and ebony.

"The central dome and ceiling were supported by columns of alabaster and rock-crystal, their capitals studded with pearls and rubies. The walls were coated with onyx and mosaics, and the ceiling and the interior of the dome were plated with gold and silver. The tapestries, curtains and carpets, and the robes and gems in which the Caliph sat, on a throne of solid gold encrusted with jewels, may be left to the imagination."(J. McCabe, The Golden Ages of History)

The Moors introduced the manufacture of gunpowder into Europe, and their enemies adopted this explosive and used it to drive the Moors back into Africa, after several The Saracens failed to recover from the conquest of the Seljuk Turks in the eleventh century and the Mongols in the thirteenth century. The Mongols captured Bagdad in 1256, and by destroying its irrigation system, turned most tracts of fertile land into a desert. Cordova's Caliphate declined after 1031, and by 1492 the Moors had lost all Spain except the Kingdom of Grenada. The Moorish ruler, King Boabdil, was driven out of Spain by resurgent Christian forces of Ferdinand and Isabella in the year that Columbus visited the New World. Numerous Moors lingered awhile, but by 1610, through expulsion and migration, about a million of them had returned to North and West Africa.

The Historiography of the Creation of Moorish Spain: The Battles

As we have observed above, the history of Spain offered us some contrast: Twelve hundred years ago, Tarik the Moor took the land away from the Visigoths, adding to the long list of kingdoms subdued by the Moslems. Under the Moslem's rule, Europe became a shining example of a civilized state to all her neighbors. Spain's conquerers utilized her fertile provinces and engendered a prolific industry through the Moors's engineering skills, and thus bore fruit a hundredfold. Her conquerers built innumerable cities in the rich valleys of Guadelquivir and the Guadiana, whose names and names only, still commemorate the vanished glories of their past. Art, literature, and science prospered, and they did not prosper anywhere in Europe.

Students flocked from France and Germany and England to be enlightened from the fountain of learning which only flowed in the cities built by the Moors; surgeons and doctors were practicing serious medicine; women were encouraged to become educated, and a woman doctor was a common feature of the live of the people of Cordova. Mathematics, astronomy and botany , history, philosophy and jurisprudence could only be 'studied' only' in Spain . Land was worked on practically and scientific methods of irrigation, the arts of fortification and shipbuilding, the highest and most elaborate products of the loom, the graver and the hammer; the potter's wheel and the mason's trowel, were brought into perfection by the African Moors in Spain. Their ships commanded undisputedly commanded the Mediterranean with the Fatimites, while their swords smote and scattered the Christian armies.

In the year 1062, the Emir Yahia of Morocco visited Mecca. Here he met a religious reformer, Ibn Yasin, and persuaded him to return home with him to teach this doctrines of the Moors. Yasin and his followers moved on to West Africa and settled on an island in the Senegal River in West Africa. This movement proved to be popular and he named his disciples the Moravites (Champions of the Faith), which in time, the name changed to the Almoravides, after securing and consolidating his position in southwestern Morocco. Yahia died in 1056, and was succeeded by his brother, who led his armies to many victories. He , Abu bekr, turned over the northern part of Morocco as he retired in the South of the country, to his cousin Yusuf Tachefin, who then became the master of northwest Africa. Lady Lugard thus informs us:

"In the year 1062 Yusuf laid the foundation of the Town of Morocco with his own hands [we learn from a recognized modern authority], and not long afterwards declared the independence of the northern kingdom of which was to become the capital. ... By the year 1082 he had long been the supreme ruler of that portion of the world. His court had begun to attract the learning and civilization which civil war was driving out of Spain. ... When therefore he consented to cross over to Spain, and in the course of time drove back the Christians and established once more a supreme Sultan upon the throne of Andalusia, his conquest and the dynasty which he founded must be regarded as an African conquest and an African dynasty."(Lady Lugard)

Yusuf came across Europe commanding an army of 15,000 men, armed with swords and poinards; but his shock troops were a 6,000-strong detachment of Senegalese cavalrymen mounted on White Arabian horses, said to be as fleet as the wind. Once in Spain, Yusuf was met by the chief rulers of Spain: the kings of Almeria, Badajoz, Granada, and Seville. The Moorish army, only 10,000 men in all, joined the African forces of Yusuf and marched northward to join battle with King Alphonso, who headed a Christian army of 70,000. The opposing armies battled each other at Zalakah in October, 1086, and first the Christian hosts seemed to be winning. Al Mutammed, leading the Moslems, had three horses killed under him and, and though wounded, kept his men in line until Yusuf came up with reinforcements and attacked the Christians from the rear. J.A. Rodgers described it better this way:

"Throughout all the day the battle raged savagely. The Moorish soldiers who had fled at the first Christian attack, returned, giving fresh ardor to the combat. Night was coming. Yusuf, who in spite of his seventy-nine years, had everywhere been in the thickest of the fight, felt with the instinct of the born general, that the decisive moment had come. Three thousand of his invincible black(African) horsemen on their white chargers had been kept in reserve. Now he unleashed them. With blood-curdling yells they swept down on the Christians, passing through their ranks with fearful carnage. The White hosts, panic-stricken, wavered, broke and fled. The rout became a massacre. Alphonso, stabbed in the thigh by a black horseman, ran away with 150 of his men." (J.A Rodgers)

Ibn Khaldun, the North African historian, informs us as follows:

"After the conquest of Spain, Yusuf I returned to his palace in Morocco City, hoping to enjoy the pursuits of peace; but before long messages from his generals in Spain informed him that the Christians were again on the march, and that the kings of Andalusia were too lazy and cowardly to fight them. Yusuf ordered his generals to invade these petty kingdoms and put their towns and cities under military governors. This policy was implemented, and finally, with the fall of Seville, order was restored, and the king of Seville was taken prisoner and sent to Africa, where he died in 1895.

Yusuf died in 1106,at the ripe old age on ninety-nine. His son succeeded him on the throne of the Empire of the Two Shores. The Sultan of Morocco and Spain continued to rule with dual courts, one in Africa, and the other in Europe, until the overthrow of the African dominion, in 1145. The last last Almoravide king died in 1147, and during the whole era of the Almoravides, was under the previous dynasty of the Omayyads, there was a brief intercourse in commodities and ideas between the empire of the Moors and the Kingdoms of Sudan."

The Progression Of Moorish History: The Changes Of the Guard-The Fall

Another reformer, calling himself the Mhadi, appeared in Morocco in the early twelfth century. He named his followers Almohades (Unitarians). After the conquest of Morocco in 1147, when the last of the Almoravides king was dethroned and and executed, the Almohades seized seized the reigns of government and invaded Spain and an Almohade was placed on the throne of Moorish Spain, when in 1150 they defeated the Christian armies of Spain; and for the second time a purely African dynasty ruled over the most civilized portion of the Iberian peninsula. Under the Almohade kings, Spain's splendor was maintained and enhanced.

The castle of Gilbraltar was erected in 1160, and began building the great Mosque of Seville in 1183. The Almohades built the Geralda of Seville originally as an observatory under the supervision of the mathematician Geber. The Almoravides established a Spanish court at Seville. The Almohades set up an African court in the city of Morocco. Ibn Said in the thirteenth century descrbed Morocco as, "the Baghdad of the West," and that under the Almohade rulers, the city enjoyed its greatest prosperity. Thus, whatever was the prosperity or greatness of one part of their empire, it was shared by the other and under the Almohades, there was a shifting towards the African center. (Lady Lugard)

By the thirteenth century, the Moorish power in Spain began to decline. Due to religious and political differences, they began to shift into and split into factions and waged war amongst themselves. At the same time, the Christians of Europe, having absorbed the science and culture of the Moors, this enabled them to bring to an end the long night of the Dark Ages, began to form a united front in order to drive the Moors back into Africa.

The Dominions of the Almohades were slowly and surely captured by the Christian armies, and after that, a brilliant Almohade dynasty was ended when their last reigning sovereign was deprived of his throne in 1230. Moslem Spain declared independence under the rule of Ibn Hud, the founder of the Huddite dynasty. The Christian forces, in the meantime, conquered one great city after another, taking Valencia in 1238, Cordova in 1239, and Seville in 1260.

Corrected African Civilized Historical Analysis

By 1492, The Moors has lost all Spain except the kingdom of Granada. The Christians were still not yet free from internal disputes, but were finally united by the marriage of Ferdinand and Isabella, which joined in peace the formerly hostile royal houses of Aragon and Castile. The united Christian forces surrounded the city of Grenada and blocaded it for eight months. The Moorish King, Abu Abdallah (also known as Boavdil) finally surrendered. The Moors lingered in Spain for about a century; but by 1610, through expulsion and migration, a million, among them many Jews, had by then returned to Western Africa. Professor J. B. Haldane writes:

We are so accustomed to hearing of the superiority of Europeans that it is perhaps worth quoting from the Moorish writer Said of Toledo, who wrote that when Toledo was in Moorish hands, and describing the people who north of the Pyranees, he said: "They are of cold temperament and never reach maturity. They are of great stature and of a White color. But they lacked all sharpness of wit and penetration of intellect. We must remember that seven hundred years ago such a point of view had at least an empirical justification, for at that time, trigonometry was being studied in Toledo, while in Europe a man was regarded as learned if he had got as far as the fifth proposition of the First Book of Euclid."

As we learn the history of the Moors, we see that color prejudice was not what we see it as being today. Although the Arabs, who were always a minority in the culture of the Middle ages, dark complexion was regarded as a badge of honor. Alfred Tonybee observed that, "The primitive Arabs who were the ruling element of the Ommayad Caliphate and called themselves 'the swarthy people,' with a connotation of racial superiority, and their Persian and Turkish subjects 'the ruddy people,' with a connotation of racial inferiority; that is to say, they drew the distinction that we draw between blonds and brunets, but reversed the value." We shall delve a little more deeper below in the Hub on the topic of "miscegenation"

The Fallacy revealed-Truth Be told: Europe In The Dark Ages

There is this fallacy and myth that the white race is responsible for all the great civilizations of the past is nothing more than an obtuse and crude superstition propagated by European-orientated racist historians, and there are those who dissented against this view. Joseph McCabe wrote:

"The superior germ-stuff of the great White race is completely discredited[McCabe argued], by the fact that our ancestors remained in the wings, pure barbarians, during the two thousand years when the dark men of the Mediterranean race were constructing civilizations, and that our white race, first in the Greeks and then in the Teutons, devastated civilization for centuries.

"Until about 700 B.C., the philosophers of the word would have said that White men seemed incapable of civilization. ... None of our modern sophistry redeems the squalor of Europe from the fifth to the eleventh century. And it was again the dark-skinned men of the south who restored civilization. By the year 1,000 Europe was reduced to a condition which, if we were not Europeans, we should frankly call barbarism, yet at that time the Arabs had a splendid civilization in Spain, Sicily, Syria, Egypt, and Persia, and it linked on to those of India and China. We write manuals of the history of Europe or of the Middle Ages, and we confine ourselves to a small squalid area (Russia and Prussia were not yet civilized and Spain was Moorish) and ignore the brilliant civilization that ran from Portugal to the China Sea/[The New Science And The Story Of Evolution, pp. 292-98, by Joseph McCabe].

The Moors contributed a lot to Western civilization, and their expulsion from Spain was a serious set-back to Europe and is somewhat less known even to the educated classes of the Western World. Lane-Poole, in 1886, wrote:

"The history of Spain offers us a melancholy contrast. Twelve hundred years ago, Tarik the Moor added the land of the Visigoths to the long catalogue of kingdoms subdued by the Moslems. For nearly eight centuries, under her Mohammedan rulers, Spain set to all Europe a shining example of a civilized and enlightened state. Her fertile provinces, rendered doubly prolific by the industry and engineering skill of her conquerors, bore fruit an hundred-fold. Students flocked from France and Germany and England to drink from the fountain of learning which flowed only in the cities of the Moors.

In practice of war no less than in the arts of peace they long stood supreme. Their fleets disputed the command of the Mediterranean with the Fatimites, while their arms carried fire and a sword through the Christian marches. The CPid himself, the national hero, long fought on the Moorish side, and in all save education was more than half a Moor. Whatsoever makes a kingdom great and prosperous, whatsoever tends to refinement and civilization, was found in Moslem Spain."

The Reversal Of Civilization

Lane-Poole continued:

"The fall of the Moors in 1492 gave way to the crusade of Ferdinand and Isabella, and with Granada fell all of Spain's greatness. For a brief while, indeed, the reflection of the Moorish splendor cast a borrowed light on the history of the land which it had once warmed with its sunny radiance. The Great Epoch of Isabella, Charles V, and Philip II, of Columbus, Cortes, and Pizarro, shed a last halo about the dying moments of a mighty state. Then followed the abomination of desolation, the rule of the Inquisition, and the blackness of darkness in which Spain has long plunged ever since. In the land where science was once supreme, the Spanish doctors became noted for nothing but their ignorance and incapacity, and the discoveries of Newton and Harvey were condemned as pernicious to the faith.

"Where once seventy public libraries had fed the minds of scholars, and half a million books had been gathered at Cordova or the benefit of the world, such indifference to learning afterwards prevailed, that the new capital, Madrid, possessed no public library in the eighteenth century, and even the manuscripts of the Escurial were denied in our own days to the first scholarly historian of the Moors, though himself a Spaniard. The sixteen thousand looms of Seville soon dwindled to a fifth of their ancient number; the arts and industries of Toledo and Almeria faded into insignificance; the very baths-public buildings of equal ornament and use-were destroyed because cleanliness savored too strongly of rank infidelity.

The land, deprived of the skillful irrigation of the Moors, grew impoverished and neglected; the richest and most fertile valleys languished and were deserted; most of the populous cities which had filled every district of Andalusia fell into ruinous decay; and beggars, friars and bandits took the place of scholars, merchants and knights. So low fell Spain when she had driven away the Moors. Such is the melancholy contrast offered by her history."

The total and tragic consequences of the destruction of th Moorish culture in Spain was finally described by Lane-Poole as follows"

"For centuries Spain had been the center of civilization, the seat of arts and sciences,of learning, and every form of refined enlightenment. No other country in Europe had so far approached the cultivated dominion of the Moors. .... The Moors were banished and for a while Christian Spain shone, like the moon, with a borrowed light; then came the eclipse, and in that darkness Spain has groveled ever since.

"The true memorial of the Moors is seen in desolate tracts of utter barrenness, where once the Moslem grew luxuriant vines and olives and yellow years of corn; in a stupid and ignorant population where once wit and learning flourished; in the general stagnation and degradation of a people which has hopelessly fallen in the scale of nations, and has deserved its humiliation."

Richard Parker wrote a novel based on the last days of the Moorish empire in Spain, shortly after Columbus set sail in his quest for the Indies. Though the narrative was written in fictional form, it is historically accurate and paints a good picture of the Life under the Moors in the latter part of the fifteenth century, right up to the time when the Moors and the Jews were ousted and driven out of Spain. Mr. Parker went on to add how this situation appeared to the eyes of an intelligent Moorish lad:

"The king and queen of Christian Spain, Ferdinand and Isabella, had begun to make war on our Moorish kingdom. We were Moslems-"infidels" they called us-and they wanted to drive us all out of Spain, or, what would have been worse in our eyes, conquer and rule us in their own uncivilized way. I knew the story as well as I knew my prayers, perhaps better, for my mother, as I have said, was devout, and in her devoutness went a shining pride in the ways of our people, hundreds of years before, had driven our faith half-way across the world, conquering, civilizing, making all clean and beautiful as we went. Once, she said," we had ruled all Spain. Then the tied had turned. The white barbarians, as we called the Christians, had massed against us and driven us slowly back. This war", said my mother, "was not a new one, it was the same war continued. It had been going on since the days of the Prophet."

A Decaying Civilization

In this story written by Mr. Parker, he talks about the Moorish boy Zati and the Spanish historian Hernando del Pulgar, that Pulgar had taken a liking to the boy and didn't want to see him fall into the hands of the Inquisition, as follows: "When I have shaken off this little fever, we'll go back to our beloved Seville. Then I can finnish my chronicle up to the end of the war, and die in peace."Zati replied that Pulgar should not die of dying. Pulgar replied, "Nonsense, why not? I've left you a few thousand maravedis in my will. Take the money and leave Spain as soon as you can." Leave Spain?".

"Pulgar advisedly replied:

"Anywhere, so long as you go, Spain will be no place for Moors in a few years' time. I am something of a prophet and you can take my word for it that you'll be best out of it. Already there is an order being drafted to eject all the jews from the country. Do you think the Moors will be allowed to stay long after them?" Young Zati protested that he was a Good Christian. To which Pulgar countered by saying: "You are not a true Christian at all. But even if you were, it would not save you now. Winning this war has given the White Spaniards such an idea of their own strength that they'll be having the country swept clean of any other color or race. It won't matter that the Jews have all the money and business and the Moors all the brains: they'll go just the same. You'll see." And they did go as they were expelled as explained above-and Spain has been poor ever since.

The destruction and expulsion of the Moors in Spain had tragic results and consequences. It is important to reiterate some points already discussed in this article to make sure that they remain etched in our memories forever.

Backward Exodus of the Moors - Reversal of Progress

We learn more about this phase and time of the expulsion of Moors in Spain from this extended excerpt historically narrated by Lane-Poole as follows:

"Slavery and exile awaited the survivors of the rebellion, and they were no very many. The late wars, it was said, had carried off more than twenty thousand Moors, and perhaps fifty thousand remained in the district on that famous Day of All Saints. In 1570, when the honor of the apostles and martyrs of Christendom was celebrated by the virtual martyrdom of the poor remnant of the Moors - those taken in open revolt were enslaved, the rest were marched away into banishment under escort of troops, while the passes of the hills were securely guarded. Many hapless exiles died by the way, from want, fatigue, and exposure; others reached Africa, where they might beg a daily pittance, but could find no soil to till; or France, where they received a cool welcome, though Henry IV had found them useful instruments for his intrigues in Spain.

The deportation was not finished until 1610, when half a million of Moriscos were exiled and ruined. It is stated that no less than three million of Moors were banished between the fall of Granada and the first decade of the 17th Century. The Arab chronicler mournfully records the coup-de-grace:

"The Almighty was not pleased to grant them victory, so they were overcome and slain on all sides, till at last they were driven forth from the land of Andalusia, to which calamity came to pass in our own days, in the year of the Flight, 1017. Verily to God belong lands and dominions, and He giveth them to whom he doth will."

The misguided Spaniards knew not what they were doing. The exile of the Moors delighted them; nothing more picuturesque and romantic occurred for some time. Lope de Vega sang about the Sentencia justa by which Philip II., despreciando sus barbaros tesoros, banished to Africa Las ultimas reliquias de los Moros; Velazquez painted it in a memorial picture; even the mild and tolerant Cervantes forced himself to justify it. They did not understand that they had killed their golden goose."

The Achievements of the Moors in Spain - Redux\

There are a few points which need to be clarified at this juncture about the Moors and their Civilizing of Spain and Europe. In order for us to appreciate the splendor, affluence and material and cultural civilization the Moors created in Spain, we will briefly look at some of the advancements they introduced in Spain during the period of their rule. Some of their achievement have been duly noted above. Below, then, is an attempt to put them for their importance and effect on the contemporary world. This will help and enable us to connect the past achievement with present modern concepts of development and advancement: they will help us to partly understand the present and how and why it functions and manifests itself as it does as our present reality.

As already noted above, scientific progress in astronomy, chemistry, physics, mathematics, geography and philosophy flourished in Moorish Spain. Scholars, scientists, and artists formed learned societies, and scientific congresses were organized to promote research and to facilitate the spread of knowledge. Caliph Al-Mamun of Bagdad imported hundreds of camel loads of books, and signed a treaty with the Emperor Michael III of the Byzantine Empire, in which the caliph demanded the gift of an entire library in the city of Constantinople. In this library was a rare literary treasure, the treatise of Claudius Ptolemy on the mathematic structure of the heavens.The caliph, an able astronomer, had the work translated into Arabic, under the title of The Almagest. (Johnson)

Caliph Harun al-Rashid founded the university of Bagdad; the most erudite professor of this institution was a Jewish scholar,Joshua ben-Nun. Caliph al-Rashid also endowed the Medical College Djondesabowr in Southern Persia. Caliph Al-Mamun appointed an eminent Christian scholar as president of a college in Damascus. The same caliph commissioned a geographical survey of his realms, mapping all sea and land routes with all places accurately located in respect to latitude and longitude. The Saracens adopted the decimal system of numbers from the mathematicians of India, and this place notation was perfected by Mohammed Ben Musa Al-Khwarizimni in the ninth century. He also adopted zero as a mathematical quantity, wrote the first textbook on Algebra, and was the author of a treatise on spherical trigonometry.

The medieval Moslem mathematicians solved the quadratic and cubic equations in Algebra, and made Trigonometry into a science by substituting sines and tangents for the chords of the Greeks. Although Ferdinand Magellan has been credited for establishing the sphericity of the globe by circumnavigating it in 1519, Moorish educators taught geography from globes long before the time of Magellan. As cited by Lady Lugard, the Moorish geographer El Idrisi asserted during the 12th century that: "What results from the opinions of learned men, and those skilled in observation of the heavenly bodies, is that the world is round as a sphere, of which the waters are adherent and maintained upon its surface by natural equilibrium. It is surrounded by air, and all created bodies are stable on its surfaces. The earth drawing to itself all that is heavy in the same way as a magnet attracts iron."

These are some of the historical facts that had been omitted(many deliberately so) that need to be redressed and brought to light. The Hub above is then an attempt to put African history of The Moors into its proper African-centered perspective.

Musical Influences of the Moors

The haunting music of some of the desert dwellers like the Tuarek and the so-called "Moorish" Arabs are strongly reminiscent of the traditional harmonies heard in the music of Spain and Portugal has left a characteristically beautiful, equally haunting quality in the traditional folk music of Mali and Islamic Africa in general.Listening carefully, one can discern in their melodies the early blues tonalities of blacks of the American South, and still found in the rhythms and melodies of modern blues.

During the Middle Ages masqueraders used to blacken their faces "so they might better pass as Moors" and they would dance such dances as the Morris dance of 'England and the Moresca (dances apparently named after and derived from the Moors). Another of their legacies in dance is known as "Flamenco Moro", a dance form which today's Flamenco derived. The most renowned of the Moors in the arts was such that a Frenchman wrote in the 1600s, "I can tell here what the inhabitants of Venus are like; they resemble the Moors of Grenada; a small black people, burned by the sun, full of wit, always in-love, writing verse, fond of music, arranging festivals, dances and tournaments every day". (Henri Lohte)

The Moors are thought to have introduced earliest versions of several instruments, including the Lute or el oud, the guitar or kithara and the Lyre. The arts and letters flourished among the Moors in Spain, and they were renowned for their skills and contributions to the sciences and philosophy as well. Rogers mentions certain books, one published in 1610 in which the Spaniards are described as a "white people" being ruled by a "Black[African] one". The long and lanky dark brown men called the Tuarek of the Sahel countries, or Tuwareg who can still be seen, veiled and armed with a sword and shield, striding through the desert with their camels, and are still involved in the desert commerce as they were once in charge of it in the Middle Ages.

They still trace their ancestry to the Yemenite Hejazi and Hejazi Arab 'tribes'(clans), the main bringers of Islam in Africa. They still trace their ancestry to Yemen (or Southern Arabia) and like their kinsmen in Yemen, they can be seen playing "Moorish" melodies with stringed, percussion and wind instruments under shade trees in Mauritania. The turbaned Tibbu and Zaghawa, jet black and wiry men, once known for their sorcery and their skill in metallurgy, are still spread across the hottest areas of the Sahel and southern parts of the Sahara. The "red" or pastoral Fulani, renowned for their holy wars, which converted so many Sudanese to Islam, can still be seen performing acrobatic dances, steps and turns which mirror the "breakdancing," revived by Afro-Cubans in America in the early years of the 20th century

Modernity Pre-Present-Day Europe

Johnson adds that the Moors "introduced the manufacture of gunpowder into Europe, and their enemies adopted this explosive and used it to drive the Moors back into Africa. After several centuries of progress, the culture of Islam finally retrogressed into a decadent condition.

The Moorish ruler, King Boabdil, was driven out of Spain by resurgent Christian forces of Ferdinand and Isabella in the year that Columbus visited the New World. Numerous Moors lingered in Spain awhile, but by 1610, through expulsion and migration of about a million of them had returned to North and West Africa. The decline and fall of the Moorish Empire was a great setback to modern civilization. Had this great great African Culture and civilization been able to survive, the world would have been five hundred years more advanced than it is today.

Some points needed repeating given how much of this history has been forgotten or is omitted by historians and unknown by lay people all over the world.The Moors founded and constructed many industrious and prosperous towns and cities, in the Iberian Peninsula, The remnants of their many castles an be seen in Northern Africa as in Spain and Portugal.

All this being said up to this point, one does not have to wonder why there has been very little focus in European history on the legacy of the Moors or their influence on Europe's emergence from the Dark Ages. This is unfortunate, for these men and women belonged to a "black" population whose dominance extended from the borders of Egypt to Morocco and the Atlantic, even before the time of the Muslim invasion of North Africa They are a people whose documented history goes back in North Africa to the time of the Pharaohs and the phase of Carthagenian history that produced Hannibal. It is a history which in this narrative will be expanded upon, elongated and stretched till the story about the Moors has been told in a historical half-way decent manner.

The Moors Are Africans

The Civilizing of Portugal

After having reviewed the Moor's narrative in the hub above, I came to a realization that some part of the hub had to be dedicated to explaining to the reader as to "Who the Moors were". This is done in order to show what this Hub is all about, that the History of the Moors in spain is African History. We pick up the historical discussion from Leo Africanus who in 1600 wrote: "For all the negroes of the Black Moors are descendants of Cush, the sons of Ham, who was the son of Noah. But whatever difference there is between the negroes and the tawny Moors, it is a fact that they are all the same ancestry."

Scholars who are not blinded by the fog of racism are one voice that most of the Moors were africoid in origin; even many of the marauding Arabs who crossed the desert sands of Arabia and swept down with their Islamic fervor on northern regions of African, then crossing the Sahara and moving southward-Were African. Massive miscegenation did alter the picture, producing people who were of all shades, from jet black to very near "white." Dr. Chancellor Williams hits the nail on the head on asking the questioning and and answering it when he wrote: "Now, again, just who were the Moors? the answer is very easy.

"The original Moors, like the original Egyptians, were Black Africans. As amalgamation became more and more widespread, only the Berbers, Arabs and coloreds in the Moroccan territories were called Moors, while the darkest and Black skinned Africans were called "Black-a-Moors." Eventually, "black" was dropped from "Blackamoor." In North Africa-and Morocco in particular - all Muslim Arabs, mixed breeds and Berbers are already regarded as Moors. The African Blacks, having had even the name taken from them, must contend for recognition as Moors."

J.C. DeGraft-Johnson adds the following: "It was because the conquering army in Spain was largely made up of Africans from Morocco that we hear such praises such phrases as "the Moorish invasion of Spain," and why Shakespeare's hero Othello is a Moor, and why the word "blackamoor" exists in the English Language, a word which leaves no doubt as to the color of the army of occupation in spain and Portugal."

Basil Davidson, one of the most noted historians recognized and declared that there were no lands at that time (the eighth century) "more admired by its neighbors, or more comfortable to live in, than a rich African civilization which took shape in Spain. The color of the conquering armies that came with Tarikh were described vividly by a European scholar who sympathized with Christians Spain: "...the reins of their (Moors) horses were as fire, their faces black as pitch, their eyes shone like burning candles, their horses were swift as leopards and the riders fiercer than a wolf in the sheepfold at night ...

"The noble Goths were broken in an hour, quicker than tongue can tell. Oh, luckless Spain." The same degree of intellect and learning was brought by the African Moorish conquerers of the Iberian Peninsula to Portugal. Like spain, that country was to be culturally influenced by the Moors. Its association with Africa dates as far back as the fourth, and fifth centuries when Africans arrived in southern Europe. But it was in 711 A.D. that they marched in as conquerors under the command of Tarikh.

Reafirming The Importance And Impact Of African History

To reinforce what has been said earlier these Moors, as the early writers chronicled, were "a black or dark people, some being very black(Africans). After the invasion of 711 came waves of Moors even darker.It was this occupation of Portugal which accounts for the fact that even noble families had absorbed the blood of the Moors.

Racial mixing under the Moors in Europe became widespread. The Moors ruled and occupied Lisbon and the rest of the country until well into the twelfth century. They were finally defeated and driven out by the forces of King Alfonso Henriques, who was aided by the English and Flemish Crusaders. The scene of this battle was at the Castelo de Sao Jorge or, in English, The Castle of St. George.

Today, it still stands, overlooking the city of "Lashbuna" - as the Moors named Lisbon. From that time onwards, racial mixing in Portugal, as in Spain, and elsewhere in Europe which came under the influence of the Moors , took place on a large scale. That is why historians claim that "Portugal" is in reality a Negroid land," and that when Napoleon explained that "Africa begins in Pyrenees," he meant every word that he uttered.

Even the world-famed shrine in Portugal, Fatima, where Catholic pilgrims from all over the world for in search of miracle cures for their afflictions, owes its origin to the Moors. The story goes that a Portuguese nobleman was so saddened by the death of his wife, a young Moorish beauty whom he had married after her conversion to the Christian faith, that he gave up his title and fortune and entered a monastery. His wife was buried on a high plateau called Sierra de Aire. It is from there that the named Fatima is derived.

A much deeper examination of Portugal within the Portugal, as with Spain the Moorish invasion and occupation reveals a constant intermingling of the races in Portugal, "had much to do with the later high civilization reached by the Moors." The African element was more predominant in Portugal than it was in Spain, some historians contend. The noble families in Portugal and in Spain, too, who had absorbed the blood of the Moors were innumerable.

Even some of the knights who, in the wars of conquest distinguished themselves, had such blood. Of the count of Coimbra, Don Sesnado, the chronicles tell us that he was of mixed blood, of Christian and Moor extract, and that he was a vizier among the Saracens. Another of mixed blood, Dom Fifes Serrasim, became a member of the Christian nobility by marrying a Mendes de Braganza. Many European historians who constantly project biased scholarship in their writings of Africa and Africans, persist in denying the tremendous influence, both culturally and genetically, that the Moors (Africans) had on the countries of the Iberian Peninsula, particularly Portugal and Spain.

One scholar, Gandia, stated bluntly: "As to the mixture of the Moors and the other inhabitants of the Iberian Peninsula it is useless to deny its occurrence. Without going into the social life of the Christians and Moslems, it may be mentioned in passing that the son of Musa married the widow of King Roderick and that the royal family of Witza united the Moors of the Purest stock." The Moors not only colonized and civilized Spain the also civilized Portugal. The story of the Moors will be elongated/fleshed-out as this Hub is being composed.

Where Ignorance Is Bliss, 'Tis A Folly to Be Wise

In the salutation of this Hub above, I state that the "Story of Moors will be elongated. Since then, I have received some angry response with people accusing of the "fact" that the Moors were never African, and that also they did nothing for Spain, or comments like "my super-heroes are zero", or that I feel inferior about myself" and all types of accusations. This sent me on an ever growing path of research that I had to do, and in fact add more facts I might have omitted because at that time the research led me to writing about certain facts above.

So, I have decided to add upon this Hub and clear the mist, educate and inform the detractors and those ignorant of this history that I had really dug up some of the most important historical fact and connection that show how the Moors Civilized Europe. I did touch up on how the economy along with learning of all types were introduced to the French, German and latter day British, and how this came into being, which also helped to make possible for Europe to be civilized, enabling them to overcome the hum-drum and barren life of the Dark Ages...

One thing is certain about the historical record of Spain... With an ailing Spanish economy due to a drought in 1549, Pedro de Medina informs us that this drought had began to devastate Spain as early as 1070 B.C.. And then Ibn-l-Khattib Al-Makkarry (in his major historical work translated by Pasqual de Gayangos) describes it in some detail. It is Al-Makkary who informed us of how Africans banished from North Africa by an African King against whom they revolted against, entered Spain and took control of that country. The leader of these Africans was known as Batrikus, and these Africans, under him were later to be defeated by the Romans 157 years later.

The Africanization of Spain, Portugal, Scotland, Britain, France(part of it)

The Blood Mixing In Spain and Portugal

A reader of this Hub in the comment section asked me whether I would be able to "surmise what or whom became of the children produced by Africans, while in Europe? Also who are these people today?

The story of the second invasion of the Iberian peninsula by Africans and Arab warriors is legendary. DeGraft-Johnson declared that there were no land at that time (the eighth century) "more admired by its neighbors, or more comfortable to live in, than a rich African kingdom which took shape in Spain." (Davidson) It is good observe here that Davidson did not resort to the words "Arab Kingdom," but that does not mean that Arab arms did not take part in the final vicory. It was this Moorish invasion under the leadership of the African General Tarik(as discussed above in the Hub), which spurred the first great wave of "miscegenation." In less than three years the Moors had conquered the entire Iberian Penisnula. The color of the conquering soldiers was described vividly by a European scholar who sympathized with Christian Spain-just to reiterate my points:

"... the reign of the (Moors) horses were as fire, their faces as pitch, their eyes shone like burning candles, their horses were swift as leopards and he riders fiercer than a wolf in the sheepfold at night ... The noble Goths were broken in an hour, quicker than tongue can tell. Oh, luckless Spain!"

There were some writers who considered the invasion of Spain as a total disaster. The White people in these Iberian countries were not viewed in a favorable light. As stated above about the ignorance and backwardness of the Europeans during the rule of the Moors, we find that the Moors had a particularly low opinion of these Whites. They had beaten them often on the battlefield and with inferior numbers. Even the Europeans in other countries of this continent were looked upon with disdain for their low intelligence and backwards ways of life. ... The palaces of the then rulers of Germany, France and England were, when compared with those of the Moorish rulers of Spain and Portugal "scarcely better that the stable of the Moors. As Lane -Poole noted: "Whatever makes a kingdom great, whatever tends towards refinement and civilization was found in Moorish Spain."

The same degree of intellect and learning was borough by the Moorish conquerers of the Iberian peninsula to Portugal. Like Spain,, that country was to be culturally influenced by the Moors. It was this occupation of Portugal which accounts for the fact that even noble families had absorbed the blood of the Moors. From that time onwards, racial mixing in Portugal, as in Spain, and elsewhere in Europe which cam under the influence of Moors, took place on a large scale.

A deeper examination of Portugal within the time-frame of the Moorish invasion and occupation reveals a constant intermingling of White and Moor. Historians claimed that the mingling of races in Portugal, as in Spain, "had much to do with later high civilization reached by the Moors."

There are many historians who hold on to their biased scholarship whenever they write about Africa and the Africans.

In June 712 Musa-Ibn-Nusair crossed the straits with 18,000 troops, mostly Berbers, to support Tariq against possible strike-back by King Roderick. Musa captured Carmona, Medina, Sidonia and Ceremona, while his son, Abd-al-Aziz, took Seville, Niebla and Beja. After his conquest of Spain, Musa put his three sons in charge of the armies in Spain and North Africa: Abd-al-Aziz in Spain; the other two in Morocco, Algeria and Tunisa

Although Marriage and mixture took place on an extensive scale in spain and Portugal between White and Moor, the union of Egilona, widow of King Roderick, and Abd-al-Aziz eventually led to the assassination of the latter in 716 as a result of the bitter resentment that the marriage caused among Muslims. Aziz was succeeded as commander of the army in spain by his cousin, Ayyu ibn-Habib, who was eventually replaced by al-Hurr ibn Abdurrahaman. At this stage of succession, Muslim rulers were instrumental in extending their rule from Spain and Portugal to many areas in France.

The African Moors' French connection

In 717 and 719 Hurr crossed the Pyrenees and entered France. Unrest in Spain prevented him from gaining any strong foothold in France. It was not until 729 that another Moorish ruler Haytham-ibn-Ubayad was successful incapturing Lyon, Macon and Chalons-sur-Saone in France. Beaune and Autun were also under the control of the Berbers; and it was a Berber leader leader named Uthman-ibn-Abi-Nisah, known somteimes as Munuza, who governed not only Spain but parts of France, as well. Munuza established excellent realtionships with the Christians of France, Spain and Portugal, and married the daughter of Duke Eudes, Lampegie of Aquitaine

Abdullah then crossed the Pyrenees and delivered a crushing blow against the Duke Eudes on the Garonne, sacked Bordeaux ad went across Politiers into Tours. It was at this point in 732 that Abdullah went into battle with Charles NMartel. He died in that fight and Tours marked the Western limit of the Umayyad Empire. It is universally agreed that the Berbers, with their Black blood, mixed with some Arab, became a conquering people. They would have taken the whole of France had they not clashed with Charles Martel in Tours. However they remained in Southern France until 1140, principally in the Camarque on the western Riviera, which is still known as La Petite Afrique.

In the centuries that were to follow, these same African (Moorish) conquerers civilized backward Spain and Portugal. The court of the Moorish rulers at Cordoba became the center of culture. Art, learning, refinement and elegance marked the reign of these African conquerers. Commerce flourished, mathematics, science and medicine found their way through the cultural darkness of Spain. The same cultural enlightenment was taken to Portugal by the conquering Moors of Africa. Contact with the Far East brought Spain and Portugal a real renaissance when other parts of Europe were spending a thousand yeas passing through the Dark Ages which the destruction of Rome by the barbarians had brought about.

The Moors In Italy

The domination and rule of the Moors extended to parts of Italy. In 846 A.D., they held the city of Rome in a state of siege while in 878 they captured Sicily from the Normans. Twenty years later the Moors took control of Southern Italy by defeating Otto II of Germany. As in Spain and Portugal, miscegenation took place on a wide scale between the Moors and the Italians who at that time had large infusions of Germanic blood due to the invasion of the Goths and Vandals. Like Portugal and Spain the blood of Africa permeated through all layers of Italian society and found its way into the leading families and also found its way into the leading families, including the most illustrious royal family of the times - the Medicis. Color was not bar to power and honor in Italy. This was illustrated when Alessandro de Medici, known as "The Moor," became the first Duke of Florence.

The Moors and Domination of the British Isles

According to historical annals, the Moors dominated the British Isles at one point in their their historical existence. David McRitchie writes the Moors dominated Scotland as late as the time of the Saxon Kings. With unchallenged scholarly authority he declared:

"So late as the tenth century three of these provinces [of Scotland] were wholly Black and the supreme ruler of these came at a time the paramount king transmarine Scotland. We see one of the Black people - the Moors of the Romans - in the person of a King of Alban of the tenth century. History knows him as Kenneth, sometimes as Dubh the Niger. ... We know as a historic fact that a Niger Val Dubh has lived and reigned over certain Black divisions of our islands - and probably White divisions also - and that a race known as the "Sons of the Blacks" succeeded him in history."

The Moors were a leading power in the sixth and seventh century: they dominated the Mediterranean and North Atlantic; the held power over the coasts of Western Europe and the British Isles; they gave the culture of learning in the arts, sciences to a European people who would falsely claim that that they brought civilization to the world(particularly Africa and other colored people in the Diaspora) whom they said had been languishing in "darkness and nothing elevating ever came out of these backward enclaves. The civilization of the Iberian Peninsula and the rest of the countries in the Western world, was first given to them by the Africans who remained in European countries for several centuries, and this truth has stayed shrouded in perjuries, prejudices, half-truths, mythologies and/or total omission.

Dr. Samuel Johnson who compiled the first English Dictionary in the middle years of the eighteenth century defined the Morris Dance as a "Moorish dance" and the invention of the Moors in England in the seventeenth. Any kind kind of entertainment of masquerade was called "Mauresque," according to Paul Metl, "because the guise of the Black man was the most important and a popular phenomenon. In fact, Queen Elizabeth I had one favorite African in her Tudor court. She was Luce Morgan. Dr. Leslie Hoston, and expert of Shakespeare wrote: "I have been at some pains to collect the facts and report about about Luce Morgan. My reward is the discovery of a series of documents indicating that some years before she charmed Shakespeare, she had first charmed Queen Elizabeth."

According to Scobie, David McRitchie produced enough evidence to prove that a race of Africans (Moors) lived in Scotland and part of England well back into the tenth century. He writes: "Our language still retains the memory of their presence," and further adds:

"In Shakespeare's time the audience at the Globe accepted the word as meaning 'a black man,' and either then, or later on, it became tautologically extended into "Blackamoor'. The common people of the country are not likely to have known much about the ultra-British 'Moors', - not enough at any rate, to have made the world an everyday term for a Black man. Nor can the Moors of heraldry be explained sufficiently by the theory that the founders of families bearing Moors as supporters, and Moors' heads as crests, and won their spurs in assisting the Spaniards expel their Moors. The bearing is too common among ancient coats-of-arms to admit this explanation. And the heraldic representation of a "Moor" does not suggest Granada."

Scobie writes: "How were the Moors recompensed for their phenomenal contribution in civilizing Spain, Portugal and other areas of Europe steeped in barbarism and darkness? The nineteenth century scholar Stanley Lane Poole, paints a picture of European savagery of the lowest form in their genocide of the Moors. 50,000 of them were brutally murdered on the famous day of all Saints, 1570, when the honor of the apostles and the martyrs of Christendom was celebrated by the virtual martyrdom of these Moors. ... No less than three million Moors wee banished by the first decade of the seventeenth century. To use the words of the Franciscan priest Bartholomew Las Cascas, during the Columbian era, when these dastardly deeds were being perpetrate on the Moors, "Moloch must have been in the skies." As I have stated above what Lane Poole said: "They did not not understand that they have killed their golden goose." As this is being reiterated in this Hub, the goal is to recite the historical facts so's to make sure that they stay in theircorrected form, historically.

Thus far in this latter part in the Hub about the miscegenation that took place all over Europe and the countries discussed, the aim here is to show how the world was progressing at that given time, space and point, and how it was using that knowledge to prop-up the present technological civilization in all its manifestations, is because of the Moors and their civilization of civilizing of Europe in ancient times. Below then, we will look, quickly, as to why in this Hub I say, Africans civilized Spain and what part of Spain and Portugal they settled upon

Restating And Recalibrating The African Historical Perspective Of The Moors

In order not to lose sight and historical perspective about the Moors, we read from Chancellor Williams that:

"Now, again, who were the Moors? The answer is very easy. The original Moors, like the original Egyptians, were Black Africans. As amalgamation became more and more widespread, only the Berbers, Arabs and Colored in the Moroccan territories were called Moors, while the Darkest and black-skinned Africans were called "Black-a-Moors." Eventually, Black" was dropped from "Blackamoor." In North Africa, and Morocco in particular, all Muslim Arabs, mixed-breeds and Berbers are readily regarded as Moors. The African Blacks, having had even this name taken from them, must contend for recognition as Moors."

We further learn from Rashidi that: "Among the most substantial Berber Groups to occupy Spain were the Hawwara, Luwata, Nafza, Masmuda, Miknasa, Zanata, and Sanhadja. Before participating in the eigth century invasion of Spain, the Hawwara Berbers in Africa occupied the province of Tripolitania and the deserts of southern Tunisa. They worshipped the Libyan sun-god Amun, who was depicted as a bull or ram. After the invasion of Spain, they settled in Cordoba, and established a fortified city near Jaen. A wealth group of Hawwara also settled in Morida and Melellin.

"The golden age of the Umayyad dynasty in Spain came during the tenth century. Under the reigns of Abd-al-Rahman III (912-61) and Hakam II (961-76, the Umayyad dynasty established sovereignty over the most substantial portion of the Iberian peninsula. At the pinnacle of the Umayyad dynasty the great city of cordoba possessed 200,000 residences, 600 mosques, and 900 public baths.

"Among his many accomplishments, Hakam II added twenty-seven schools for the free instruction of the poor. It should be pointed out that, at least during the era of Islamic Spain, girls as well as boys went to school, and numerous Moorish women became prominent literary and artistic fields. Other Moorish women were involved in education, law, medicine and library science.

"Both Tarik and Ziyad and Abd-al-Rahman - the founder of the Umayyad dynasty in Spain in 756, are said to have belonged to the Nafza Berbers. In fact, one of the most important keys to Abd-al-Rahman's success as a monarch was his recruitment, directly from Africa,of a well-trained army of more than 40,000 Berbers. Many of the Nafza settled in Spain. Rich and numerous, the Nafza Berbers of Osuna, in Spain, ended up becoming civic leaders, writers and theologians. The Nafza also constituted a significant part of the population of Takurunna..

"The Masmuda Berbers were described as Blacks by abu Shama in his Kitab al-Ravdatayn. They settled in several parts of Spain, including Mawrur, Cordoba, Valencia, Guadalajara, and Santaver. Masmuda Berbers also settled in Southern Portugal. Neither did wealth and prestige escape the Masmuda. The previously mentioned founder of the powerful Almohad dynasty, Abd-al-Mumin, was a Masmuda Berber.

"Al-Kahina (ca. 690), the woman who led the most determined resistance to the early Arab invasion of North Africa, was a Zanata Berber. With the invasion of Spain, many Zanatas settled near Seville, in Sidonia, Alicante, Murcia, Guadalahara, and in the region of Saragossa. The Marinids, who in 1275 invaded Spain from Morocco and defeated Chrisitan Castile, were Zanata Berbers. Zanata is written several ways in various texts, including Zenata, Znaga and Zenaga. The Zenata used a Libyco-Berber Script and spoke Zenega, a Kushito-Hamitic language. This seems to be the basis for the name Senegal.The Zanata are also credited with having introduced the Camel into the Maghrib.

"The Sanhadja Berbers of the western Sahara were composed of both sedentary people and nomads. Included among the nomad Sanhadja were the Lamta and Lamtuna Berbers. The Sanhadja, known as the Mulaththamun (people of the veil) were responsible for the second significant Moorish invasion of al-Andalus (the Arabic name for Islamic Spain). In 1095, the Sanhadja Berbers initiated the Almoravid dynasty. The Almoravid dynasty was called the "Empire of the Two shores." It lasted a hundred years and stretched from the Senegal river in West Africa to the Ebro River in northern Spain.

"There has been much discussion and speculation about the Sanhadja face mufflers. In Islamic Spain the veil was considered a privilege of the true Almoravids, and its wearing was forbidden to all but the Sanhadja. It was something like a uniform or distinctive dress of the ruling class. According to Ibn Hawkal, "Since the day they were created, their faces ... have never been seen, unless it be their eyes. This is because they muffle their faces when they are young and they grow up with that custom.

"According to al-Bakri (d. 1078), there were among the Sanhadja Berbers Blacks "professing Judaism." These Blacks are referred to as the Bafour. The Bafour practiced Judaism before they were overcome and absorbed by the Almoravids. The Balfour and Sanhadjar are both linked, by the way, through their association with the early rulers of the Ghananian Empire.

"A prototype of the warrior-king, both as priest and potentate, the Almoravid emperor Yusuf ibn Tashfin led veiled fighting men into al-Andalus beginning in 1086, at the request of the hard-pressed Muslim residents of Sapin. Yusuf, a Sanhadja Berber from the Sudan, had his physical features described by the Arab chronicler, al-Fasi, as brown-skinned, small framed and hook nosed, with heavy eyebrows and woolly hair.

"Among Yusuf's troops was a personal retinue of 4,000 Blacks carrying Lamti Sields (covered in hippopotamus skin), peculiar bows, Yazani spears, Zabian javelins, and moving to the constant sound of drumming. The bizarre aspect of the African army, was a valuable psychological weapon, according to Norris."

Rearview Mirror Narrative Review

The review above was in aid towards making concrete some African elements that went into the the civilizing of Spain, Portugal and Europe by the Moors. The emphasis here is on the African origin of the civilization of Europe. It was very important in the Hub above to revisit this part of history which is rarely spoken nor written about. When I dubbed the topic of this Hub as I did, I had not yet given a very in-depth account as to who, in particular were these Africans.

And there have been some responses from some readers who constantly attempted to attack the Africans and the civilizing of Europe. Many dispute this historical assertion, fact and reality. So that in the post above, I have tried to retrace the historical facts as they pertain to which Africans, from where, settled and colonized/civilized Spain and Europe earlier on in the period of 500-600 years time-frame.

The history of the Moors in Spain civilizing and modernizing Europe, is a very broad and deep history, of which this Hub will continue to research and expose some of the historical issues and aspects that went into the this effort of civilization of Europe by Africans from Africa.

There have been responses to the Hub above, which pale in their objections as to what has been stated and written about in this Hub above. I think some facts need to be repeated again to restate the fact that the Moorish civilization in Spain was an African accomplishment. In order for us to achieve some modicum of historical intellectual acumen/agreement, I will keep up with some serious historical facts, indisputable and historically accurate.

This Hub was written in order to begin wrest the present historical narrative, into one that comes from an African-centered perspective, and that this is a fact, one needs only look at the last line of the topic of this Hub: ".. The History Of Africa". This Hub is simply that, the History of Africa, written by an African and this is written from an African-centered perspective.

What needs to be restated here is very important in clarifying the whole conundrum as to how the Africans from Africa began the whole historical reality and the fact that they civilized Europe, is not in dispute here, because the Hub above ably deals with that aspect of factual history. The side I am addressing is a much more antiquated historical beginnings as to how the Africans, actually began moving towards the conquering and civilizing of Europe when they did.

The African history that is being discussed below by Prof. Clarke and the importance of Education Clarke and Marti underline, are some important lessons one picks up and remembers, and it is also important to make note of the fact that the time in African history discussed by Clarke, is same and related to the history of Africans in South Africa. What Clarke is about to talk about at length below, give us a much more better sense as to what Africans people must know and do.

What's To Be Done?....

Prof. Clarke instructs and informs us thusly:

"African people will have to take a three-way look at themselves, using the "past" to evaluate the "present" to prophesy the "Future." In our long journey on this earth, we have had few friends, if any. All non-Africans who have come among us or been associated with us have clearly shown that they would betray us any time it was in their self-interest. We have never made good alliances with other people. Properly counted, Africans may number a billion people on the face of the earth. With that many Africans in the world, and with some political astuteness, we are in a position to make either alliances that are to our benefit or none at all. We know that the most important alliance we need to make is among ourselves.

"Can African People Save Themselves?" (Clarke)

"To be sufficiently argumentative on the subject of Black-White alliances, I would have to speak for a week, and I would still barely exhaust the subject: If there is one thing that can be said about Black people that has caused a lot of pain, and yet is historically true, it is that politically we are one of the most naïve of people. We have been taken in by practically everything and everybody that has come to us. I think this taking in, this betrayal, has something to do with both our weaknesses and our strengths. If you find strengths of a people, you will find their weaknesses, because the two are closely related.

"In the first place, we have been extremely human[man-centered-Biko] people. We have been hospitable to strangers, and nearly always to the wrong strangers. Almost all of our relationships with non-African people began with gestures of friendship. More than anyone else in the world, we have repeatedly invited our future conquerors to dinner. There is a need to look at Black-White alliances going back 2,500 years.

"Why are so many of the alliances Africans make with other people dismantled to the detriment of Africans and Africans have nothing to say about them? These alliances aren't real alliances and Africans aren't partners in them in the first place.

"Kohanna was the first African to attempt to drive the Arabs out of Africa. She called them "Interlopers" and said they had no business there. Religiously she was Hebrew, but she advised her nephew and son to join Islam because it was politic to do so. Her nephew, Tarik-bin Ziad, was the leader of a group of Africans around Senegal and Mauretania who moved up to North Africa.

"Now, this African, who came from inside Africa and who had joined Islam and made an alliance with it for political reasons, but who for other than political reasons was not even Moslem, knew that the Visigoths and the people controlling Spain were in serious trouble. He sent an army to test out and see what kind of resistance would he face in Spain, and following this, decided to take Spain.

"The conquest of Spain that is attributed to the Arabs was truly an African conquest. The Africans again began to make new alliances, and these were effective for 700 years. Why were these particular alliances so effective? (Let's talk about some of the good ones we made.) They were effective because Africans had the muscle and they called the tunes. The alliances did not break until Africans lost that muscle, and they lost that muscles in arguments with the Arabs.

"The Arabs are another overrated people in history, another people who have both good and bad to the extent that Black(African) people don't even know how to make an assessment of them. They have manipulated both Blacks(Africans) and Whites depending on the political climate. If the White political climate is good, they are White; if the Black(African) political climate is good, they are Black(African). But they are mixed people and always have been.

"When Islam advanced in East Africa, it did so with a single missionary. He would come into an African village; he would render some service that was needed; he would marry an African woman; he would convert her and then convert her family. Then he would use that family to convert other families. As the Arab moved more and more into Africa, whatever color he was originally, he was getting "Blacker" and "Blacker" He was "dissipating" his original physical being into the bloodstream of Africa.

"This went on for well over a thousand years and is still going on. By no stretch of the imagination can you call the Arabs White people, although there are many who prefer to be called White and [want] to be treated as such. Quite a few act no different from White people in their relationship with us. My point is that this African-Arab alliance was basically good in Spain, because the military arm that held Spain was African.

"The Africans entered Spain in 711; they sent another wave into Spain in 1076. The Almohads, in 1240, came from North Africa. The argument between the Almohads and the Almoravids weakened the African hold on Spain until about 1450, when Europe was rising again to its feet, thanks to an internal quarrel between Africans and Arabs. When these Arabs were expelled on 1492, the year Columbus allegedly discovered America, instead of going back to Africa and building an African nation, these Arabs went down the East Coast and began to trade arms with the Africans along the East coast of Africa and continued the Arab Slave trade. That was disaster.

"But more disaster would come later on. From 1591 to 1594 the North Africans, themselves Black(African), the Emperor of Morocco in North Africa, Yakud Almansur, would send an army across the desert, using an African trader to show the way. They would break up the kingdoms of inner Western Africa. Timbuctoo would soon be gone. The great university of Sankore, would soon be gone.

"This was in 1594 when the slave trade was 100 years old. These people in inner Africa had great universities. There are still four universities in Timbuctoo alone. Jenne was another city university, and all of this is totally left out of history. These North Africans came down and wrecked all this. Now it was Moslem against Moslem. These Africans would tell these Moslems, using White mercenaries with modern arms of the that day, "We are Moslems, we're Moslems, we're your kin," and Africans would just go ahead with their slaughter."

"The tragedy of the breaking up of the great independent states of Africa before the European slave trade could really move was the tragedy of this alliance. Islam and the Arabs will have to share the guilt in this, because at that same time they were breaking up the great African kingdoms in the Western Sudan and West Africa, the Arab slave trade had been intensified along the coast of East Africa. The partnership between Africans and Arabs of those great states had lasted for years. That partnership had now grown sour. Again, the partner had turned on the African; the guest had turned on his host, as has happened so many times with us." The African's role and influence in Spain collapsed, and the Africans tried to make new alliances. But none of them would work for very long.

The Moorish Civilization And its Evolution

"The Moorish culture was a composite culture, since the Moors indulged themselves in the acquisition of knowledge from both East and West. By the 7th and 8th centuries the ancient civilization of Egypt, Harrappa, Akkad and Cush had long since handed the batons of philosophy and science to the Greeks, Hebrews, Chinese, Indians and Persians. But through these younger civilizations, the Moors learned from the older culture.

"The Moors would have benefited in their search for knowledge from the world's greatest of Alexandria, in Egypt. Unfortunately, it was long since destroyed. History has recorded the incident: "The great library of Alexandria, accidentally damaged by Julius Caesar and destroyed by Mark Antony, was intentionally destroyed by a Christian mob on orders of the Christian Emperor Theodosius in A.D. 389. The Library at Alexandria had consisted the storehouse of knowledge of the ancient world.

"In spite of this, the Moors set out to quench their insatiable thirst for knowledge by translating into Arabic all they could lay their hands on of ancient Greek and Sanskrit material, ransacking the the monasteries for rare copies of Euclid, Galen, Plato, Aristotle(who all of them got it from Egypt) and Hindu sages. (African presence)Briefly, then, it can be said that the Moors excelled in many fields. Their achievements in the sciences were spectacular. The Moors were the first to trace "the curvilinear path of rays of light through air;" this discovery in about 1100 is a prerequisite to the design of corrective eyeglasses.

"Towards the end of the th century, their endeavors in chemistry brought them to the formulation of the chemical components of gunpowder. Through its Harrappan inheritance, India made clear to the Moors some principles of Astronomy. "The world is round as a sphere, of which the waters are adherent and maintained upon its surface by natural equilibrium. It is surrounded by air and all created bodies are stable on its surface, the earth drawing to itself all that is heavy in the same way as a magnet attracts iron. The terrestrial globe is divided into two equal parts of the equinoctial line. The circumference of the earth is divided into 360 ... the earth is essentially rotundity, being somewhat depressed at the Poles ... This is the Indian Calculation. These principles, recorded in a Moorish translation of an Indian text, would not be comprehended by the rest of Europe for 400 years. (Shaw)

"The Moors pursued practical applications as well as the natural sciences. The use of the astrolabe and the compass, revived again at a later period in Europe, were common to [Moorish] navigation. European military science was revolutionized by the introduction of artillery and firearms. The Moors were also known for their skills in medicine;
For seven centuries the medical schools of Europe owed everything they knew to [Moorish] research. Vivisection as well as dissection of dead bodies was practiced in their anatomical schools, and women as well as men were trained and performed some of the most delicate surgical operations. They amassed much information in the study of the functions of the human body and cures for its diseases."

The Story of the Moors is still going to be an ongoing one throughout this Hub, and will continue to expand, and add on the many historical features and issues that came into play and being during the African Moors' historical epoch and transformation/civilizing of Europe.

The Moors and the Chess Board

Ya, Sha! (Oh King!), which signifies a challenge, iis better known today as "Chess". The Moorish Caliph Harun al Rashid gave Charlemagne, first emperor of the so-called Holy Roman Empire, a chess set in the 9th century.

Ya, Sha! (Oh King!), which signifies a challenge, iis better known today as "Chess". The Moorish Caliph Harun al Rashid gave Charlemagne, first emperor of the so-called Holy Roman Empire, a chess set in the 9th century.

The Musical Instruments of the Moors

Zurna(Above) Al-Oud (Below)

Zurna(Above) Al-Oud (Below)

(a) Yarul (b) Kanun (c) Tambur (d) Tar All in that order in this photo

(a) Yarul (b) Kanun (c) Tambur (d) Tar All in that order in this photo

The Origins of the Music of the Moors in Spain

The artistic Spain of olden times thus becomes the central bond which ties ancient art to the modern. The great musicians of Andalusia knew not only how to preserve their inherited art but also how to transform and renovated it by creating a popular form through which their compositions were broadcast, thus spreading all over Europe. There it still lives because the people have loved it and adopted it. Europe therefore owes a debt and gratitude to the Andalusian Moors, who maintained and passed on a rich fund of music, a perennial spring to which all European composers have come to renew their inspiration, but without seeking its unknown sources." (Julian Ribera)

As the Hub above is being composed, many people who come and read it really react in many different ways ways to it. Those who seek knowledge find it, and then there are those who know nothing about the History of the Moors and want to debunk the information that is given in the Hub. For the latter, it would do them better if they come to learn from the Hub, or try and do their own research. But I will not alter a thing in this Hub to satisfy their lack of knowing if they do not want to learn from the Hub. I thought I should jut add this part and piece here.

Also, in any writing as long as this one and the type of extended Hubs I write, editing become an ongoing process which I do come to and correct. But, as I have said in my comments above, this does not detract from the context and content of the Hub, really. I really write very long Hubs, and this is not an excuse, and when I am not composing any new Hub, I come back to the old ones and correct any spelling or grammar errors I may incur. But this does not mean that the Hub is whipped out of shape because of that. In any case, any notation of such errors by those who respond to my Hubs, is well taken by me, and I always make it a point I correct the errors in due course.

Musical Instruments of Oriental Africa and Arabia

(i) Darabukkeh (ii) Ombak or darbuka (iii) [a] Tar (tambourine); [b] Sagat (castinets).

(i) Darabukkeh (ii) Ombak or darbuka (iii) [a] Tar (tambourine); [b] Sagat (castinets).

Understanding African Music and Debunking Myths About African Music

African music is usually perceived as being one-dimensional, primarily rhythmic in character and totally dominated by drums. Chernoff says: "If you ask people what African music is like, most will, with little hesitation and great confidence, tell you that African music is all drumming: Africans are famous or their drumming. It is exactly this mass impression that ethnomusicologists, those people who study music academically, love to correct. Anyone reasonably well-informed about music-making in Africa will immediately react against such a naïve notion by citing a wealth of musical instruments: xylophones, flutes, harps, horns, bells."

A major reason for this erroneous perception is the way the Western world continually portrays the African musical expression. The images usually depicted in the typical Western interpretation have traditionally been of "natives" dancing with emotional abandon to the beat of the "jungle drums."

During the 1940 and '50s there were some dancers and choreographers such as Kathryn Dunham, Carmen de Lavallade and Geofrey Holder and others who present musical performances with traditional African music and dance as a high musical art form; but this was not the norm. Today African music with drums and a variety of other African instruments with more positive images, have seen increasing popularity in Jazz, popular music, as well as traditional African musical performances in the West.

The new movement in America, beginning in the sixties, by those of African descent, to embrace African history, literature, customs and cultural traditions, has had a significant impact. As a result, the focus on African Studies in College and Universities, the adaptation of African dress and hairstyles, musical performances on the national and International level, have brought renewed interest in the African continent.

By far the most sophisticated responses to the popular image of Africa in the New world," says Okon Edet Uya, "are the back to Africa movements(Garveyites), the Pan African Movements and the New Black(Consciousness) Nationalism ... Whether it was surfaced as emigrationism of the eighteenth century or the new Black(African) [Consciousness) Nationalism of the 1960s and '70s, this sentiment reflected a confidence in the capacity of the African to create and control his/her own reality, unfettered by European imperialism and neocolonialism and the contaminating influences of European cultures."

Anyway, for many reasons, as this may be seen as progress(not forgetting how the European recording companies have highjacked and distorted the music of Africans from America to Africa-that is another Hub, by the way), there are still some myths that have to be debunked and stripped away so that we can begin to have a much more clearer view of the musical realities of Africans from the past to the present. So that, for instance, when it comes to African music, there is rarely presented the total musical experience of African people that can be or is viewed from, and in all its broad and rich diversity.(One can read some of the Hubs I have written on African Music and Musical experiences here on HubPages-ixwa.hubpages.com).

Chernoff syas: "For a Westerner to understand the artistry and purpose of an African musical event, it is necessary for him/her to sidestep his normal listening tendencies, slow down his aesthetic response, and glide past his initial judgment. Perhaps more than the novelty or the strangeness of the sounds, the different meaning of a music which is integrated into cultural activities presents difficulties to the Western listener and undermines his efforts to appreciate and understand African music."

In fact, the problem is bigger than we can elaborate sufficiently here on this Hub, and it is multi-layered. So that, we know that centuries of misconceptions and prejudices have led to disastrous and grave distortions. Bohannon says that "Africa has for generations now been viewed through a web of myth so permissive and so glib, that understanding it has become a twofold task: the task of clarifying the myth; and the separate task of examining whatever reality has been hidden behind it. Only if the myth is stripped away can the reality of Africa emerge." I have expanded this statement above in the various Hubs where I have dealt with African music from South Africa, Africa and the African Diaspora.

Egyptian And African Musica Instruments

Argul Egyptian Double Clarinet

Argul Egyptian Double Clarinet

Zal Sssokho(Senegal) playing the "Kora" (a 21 string Harp, and singing in both Malinke and Wolof languages that by traditions from West Africa

Zal Sssokho(Senegal) playing the "Kora" (a 21 string Harp, and singing in both Malinke and Wolof languages that by traditions from West Africa

Sistrum used in Ethiopia and Egypt

Sistrum used in Ethiopia and Egypt

The "Kora" - AfricanLute Instrument

The "Kora" - AfricanLute Instrument

African Drums and Kora

African Drums and Kora

Checking and Debunking Some Myths Concocted and Distorted About African Music

Musicologists generally classify musical instruments into four categories: (1) Idiophones - Marimbas, xylophones, gongs Rattles, bells, clappers, cymbals, etc. (2) membranophones - drums with skin or membrane heads (3) aerophones - flutes, Whistles, Pipes, Trumpets and horns. (4) Chordophones - Lutes, Lyres, Zithers, and Harps.

While many Membranophones are made from the trunks of trees, still other are wood bound with a variety of wood sources and other material utilized today in Ghana and Kenya. Various skin covers are used, as Kebede says, "depending upon the geographic location and availability of the animal." The prevalence of trees in the sub-sahran great forest regions obviously allows easier access for the use of trees to construct Membranophones. Once again, we see the impact of geography in the use of musical instruments'

Frobenius points out that, "Drums covered with hide are found throughout the whole of Africa, with the exception of its southernmost part of the wooden drums, however, occur only in the Congo Basin and in Upper and Lower Guines. The hide-covered drums are a development of the famous millet mortar, which points to East India. The civilization of the Mediterranean shores has similar drums made of clay, and related to those found in Persia and in prehistoric tombs of Germany. Now, the wooden drums belong to the Malayo-Negrito elements of African culture. They reoccur in Melanesia and frequently in Polynesia. Their home obviously must be the same as that of the loft bamboo cane, for these drums are developed from the bamboo (1898: 640-41)

This is a clear illustration of how music and musical instruments can be used as effective tools for studying people in culture, very often showing how they live and where they live.

North of the Sahara social and cultural factors impact on the use of Idiophones and Aerophones as the more dominant instruments.(Kebede)

Another major misconception in regard to African Music is that the music of the Arabic-speaking countries of the Maghrib (North Africa), Morocco, Tunisia, Libya, Egypt and the Sudan is not really African music. To understand why this misguided perception exists it is important to realize that the Maghrib is always viewed as separate from the Southern region of the African continent.

Although these countries are located in the northern region of the continent, they are referred to as "a thin finger of Arabic or Islamic culture" that extends from Egypt to the Atlantic. "Our attention is firmly fixed on an East-West cultural Axis," says Grame "to the near exclusion of the North-south one."

For instance, rare is the reference to Egypt in African Studies. Ancient Egypt is universally recognized as one of the most important centers of world culture and leader in the fields of science, medicine, and architecture. It(Egyptian) music also spread and influenced the Eastern and Western World." And this was done By Africans from Egypt and from an African Centered and historical perspective.

Experiments in ancient Egypt with a music notation system and the establishment of schools of music that taught vocal and instrumental performance made it among the first [and original] to do so. (Kebede)

In the fourteenth century the exemplary sociologist Ibn Khaldun remarked, while commenting on the scholarship and sedentary culture, "Today, no city has a more abundant sedentary culture than Cairo(Egypt). It is the 'mother of the world', the great center of Islam(And, by African culture/advancement and development), and the main spring of the sciences and the crafts." According to Malm, "The Egyptians of Plato's time[who were Africans] were still professors of canted knowledge in both music practice and theory. Thus, much that we credit to Pythagorus and other Greek music theorists have much deeper roots in Alexandria and the Nile Valley[ruled by Africans].

In addition, the legacy of ancient Egypt is found in the shapes, tunings, and playing styles of such folk instruments as the 'argul' double clarinets in Egypt, the 'genebri of North africa. This is only part of the African centered perspective of the music of the Moors as an African cultural phenomenon, that this whole work is reworking into the History of Africa

Egyptian Musical Instuments

Musical Instruments of the Egyptians

Musical Instruments of the Egyptians

Egyptian Wall Pinting - woman Holding a sistrum

Egyptian Wall Pinting - woman Holding a sistrum

A Brief on the History of the musical instruments of Egyptinstrument

Ancient Egyptian music has never been studied in an African 'Centered' context. However, a study done by Sachs, comments on the success of European musicologists in research on Egyptian instruments and antiquarianism. Sachs speaks of "the extreme aridity of the desert soil and the Egyptian belief in the magic power of painting and sculpture." [This] aridity has preserved hundreds of instruments from decomposition and may musical scenes are depicted on the tomb walls. Egyptian art works are explained by short native texts written between the human figures whenever an empty spot is left. (Thus "he is paying the harp" or "he is on the flute"). Hence , we know the authentic names of practically all Egyptian instruments."

A much more in-depth and very extensive History, music and instruments of Africans will be composed in the future by me, and I hope to be able to complete that very hard and long Hub if time allows and my health holds steady.

It is important I keep on repeating that the part of the sub-title of this Hub is about the History of Africa as it pertains to the Moors. Their history was not only taking place in Spain, Portugal, Europe and Scotland, but also throughout Africa as will be seen when I get to that part of writing the Moors of Africa and tie contributions to Africans and African History in the African continent by African peoples.

Miles Davis

Miles Davis

Miles Davis

The Music Of the Music of the Moors in Spain Meets Contemporary African American Jazz

At this juncture in the Hub, I will only cover the African Musical Influence on the Spanish-Connection. Many westerners have for a long time been captivated by the Spanish musical accents, its haunting melodies and rhythms. As a musical appreciator, I have been listening to Miles Davis and John Coltrane for as long as I can remember. I have also written Hubs on Jazz, although I did not go in-depth into these Jazz musicians as I would have liked in these Hubs, suffice to say that in time I will have to develop their individual Hubs for the body of musical work they left us.

Be that as it may, I have just been able to join and link up some of the compositions or albums to the history and music of Spain. This was brought about by my beginning to write about many genres of African traditional music globally, in Africa and specifically in South Africa. When I went back to my library of vinyls, after I had long begun writing this Hub on How the Moors Civilized Europe, I wanted to write or add the part of music and show how contemporary Jazz has been influenced by the African history[and musical history] of the Moors in Spain.

Coltrane's 'Ole' was more classical jazz tradition and Miles's 'Sketches of Spain' was done with a large orchestra which, to me, was an interesting addition to the standard jazz format we were all used to. Both these giants not only incorporated jazz elements , but with the use of modal incantations, ostinatos, African polyrhythms and extended new and fresh improvisations, were in fact digging up much more than the musical legacy and heritage that was even more antique, and rather absolutely very ancient from some unknown and buried African remote antiquity predating that of Spain's musical genre of the Moors.

Years later, in his autobiography, while reflecting on the character of the music he recorded on 'Sketches of Spain' in 1959, Miles Davis stated:

"The Black(African) Moors were over there in Spain because Africans conquered Spain a long time ago. In the Andalusian there you have a lot of African influence in the music, architecture and in the whole culture and a lot of African blood in the people. So you had a Black(African) thing up in the feeling of the music in the bag pipes and trumpets and drums."

Miles, referring to a selection called Solea, he stated:

"'Solea' is a basic form of flamenco. Its a song about loneliness, about longing and lament. It's close to the American Black(African) feeling in the Blues. It comes from Andalusia, so it's African-based."

On A Parting Note

A moorish civilization was on European soil from the eighth to the fifteenth century, rivaling in its "passion for literature, art and science," the Caliphate of the East. "The Moors organized that wonderful Kingdom of Cordova which was the Marvel of the Middle Ages, and which, when all Europe was Pugged in barbaric ignorance and strife, and it alone held the torch of learning and civilization bright and shining before the Western world [Or before there was the so-called Western World-Europe]" (Henry George Farmer)

Colleges and libraries at such cities as Cordova, toledo, Seville and other towns, became wold-renowned with the College at Cordova attracting thousands of students. We are further informed by Farmer that" "Material and intellectual wealth seemed to go hand in hand. The coffers of the sultan 'Abd al Rahman II' (d. 961) brimmed over with twenty-million pieces of gold, whilst the library of the sultan Al-Hakam II (d. 976) contained four hundred thousand books. This latter monarch founded twenty-seven free school in Cordova and paid the teachers from his own purse."

There is a lot of information out there in the world today about African Moors in spain that this Hub will be be elongated as I find time some to add more interesting aspects of the history of the African Moors in the civilizing of Europe and dealing with the civilizations of Africa in the African continent

Miles Davis - Will O' the Wisp

John Coltrane

John Coltrane

John Coltrane

Olé Coltrane - John Coltrane (Album Completo) ~ [FULL ALBUM]

The Past In History Is The Present Today: Development Of Humanity(Man-Centered Civilizatons)

There is a Reason why the sub-heading of this Hub is titled as "The History of Africa". One can begin making a follow-up on Miles observation that His music was affected and influenced by the Africans of Andulisia. Miles kew his African history and story. The historical record shows that "when Tarik and his African army crossed into Spain and captured several Spanish towns near Gibraltar, among them Heraclea-then he advanced to northward into Andalusia. King Roderick learned of the invasion and raised a large army for the defense. The two armies met in battle near Xeres, not far from the Gaudalete river.

After many wars, of which the only country that repelled the Moors was France, the Moors settled in Spain and created societies that were a marvel then and still are so to date, as told in the story thus far, that these things really happened. And when they are told by Africans, today, are dismissed as lies, and those with the lack of historical grasp and understanding huff and puff rebuttals and denials, but the fact that this history happened and is written, and all it needs for them to do is to read it up very seriously. What am I saying then when I stated that this whole history is the History of Africa? Well it is African History.

African-Centered(Man-Centered) History Put into African Perspective

The word, "Moor" literally means "Black", so the Moorish people were "Black"(African) people," Some anthropologists assign them to an arbitrary "Brown Race", and others label them Dark-Whites. The late Joseph McCabe once observed that perhaps an African anthropologist would call the same people "Pale-Blacks". In medieval times, the name Moor was not restricted to the inhabitants of Morocco, but it was customary to refer to all Africans as Moors. The highly ambiguous word "Negro" had not yet been 'invented'.

We know from contemporary records which we are now able to read from from the era of the Moorish supremacy that the Moors did not consider themselves as White Men". An interesting discussion of this point may be found in the works of Haldane:

"We are so accustomed to hearing of the superiority of Europeans that is perhaps worth quoting from the Moorish writer Said of Toledo, who wrote at the the time when Toledo was in Moorish hands. Describing the people who lived north of the Pyranees, he said: "They are of cold temperament and never reach maturity. They are of great stature and of a White color. But they lack all sharpness of wt and penetration of intellect." We must remember that seven hundred Years ago such a point of view had at least an empirical justification, for at that time trigonometry was being studied in Toledo, while in Europe a man was regarded as learned if had got as far as the fifth proposition of the First Book of Euclid." I have already cited this piece above in the Hub, but reiterating it here is setting up the part I will be adding of the Moors in the Southern part of Africa, soon

It is also interesting to learn from historical references that the so-called Arabs(who were always a minority, in their culture), that they regarded a dark complexion as a badge of honor. This is noted by Tonybee that: "The primitive Arabs who were the ruling element of the Ommayad Caliphate called themselves "swarthy people," with a connotation of racial superiority, and their Persian and Turkish subjects "the ruddy people," with a connotation of racial inferiority, that is to say, they drew the distinction that we draw between blonds and brunets, but reversed the value.

So that, when we read and learn today, from these people who were very backwards and barbaric, and in the end, are made to be enlightened by the very people today they call Africans backwards and barbarian-it then exposes a lie in their assertion when they refer to African people as backward, because in their history and their relationship with Africans, they were never seen as superior by the African of the time.. So that, with the expulsion of the Moors in Spain, not only did Africa regress, but Europe and the whole of Humanity became underdeveloped and backward, to date even as of the writing of this Hub. I will be adding some important pieces about the Moors and the Civilization of Monomotapa and the huge and big societes on the eastern seaboard of Africa. This is rarely talked about history, and it is a very important history about the Moors and the Africans themselves.

It is better to light a candle than through ignorance curse in the dark. With the advent of the Computer, Internet and the flow of information in all forms today, you hear people say that people's attention-span is very low, and that long articles like this one bore and make people not read them. Well, there will always be research, and this is what some of us do. We trace and bring forth these events and historical markers that help us navigate the world of ignorance and out of ignorance. We try to cast a light, albeit dim, into to those past historical events that will help us deal with the present in order to better adjust for the future.

I have inserted Mile and Coltrane in this Hub to help people begin to make connections with the past now in the present. History is not for a feel good purpose, though it fulfills that need, it is also a guide in how we find our way in the morass of confusion and distortions, especially for and about African people. The very people who say African are backward, history does not support their assertions and lies. When we study the History and story of African people, we begin to see that what is upside down now about Africans, was not so in the past. I have cited Clarke above to make this point much clearer.

There have been many wars up to the ones we see today in Afghanistan, Syria, Israel, Palestine and so forth. There is rarely time to begin to turn the upside-down right-side up. This Hub is an attempt at that. It is also an important historiographical narrative that begins to fill in those gaps that need to be filled by the way history which has up to till now has been falsified and distorted.

Looking at the part of the musical part from the Moors to contemporary times, one gets to have a chance to begin to see how the past connects and is relevant to the present. The present is the music of jazz, the past is the compositions of the Moors-Antiquity is the Music of Africans in Africa. Miles used the interpretation and musical meanings and leanings of the African American Blues, and merged it with some Flamenco from Andalusia which in its African centered music forms, which was African, so is Jazz.

In this way, a bit kind of a set up, Miles felt and utilized the African centered improvisation to meld Spanish music with African American Jazz with an Africa core/rhythm, sound and harmony. Therefore, we need to learn how to pick up the bits and pieces of the past and make or apply them to help us deal with the present. History should inform the present in order to help make the future sensible and possible.

European racist who propagate a great White lie(which many hapless people buy into) that a great White race has been responsible for all the great civilizations of the past is nothing more than a crude superstition propagated mainly by European-orientated racist and bigoted historians; and there a many people who think that the memory of courageous dissenters from this theory should be held in honor and respect. I am one of those people

In order to develop not only African people per se, the whole human race still has to deal with its own growth for all the people here on the planet hearth. In order for us to deal with the cosmos and the Universe, we are going to have to put our own act as earthlings into a more efficient and human existence and knowledge of history. In that way, we might grow as Human beings and be part of the Intelligent Cosmos and Advanced Beings in the great vastness of Deep Space swirling within Dark Matter and Dark Energy.

African American Jazz Meeting African Indigenous Jazz of the Gnawa Of Morocco

Korsa : Live avec Maâlem Hamid EL Kasri et Karim Ziad

History of Blacks in Britain: Elizabeth I kicks Moors out of England

Blackamoor Jewel Elizabeth 1 Gift to Drake – Public Domain Did race discrimination by colour begin in England with Elizabeth I’s use of ‘blackamoores’ as prisoner exchange currency after the failed Spanish Armada? The presence of Africans in early mo

Blackamoor Jewel Elizabeth 1 Gift to Drake – Public Domain Did race discrimination by colour begin in England with Elizabeth I’s use of ‘blackamoores’ as prisoner exchange currency after the failed Spanish Armada? The presence of Africans in early mo

BLACK BRITISH Seeds of Europe - the MOORS & Black Irish - Origins of Ignorance & Racism

Dr. John Henrik Clarke - The African In The making of America 1619-1776


Asad Islam from Dhaka, Bangladesh on October 06, 2020:

Very informative and historical article

ixwa (author) on February 22, 2017:

Glenda: Thank you for responding to the Hub above... I am very happy to make your acquaintance… I hope you are able to access my Body of work, wherein I have written a lot of Hubs on African History, in South Africa, In the Caribbean, and also in Africa and elsewhere. If you are able to see the many Hubs that I have written on various topics on African History, and I also have two that I am presently working on, I think your sons, if they want to read and have time to peruse through the over 70 articles on my Hub site, you are going to find a lot of African history dealt with in a very in-depth manner-Many on the Media, communications, social media, etc. You could use the many articles I have penned here on HubPages as a library or African History Alternative to the regular text books found in the schools, I only hope your are able to check out the many articles that deal with African music, literature, history, and then some. To be able to see them all, you should try and Google these Hubs on "ixwa on HubPages". I hope you like all the published Hubs and here's to hoping your sons find them useful, Glenda....

ixwa (author) on December 23, 2015:

Welcome to the Hub above, Forsaken One; I am glad you have really rummaged through the piece above. I will be adding some more stuff to it in the coming Year. I am also attempting to do research in the Spirit and vein of My African History Master Teachers. There are many detractors and those who have stolen this whole piece. Well, I am only hoping that it splurges throughout the Viral Soup and reaches many people who really want to learn this part of African historiography. Once I am able to get time away from researches, I will get in touch with you. Thanks for the extensive and kind comments about the Hub above...

ixwa (author) on January 01, 2015:

You're welcome, Lindani and thanks for the accompanying aphorism for the Hub above..

ixwa (author) on January 01, 2015:

Ancient1: Thanks for reading the article above and finding it interesting.. I appreciate your comments above..

lindani kumalo from jo'burg on December 30, 2014:

n0 wind blows once but never again, every cycle redawns itself what was will be again... great read this...

Ancient1 on December 29, 2014:

Thanks for taking the time to write all of this, I did enjoy your HUB My research has led me to many of the same conclusions, albeit with different sources. Any who it is nearly new years so ciao and have a beautiful new year.

ixwa (author) on November 10, 2014:

If you can, do so, and hope that people do read it.. Thanks for the comment and the effort to share this piece... Abd'Allah Muhammad-Bey...

Abd'Allah Muhammad-Bey on November 10, 2014:

I like what I'm reading and like to share with others on face book.

ixwa (author) on November 07, 2014:

researcher88: Welcome back again to the Hub again and I appreciate your sharp responses, I will address them below. You've got a valid point, the one you are making about subheadings, which is not problem that I cannot fix. One thing I will concur with you is that I am not making any content changes. When you first drew my attention to certain things, I went back and worked on it. Apparently I have missed a couple more things you have noted above... Well, I do not think the sentences that you addressed, receptions and typo-errors you points out to in the first comment from you above, were not corrected. I worked on them.

Now this time, you added a few again, and I will work on them too, like adding subheadings, and your suggestions well taken0which gives me an ideas where I can rework the adjustments as needed.

Again, you have found an unfinished quote and I will correct it and if time allows, will go over the whole article, again.

Now, when it comes to research, I can tell you assume that I used a certain type of McCabe. Well, there are other books, and this will shown by the additions/corrections I will make on the unfinished part.

This was one of my first articles when I had just joined HubPages, and they way it came out, is in its raw copy above-is why it has had so many errors. Since I write on so many things, I had to move on. Whenever I found time, I would revisit it, but not a intensely as I have done since your critiquing it. My writing it was purely within the writing guidelines of HubPages, and was never even thinking that it's a publishable piece of the nature you are talking about.

Now that you have brought my attention to it, I will do my only best, and I do not many friends, and know a few publishers, but have just gotten onto the business of writing other articles as a way of keeping on publishing here on this Blog.

I wish I had time to do endnotes, but you'd be surprised by the constricted time I have to even write. I reckon that if I give credit to my sources, well, that sufficed - and maybe I will try, not promising though, to do just that as you recommend above.

When I quoted McCabe above, I not only took that piece you cited, and also added another from him for his other book, I would like to think there's nothing wrong with that. Also, I use many books from different disciplines whenever I write, and that too, may cause some bit of confusion, not of what I wrote, per se, but omitting various quotes, as you have clearly demonstrated above.

That is fixable. I am leaving the text with its content and context as is. I will add some subbies to better redirect/effect/affect the flow of the narrative. Oh, yes, I am sure that the quote I used is from McCabe. You can see that in the corrected version above. I like the fact that you do your homework, well, I tried to cobble up an article that you see above-and a few edits have been done ever since it has been published, and the focus was not good. Well other matters of publication, reay, technical writing is not my strong strong forte, due to so many and long articles that I am involved in.

I would say that I am not really that great, but do try to make some sense.. I reckon I am glad you think it has something to it. Well, what can I say, I have such limited time, I will just keep on working those mistakes that prop-up, and thank you very much for the Feedback and great advice! Hola!

researcher88 on October 30, 2014:

Are you sure that this quote is from McCabe? I can't find it anywhere in his book "The Golden Ages of History." https://archive.org/stream/goldenagesofhist035032m...

"our ancestors remained in the wings, pure barbarians, during the two thousand years when Africans of the Mediterranean race were constructing civilizations, and that our White race [. . .] brilliant civilization that ran from Portugal to the China Sea."

However, you add this to the quote in the body text, ""The superior germ-stuff of the great White race is completely discredited[McCabe argued] by the fact that," but not in your quote in the comments. This needs to be fixed, and also where you got the quote.

Maybe you could do the sources in endnotes?

researcher88 on October 29, 2014:

Thanks for the comments, Ixwa. I will reread in about two weeks. I was serious about printing it off and forcing a hapless friend to read for you. ;-)) **Pick a picky grammarian friend.** ;-) That's why the world has copyeditors. Fresh eyes. No serious writer on the planet trusts his own copyediting job. Never. Not. Ever. And you have a publishable piece here if you would fix it up to professional standards. I don’t know where you are located, but you could hit up someone at a university to help you. Someone in the journalism department. Just don’t pick a dullard. And you don’t have to make “content” changes if you don’t agree. But you should be paying strict attention to copyedit complaints, or any instance where the reader does not understand what you are trying to say and says you need to recast a sentence.

Also, divide up the last half with more subheads. This is important for a long piece. The subheads can be smart-alecky, cocky, and amusing. (This was the secret to the success of the Wall Street Journal for decades explaining dull numbers and financial data. Their snarky headlines and subheads MADE the reader want to wade through the dull stuff.) Subheads are like outline topics. They tell a separate story than the body text to guide the reader through the inches of black ink. So print off your subheads alone to see what story THEY tell. They should make sense separate from the body.

Let me give you a lousy example. Let's say that you are, hypothetically, adding a few paragraphs from Briffault's book and it conflicts with most people's understanding of the topic. (Just making this up on the fly here.) Depending on what info you're including, your subhead might be any of the following (I reiterate: lousy examples just off the top of my head):

• And outta' 1919 here comes the real truth

• Briffault has the info

• What uneducated English-speaking-only people don't know [this is the reason, Ixwa, why if you use any disdain your copyediting better be perfect, or you look like the dummy.]

• The Black Muslims of North Africa woke barbarian Europe out of its ignorant stupor...then the barbarians killed and conquered them for it...after they stole everything and claimed they invented it. [Don’t be afraid of long subheads, added this as an example]

• 100 years ago, someone published the truth

Did you ever see this movie? http://www.1001inventions.com/productions

The actual movie is here, but watch the promo above:

"1001 Inventions and The Library of Secrets"


ixwa (author) on October 29, 2014:

researcher88: Thank you for reading my Hub above, and I appreciate that very much for various reasons. Yes... Your assessment of this Hub having many errors you pointed out astutely above-is absolutely spot-on. I fully agree with you that I had a lot(many) typo-errors and repetitive paragraphs. Upon re-reading the article myself, I found all what you have advised me above to absolutely true. I am not going to make any excuses, so I set forth to correct all of the mistakes I found to be true per your observation. I made sure I copy-edited this Hub thoroughly and fixed the mistakes you have found in it.

Also, I was able to adjust a tad few sentence errors and these errors as you have wisely pointed out, were taking a lot out of the article. I am glad that there are fair minded, articulate and well-read people out here in the Web like you. For that, I remain seriously indebted to you. In addition to your sage advices, you provided me with a reference to the material I have been writing about in the link of the book you provided to me. This is an invaluable resources for me and I hope in the future, as you revisit this article, you will find that I will have used a lot of material, from the linked-book above, to further develop this Hub. I have come across Briffault in some other readings and researches I have been doing in trying to amass material for other historical hubs. But the book you linked me to was not in my purview. For that I am thankful and grateful to you.

Although I have yet to read the book you provided and linked me to, I concur with you that Brifffault's stuff, the ones I have come across, were composed and written brilliantly and eruditely. I think the link is top amongst those excellent books of his I have consulted, and am glad that I can further develop this Hub using his material-provided by you.

I take courage in your encouraging me about the detractors of this article, and this has spurred me on to even elongate this piece. I can tell you are a person who knows his story and has material that is relevant, and in my case, to the article above. I would have loved to see some of your material, and thus far am unable to.

The other mistake I made about the article was not give it it's required time to proofread it, and it was earlier on when I was dabbling with writing articles of this magnitude. I do not want to make any excuses, I should have known better. This will surely make me to revisit several of the articles I have penned here with a more critical eye of a copy-editor. You are right, other eyes, like yours, for instance, helped me to go back and fix the mistakes you saw and 'Thanks A Lot', and hope that in time I will hear from you and get your assessment as to whether I followed your suggestions.

Your input and the advice regarding the article, as I have noted elsewhere within the Hub-that anyone who can help and critique or give me advice as to the errors incurred herein, is invaluable and well-taken, appreciated, and I tried to fix the errors. I cannot thank you enough, but nonetheless.. Thank You...

researcher88 on October 28, 2014:


Interesting page and info. I would urge you to fix the truly distracting typos and repetitive paragraphs in this article. It takes away from the power of the piece. Print it out and give it to a friend. Fresh eyes are so helpful at finding mistakes. I would love to pass this page around, but I can't until the mistakes are corrected.

The commenters who doubt the veracity of what you write should be directed to Robert Briffault's "The Making of Humanity" for even an more forceful exposé than you have written here about what history has neglected. The book was written in 1919. You can even buy a Kindle version for 99 cents, but it's available online here: https://archive.org/stream/makingofhumanity00brifr.../n7/mode/2up

For your purposes, start reading at the top of page 176. Most people do not know that the supposedly great inventions and discoveries of the Europeans were nothing more than translations of Islamic science that they picked up in Cordoba. Kepler, Copernicus, and Galileo did not invent their discoveries. They got them from Islamic science translations procured in Cordoba. What they did was introduce this science to Europe. Leonardo da Vinci and Fibonacci got their scientific discoveries from translations of Islamic science. Christian historians simply wrote the Moors and their greatness out of history. Robert Briffault, however, captured it, and his disdain for European historians who have neglected it is delicious.

ixwa (author) on October 21, 2014:

Jai El: Thank you for Reading the Hub above, because, as you have well noted, there's a lot of obfuscation and distortion of the truth-and the descendants of these Europeans, today, are working assiduously very hard to cover-up the truth-as you say-in a deliberate conspiracy-without providing Serious scholarship on the subject-dominates the social media and the YouTube fixtures. We should never forget that the War from the outset to oust the African Moors out of Spain and Europe(the French were very vicious on this matter too), is still an ongoing thing, and it is our duty as Africans to work just as hard to put the record straight. I have had a lot of "Nay" sayers, or 'deniers' as you have collectively called them, who have come to this Hub and tried to talk all the negativity/smack they could-about the contents above.. Some people who have read this Hub have encouraged me not to pay attention to them, and that I should know that what I wrote is valid.. And you, Jai, are amongst the many who know the truth and support the facts as they have been presented above. I still want to develop this Hub, but due to time constraints and other pressing maters, am still to get around it. One thing I totally agree with about is that in this Age of Information.. There is a lot of work to be done to sift the chaff from the wheat. Our children and the future African generations, should be directed to such articles and so that they know the truth, which will triumph, as you well noted above. The sad thing, also, is that many people are no more reading, they are suffering from what I call the McDonald" Syndrome, which is, short-cut and instant knowledge or gratification. Many people resort to Google to learn, which I have no problem with, but there are still books, if one searches carefully that still have information. I am very happy to know that the descendants of Africans Moors are still there, and buttress what I have written above.. Thanks a lot, Jai, this means a lot to me..

Jai El on October 21, 2014:

Awesome information. Not new to me as I am a "black" Moor from Europe. The youtube videos about Moors are usually full of racism and white denial about who the Moors were and there seems to be a deliberate conspiracy to make the Caucasian, although no real scholarship exists there and people only regurgitate what they've "heard" or are just plain deceptive. We are in the age of information and the bottom will always eventually come to the top. Thank you for all your efforts to unveil the truth.

ixwa (author) on September 12, 2014:

shaleema bowers: It is true that racism has be a scourge and retrogressive to Africans globally. It is also true that Africans were prohibited from reading or given Education preparing them to be 'good' slaves.. The only solution for us with such a problem is to read-up everything about ourselves, know it, and add or develop what we have learnt consistently and constantly.: Read And Write.. This will be very helpful to many of us who are willing to do that.. Also, it will help those who cannot write like that in life to learn more... That is why I wrote the article above.. To give us answers to these hard issues and questions.. I really appreciate your input and comments above...

shaleema bowens on September 12, 2014:

I feel like its a war that has been waged on laminated people and until we realize what has been done, what they are still doing to black people we will never understand. They made it illegal for blacks to read back for a reason.

ixwa (author) on August 15, 2014:

You're welcome, Wilbur Mason El.. Thank you for the accolade above...

WIlbur Mason El on August 15, 2014:

Great read...

ixwa (author) on June 05, 2014:

Thank you, DebNBklyn, and appreciate that you are checking out the Hubs.. I hope you find the ones that pique you interest. You're welcome.

DebNBklyn on June 05, 2014:

Your research is greatly appreciated. I get caught up in the day to day and forget to check in but when I do I'm ALWAYS appreciative of your research and sharing.

ixwa (author) on June 03, 2014:

Jon: Thank you very much for reading the Hub above.. I am very pleased that you found something relevant and that you can relate to in the way you have said above.. That is all I was interested in doing, getting our people and other ethnicities involved in reading about and knowing our African history.. Your response is gratifying and heartfelt.. Thanks for the accolade heaped by you on this article...

Jon on June 03, 2014:

Just read your article and I'm blown away! I've been trying to educate myself more on my African history (because if you don't know about your history you don't know your self) and it just feels good to finally get some depth and facts! I shared your hub on twitter and I'm looking forward to reading more!

ixwa (author) on June 02, 2014:

Thank you very much, ericb.. I appreciate that the Hub helped you in a very important way.. You're welcome and thanks again....

ixwa (author) on June 02, 2014:

Thanks, John and your appreciate your comment above, and am glad you like some of the articles.. You're welcome to visit and read them at any time...

ixwa (author) on June 02, 2014:

Thank you very much, Johna254 for reading and acknowledging the Hub above... I really appreciate your accolades and pithy comments above... You're welcome....

ericb on May 31, 2014:

very eye openning

Johnk369 on May 02, 2014:

whoah this blog is wonderful i like reading your articles. dcfckkdgfgde

Johna254 on May 02, 2014:

You could certainly see your skills within the work you write. The world hopes for more passionate writers like you who arent afraid to say how they believe. Always follow your heart. kdefbaddgecf

ixwa (author) on February 21, 2014:

JonDIDit: Thank you for "adding" to the Hub above. In reality, I would never allow such a long response(Mini Hub) to be posted on this Hub. The information you have added is germane to the Hub above, but it is too much. The way look at it, I think you could have written yourself a whole Hub with what you have posted on this response column. I have been checking out your Hub Blog, and I noticed that you have only written one Hub. I would like to imagine that you could have taken all the "History" you have written above in my response columns and created yourself a Good Hub, not only Historically cited and factually as you have written it above, but added your own "Point of view" into the Hub made up by all the 'long' response above..

The historical figure(s) you have written about, has/have been included in my Hub above. I would have been more interested in your response to my Hub and what I have cited and composed above. Since you say you read a lot, that know0how should and could easily be turned into aHub(What you have been reading all these years). Now, if you if are going to be adding some more in the response column above, really, you are writing a Hub under my Hub using my response columns. I think I am still going to add some more interesting research above, but I do not want another Hub, in my response columns elongating my Hub above.

People do have opinions about the Hub above, as you can see.. But if you start adding material that pertains to the Hub, having annexed it from some source, well, you could at least give credence to the authored History you cite above to the writer, and I do not see it as being cool if you are going to transfer some writing from some unnamed sources(you state Van Sertima below), and have no point of view as to why you have quoted extensively and really have nothing to say about all that you cited in relation to the Hub above, and the reasons and relevance to the Hub above.

So please, I kindly ask you to please not to add some more information as you have done above and I can only accept responses that pertain to the Hub above, not 'additions'. I also think, sincerely, you should use all the information above to create more Hubs on your Hub-sites, that will help you develop as a writer that is in you. Respect...

JonDIDit on February 20, 2014:

Part 2 When he arrived men and women of the court wore their hair parted in the middle falling on both sides of the head covering their ears (women might do a long braid in the back) and Ziryab and his family had their foreheads covered with hair trimmed level with eyebrow and slanting to their ears (bangs!), a shorter shaped cut and ears uncovered. He taught the shaping of eyebrows and the use of depilatories for removing body hair.soon the court followed their example. popularized shaving among men and set new haircut trends. Men took to using henna on their hair and beards. Some of Ziryab’s fashion tips he borrowed from the elite social circles of Baghdad, then the world’s most cosmopolitan city. Others were twists on local Andalusian customs. Most became widespread simply because Ziryab advocated them: he was a celebrity, and people gained status simply by emulating him. He introduced the first seasonal fashion calendar with a greater range of colors and textures with colorful silk clothing to supplement traditional fabrics to suit the change in seasons and the time of day: In springtime, men and women were to wear bright colors in their cotton and linen tunics, shirts, blouses and gowns replacing white cotton for June to Sept (Muslims used White linen for mourning) and quilted gowns for winter changing the old change of clothes twice a year, recommending long cloaks trimmed with fur, which became all the rage in Al-Andalus. All this set new norms for elegant and noble manners. Ziryab brought in astrologers from India and Jewish doctors from North Africa and Iraq. The astrologers were grounded in astronomy, and Ziryab encouraged the spread of this knowledge. The Indians also knew how to play chess, and Ziryab had them teach the game to members of the royal court, and from there it spread throughout the peninsula. Ziryab had eight sons and two daughters. Ziryab’s children kept alive his musical inventions, assuring their spread throughout Europe, but not all became celebrities. The most popular singer was Ziryab’s son ‘UBAYD ALLAH, though his brother QASIM was said to have a better voice. Next in talent was ‘Abd al-Rahman, the first of the children to take over the music school after Ziryab's death—though arrogance was said to be his downfall, for he ended up alienating everyone. Ziryab’s daughters were skilled musicians. The better artist was HAMDUNA, whose fame translated into marriage with the vizier of the realm. The better teacher was her sister ULAIYA, the last surviving of Ziryab’s children, who went on to inherit most of her father’s musical clients. These children kept their father's music school alive, but the female slave singers he trained also were regarded as reliable sources for his repertoire in the following generation.

He has never been given credit for all he did there by the outside world Van Sertima spoke of him in his Golden Age of the Moor. But to have so many talents and be in the shadows . He died about 5 years after Rahman II . Visitors spread his ideas around Europe.

Next time I'll do education

JonDIDit on February 20, 2014:

My Favorite MOOR is Ziryab (sp Zaryab) /”black bird” In Arabic means a bird with black plumage born Abu l-Hasan ‘Ali Ibn Nafi‘ (789-857) A gifted pupil of Ishaq al-Mawsili,/ ishak of Maussal, he had to migrate from Baghdad to Andalusia/ Al Andalus/ SPAIN because he got advantage over his teacher (a severe offense, then and nowadays). The advantage was he was a better musician than his teacher, A-Mawsili, which threatened his position in the court of Caliph Harun al-Rashid. He encourages his pupil to flee the country due to the civil wars. He took his family first to N Africa to the court of the third Aghlabid Emir Ziyadat Allan I in Qayrawan in Kairouan in Tunisia which was a major city at the time. But there were civil wars there as well so he sent letters to Cordoba inquiring about a position in the Omayyad court of al-Hakam I in Cordova who invites him to come to the court. When he arrives al -Hakam has died (822) but he is accepted by his son, Abd al-Rahman II who was so delighted to have him he gave him a furnished mansion, orchards, farmhouses valued at 40,0000 dinars and other gifts and a stipend, including 200 dinars a month for himself, 20 for each of his 4 sons , a bonus of 3000 a month and another 1000 dinars for each Muslim festival an 500 for each of 2 special occasions; 200 measure of barley and 100 of wheat. He could “frequent” the palace as dinner companion to RAHMAN II as he was amazing singer and knew over 1000 songs.

Settled in the court of CORDOBA he was the first to create a school of music which became famous and made one of the main changes on the lute : to add a fifth (G) bass string. He rearranged it completely, setting free the metrical and rhythmical parameters and creating new ways of expression (mwashah, zajal, and nawbah -suite) responsible for introduction of many musical instruments and proceeded to design new musical modes and methods, reworked scales, and constructed a harmonic theory which linked music. He became the most fashionable arbiter of taste in 9th C, affecting the way the upper class of Andalusia/ Al Andalus ate at the table by introducing crystal tableware instead of gold or silver in which they served wine (although forbidden to Muslims) or other cool drinks besides water; the style of serving and eating food and etiquette. Morning meal usually taken about 10am; the evening about 9p. No more meals piled on one plate and served, meals were broken down into separate courses, beginning with soups and ending with desserts. Desserts like guirlache, an age-old concoction of walnuts, honey and sesame (still popular today in Zaragoza, Spain) or fruit compotes, bowls of pistachios and other nuts. Dining on small leather trays rather than wooden tables because it was easier to clean from leather rather than wood. He introduced asparagus, meat balls, and dishes from the East (Baghdad, Damascus ) and a dish known for many years as Ziryab’s fricassee / al-tafaya a force-meat balls [ ground meat] and small triangular pieces of pasta fried in coriander oil) along with an old dish of roasted and salted broad beans called ziriabí. He re-designed the bulky wooden SOUP SPOON, substituting a trimmer, lighter-weight model. He opened the first “BEAUTY PARLOR” in CORDOBA c834AD. Changed hair styles, cosmetics, new perfumes and oils. He encouraged deodorants and more frequent baths, offered a toothbrush & added toothpaste (still looking for recipe), added the manner of washing their royal clothes (adding salt to the rosewater and garden flowers they always used so the clothes looked (whites especially) and were cleaner . In the bedroom to sleep on a soft couch of prepared leather instead of cotton blankets. He caused the introduction of many healing medicines and philosophies and astrology. See next section

ixwa (author) on February 14, 2014:

Thanks, akader, and I appreciate the Feedback you have been giving me for the Hub above.. Thanks..

Kader from Algeria on February 14, 2014:

You are so welcome , yourpost is very interesting and it s a didvovery for me at least .it adds a lot to me .i widh yo read more about the subject .by the way ifyu had time please check my poems i need your feedback .thnksa lot

ixwa (author) on February 13, 2014:

Thanks for the kind accolade/comment above, akader....

ixwa (author) on February 12, 2014:

Thanks for the comment above, melhouston02.. Much appreciated..

Kader from Algeria on February 12, 2014:

It s really an interesting and short in pages and extensive in thought matter. I love it thank you again

melhouston02 on February 12, 2014:

the more I read the more I learn

melhouston02 on February 09, 2014:

email me at melhouston02@aol.com. My ears and eyes are opened.

melhouston02 on February 09, 2014:


Where are you from? I'm in New Mexico, we need to correspond more. my cell is 64687972222

ixwa (author) on February 09, 2014:

Hola! melhouston02.. You're welcome..

melhouston02 on February 09, 2014:


I agree with JonDIDit. Ixwa please read proverbs 26:4-5. It will clarify that you don't have to justify yourself to fools. God bless you and yours forever my brother in Christ. Amen.

melhouston02 on February 09, 2014:


Thank you for your acknowledgement, It is appreciated.

ixwa (author) on February 09, 2014:

JonDIDit: I appreciate the added advice and response to the posted response above. You're welcome...

ixwa (author) on February 09, 2014:

melhouston02: Thanks for reading and acknowledging the Hub above. I believe that we all learn something new all the time we are alive. There are those times and things that we learn every time and we become better. I am glad that in the Hub again you have found some knowledge and 'truth' as you state above.. Thank you for the pithy response above....

JonDIDit on February 07, 2014:


The internet if filled with information some great and some "arranged" to make us look like we were nothing because it suited them not to tell the true story. According to them the world didn't start or have meaning until they wrote about or "discovered it. Such a shame to have so little talent themselves that they have to demean every culture they take over even some of their own. We have been left out many times when we were the most important people on the ground. They have lied about about us and took credit for themselves. Look what Rhodes did to the buildings of Zimbabwe because he refused to believe that "savages" could have built them. History is vital and we must all work very hard to correct it. Their version of history must be discredited with truth. They can't stand fair competition. Even those who know the truth hold back because they fear they will be shunned by their communities. Black people were the original people of China. DNA has proven it but you have to really dig to find it. Recently DNA has sown that over 90% of the Brits carry an African marker in their genes INCLUDING THE QUEEN but you will have to did to find those studies too. We have just been beaten into submission and keep it to ourselves but give it another generation or two and whether they like it or not we will rise!!!!!

melhouston02 on February 07, 2014:

I THANK GOD (YAWEH) FOR YOU IN THE NAME OF JESUS (YESHUA) for shedding the true light on what I always believed deep in side my heart.....THANK YOU.

I'm one who always thought that history was unimportant to me because we Africans (Blacks) were always painted as inferior and many other derogatory terms. History turned me off. I hated it. To me any history was all BS. Historians in my opinion only shared the DARK EVIL stuff to keep a race down, primarily the African (Blacks). You Sir have opened my eyes to what I always believed in my heart that we as People are descendants of Kings and Queens under Heaven. There was always this notion in my heart that my people (Blacks) were being portrayed in the wrong manner. I knew we were smarter, wiser, intellectual being than our counter races...Thank you for shedding light on the TRUTH.

ixwa (author) on January 21, 2014:

I am glad that you Love Africa, J.d. I do too, and am glad you came up and said it. Thank you very much...

ixwa (author) on January 21, 2014:

You're welcome, JonDIDit, I appreciate your input and advice above...

J.d on January 20, 2014:

#I love africa

JonDIDit on January 15, 2014:

Always glad to be of service!

ixwa (author) on January 12, 2014:

JohnDidit: Thank you very much for checking the going-ons with the Hub above. I am glad for your advice and I will take it and apply it in due course. Thank you for the sage tidbits you offered above, and I know that I needed someone like you to get me off the doldrums of responding to to some readers here. You are also correct in noting that I feel I have to answer, which, you rightly point out to as not being necessary. You in fact give me a tip on how to carry myself within the like-minded crowd and scene. Thanks for that.

I also appreciate the heads-up you provided in your second comment, and I am now working on looking-up his works. You are right, we must work form the point of view of those who provided us with this material, as honestly and truthfully as possible so that we preserve the Ancient Historical memory relevant and long lasting for future generations. Thanks again....

JonDIDit on January 11, 2014:

The invasion you speak of in 711AD was the SECOND. 1070BCE A drought in Spain sparked the FIRST INVASION OF SPAIN written about by Ibn l Khattib Al-Makkary, a Moorish historian. Thousands of Africans, banished from N Africa by an African King against whom they had revolted, entered a weak SPAIN and took over the country. Their leader was General Batrikus (Romanized). They came ashore at what is now Cadiz spread themselves all around the country sides and eventually made their capital at Talikah/Italica or modern Seville. Romans defeated descendants of these Africans 157 yrs later. Of course it it did not have the same result at the 2md invasion but it did happen.

JonDIDit on January 11, 2014:

Stop spending time defending yourself and your writing from idiots who spend their time looking for sites such as yours to pick fights. Let them have their say and only respond with FACTS and leave the rest of it where it belongs. It is obvious that you wanted responses otherwise you would have omitted “comments” and just put it out there. You could also say you will not respond to those who don't present facts. At least one third of tyour hub is spent defending yourself. I was taught ...convince a fool against their will, they're of the same opinion still...it may make you feel better but it a waste of your space and your readers time. You told me to start my own hub but I have ...been there, done that... and why I just write offline and “amuse” myself. I don't need or want the validation of others who are wannabe historians who pose questions without ever having read one book about the subject. The ones I would appreciate hearing from don't read these sites. They are busy translating old manuscripts that we can enjoy in years to come. So I have to be content with what I can find. I don't care who makes the translation just let me at it. I am the one that does the hours, weeks and years of research and reading and writing in my timelines. I'd be a little upset too if someone challenged what I have spent so much time on and it is natural to do. Like asking you to pick a favorite child;) I know I would be challenged and refuse to put that kind of stress in my space. It is my right not to share with the wannabees but I do share files with the like- mined and some who I have helped make into history buffs. I am a VERY opinionated person but I differ in that I am willing to change my mind and my files using the new and/ or updated facts that new technologies are bringing to us all Since none of us was there to watch the crossing into Spain and the results, we must depend on what we can find from others, who weren't there either. I am sure if I could read ancient arabic I might have a better opinion.

ixwa (author) on January 05, 2014:

AKA: I note your reading this Hub above with "Great Interest", which in the final analysis, shows lack thereof. The Hub above was written by me and I have done the necessary research. Your problem is reading and wrapping your head to its 'facts". I am of the opinion that you really have not read the Hub, except for the selected parts that Interested you, and "Agreed" on them. The rest of your diatribe above is clueless and lacking in knowledge and understanding of African History. I am not asking for your permission to Say that Africa is for Africans, and so it will remain. The European perception and perspective about Africans in north Africa being African, is a fact, and I have made an effort to describe the coming of the Europeans into Africa, and for reasons I have stated, and how they comported themselves terribly and left Africa in ruins. I have not talked about the coming of the Romans after the fall of Carthage, for reasons that this Hub was about the Moors in Spain. I have not again discussed how and why Islam spread into Africa and in what way and what was it they achieved or did not achieve. I laid down facts as to how the Moors, made up of Africans came about and who partook in the decolonization and improvement of Spain.

When it comes to religion, that you are a muslim or what your religious affiliations and beliefs are, to be honest with you, I do not give a rats ass about that. You assume I am American, and you are so sure that you go to the extent of citing my Hub replies and metaphors which show me you really were having a knee-jerk reaction to what you have not read and do not know ever since in regards to this topic.

You hasten to number points that you say are "wrong" about what I wrote about. You write that "I am blaming Islam, which is a conclusion of all faiths, and the Arabs "Islam and the Arabs have to share the blame. Wrong. Who cares And you do not make sene as to what you are saying above, and has nothing to do with the Hub.

My second mistake is my conclusion that the "AFRICAN" continent populations are exclusively black." I do not regard myself as Black and am not black, and am African, and thanks for noting in your rebuttal that it is an "African" continent, and I will not be a European being an African, just because I lived in Europe or my ancestors did for so many millenniums. The Hub above deals and goes in-depth on this issue, which you still have to read. You really do not know anything about African History and Africans.

This is my Hub, and "I am entitled to my own opinions", so are, but the Hub above is made up of historical "facts", which your response above still has to answer and deal with. The history of Morocco is African history, anything you try to say, makes me even more aware how ignorant you are of African History.

With your super "mixed background", why am I not surprised that you have such a meek, lame and weak response to facts on African history, to the point that you try very hard to obfuscate and twist them to suit your own biased and ignorant knowledge of a history of a people you claim not only to belong to them, but many other bloods in your system. I do not claim no relation to any descendency except from African people, that too is a fact about Africa. Your trying to depict Africa as all that you could muster to try and explain and narrate above, is true in so far as to there being some Europeans in North Africa, as to how they got there, you conveniently leave that out-I am speaking here millenniums wars, Trekking" of people, migration and immigration, etc-need I go on?

You are preoccupied with the mixes you describe above as consisting of Whites, yadi-yada. In my country we have Coloured, Malaya, Europeans, Asiatics, and the whole bit, that does not make them Africans, because in their day-to-day lives they live and practice their culture, and not African culture. You do not have a culture and a history, I opine, for if you did, you would have done the much needed research to support your tired droning above.

You have no right nor knowledge of Africa being of foreign origin, thinking in a Europeanized, Arabic and other manner except African; You are not the first person I have told this, you are going to have to face and deal with Africans like me, not the decrepit stereotype you display of those Europeans who come to Hubs like this and try impose their Slavery/colonial mind set. This is a new age, and here on the viral stream, some of us present facts, and we usually receive barren and untutored/ignorant feedback like yours. That is why I wrote the Hub above, for your "Type", to either read and learn, or move on to other and better things as suits you.

You have not read the Hub, and do not understand its holistic research and I am nonplussed by your the mistakes, which are not in the Hub, that You point out to. You have just felt like you claim being in Africa but do not recognize nor know, either acknowledge the fact that the Africa you so disdain, and the Arab you so very extol and uphold as being the premier being, is the one I will be writing about and the religion and history. You do not seem to know both very well. You are not even aware of the Ancient history of Saudi Arabia and inner-lying Hinterland of Palestine and so forth. I have not written about all these things because the Hub above is about how the "AFRICAN" Moors Civilized Spain, and that makes this Hub An African History Document and historiography.

I am not really impressed about your conclusion, after trying to be professorial on my Hub about issues which you raise and are just mere 'opinions' without any historical fact, that, your being happy about the last section of my Hub, is a fact that the whole Hub is as factual as one would like to make of it.

You come to this Hub with an arrogance and mien unsurpassed, and yet you expose how ignorant you are of African History. It would be best for you to read the "whole" Hub and critique it line for line and use as much space as you can, or go and write your "truthful and Correct" history about the role played by Africans in the civilizing of the Spanish, and write another one that deals with Africa not being an African continent. But do not come to this Hub so ill and badly unprepared and try to make a run for it. I will reiterate, I detest and dislike your assumption that I am not an African, and I think, in kind, I think you are nobody since you claim so many people in your ancestry. I am African and I do not know what you are. You can hide behind religion, that's your prerogative, but I hide behind nothing but facts, and use my opinion to dispel misinformation and ahistorical assertion you have attempted above-backed by 'facts'.

And about African musical instrument and those of Arabic origin, I can tell you a thing or two had the Hub above been about that. No, the Hub above is about the Spanish and their being civilized by the African Moors, and is written in an African-Historical-centered context and perspective.

Look, you will be better served to re-read the Hub and begin to learn than come and feebly wax historical about a subject you have no knowledge and idea about. I am responding to you because your responses are more about what I have replied to for many different people who responded to the Hub, than your response be about the "whole" article above. Reading is fundamental, and if your are going to engage in the type of palaver above, you had better come prepared and well read, and respond to the article and its contents, which is what you have dismally failed to do.

I do not bandy faith as you do, and usually for me, those who do, I think lack faith in their religion and belief. I am not going to live my life "correcting" people about their writings, 'faith'., beliefs and the who enchilada. You can do that, because that is your modus operandi. Write about your Byzantine history, but do not come on this Hub and waste time and take chances on something you have not read nor are ignorant of its parameters and breadth and depth.

One more thing, stop assuming as to who I am, and you have no right, to to tell me who I am/my nationality-Wrong!

AKA on January 05, 2014:

With great interest, I read your stated historical facts about the Moorish, Moors, Moro, North Africa and Morocco in Particular.

Now, do not get upset if someone who shares with you that you have few errors included in your stated history including your statement about the African People colors, and your specific statement blaming Islam, and the Arabs "Islam and the Arabs will have to share the Guilt".

Your First mistake from my part in your stated history is blaming Islam, of which Islam is the conclusion of all Faiths, and Islam has the nothing to do with the mistreatment of People by others people.

Your Second mistake is your conclusion that the African Continent Populations are exclusively Black.

Your Third mistake is in One of your replies defending yourself by stating that your are entitled to your opinion, and your admonishment of someone who cared enough to share with you about the history of Morocco, and the Berbers of Morocco.

Now I, as a person of African-Arab-Spanish-Moorish Origin and a man of Faith happy to correct your misguided historical facts about People Colors in Africa and Morocco, including your error blaming Islam, henceforth;

First, Islam is the First Human law that abolished Slavery, and Arabs where not Muslims First but rather as Non-believers Nomads, and who where the first Slaves Known in Africa (Pharos Time) who learned Judaism First, later on Christianity and Finally Islam of which again forbids Slavery.

Second, African People are not Black exclusively, they include White, Blue and Mongol-Egyptian Color Mix.

Third, When anyone states anything about History, He/She must be open minded about receiving replies that disagree with Him/Her, and you my friend just like any other American Citizen when they are corrected and shown they do not know what they are speaking about, they hide behind the phrase "it my Opinion and I am entitled to my Opinion", and my friend FYI, the Maghreb Berber People include 5 types of Berbers which do not include Black Color, they include Blue People from West Sahara, and if You or Anyone On this planet who does not Speak and Read and Comprehend the Arabic Language, Have absolutely Zilch, Zero Rights to provide opinion about Islam.

To conclude, I am happy to share with you that you are absolutely correct about the Music Origin Part of which Only Includes the Drum, Jaz, and Flaminco my friend, not other instruments of which they are copied from other societies that go back to the Byzantine Time, and Asiatic People.

ixwa (author) on December 09, 2013:

JonDIdit: I appreciate the palaver we are carrying on, and I know about the history you are citing above, and especially that of the Jews. I did not want to include it in this Hub because I was more into African history from an African-centered perspective. You might have books I do not have, but know of, and I migh have those you do not have, but maybe know, but for me, as an Afircan historian, my writings are guided by the topics I choose. I can never write any Hub without having a topic I want to write under. So, for now, this Hub is about the African Moors in Spain, how they civilized Europe, and it is going to be extend into the African Moors in Africa and what their role was in these kingdoms they found South of the Sahara. There were many Kingdoms of West Africa, Monomotapa, Mapungubwe, cities of Kiliman, Kilwa, Sofala, Zanj, Azania Meroe, Kush, Ghana, Mali, Songhay, Gao and Kanem Bornu, Darfur, Kalambo Zimbabwe, Engaruka, etc., which were thriving and very huge, and that I have written about in some of my Hubs here on HubPages. Whilst I was researching for those Hubs, I came across a huge chunk of the history of the Moors in these places within Africa I have mentioned, and they did not get there to improve them. These civilizations were self-sustaining, and the Moors were trading with them and were gathering a lot of knowledge from them too. This is one other part of African History that is not spoken about a lot nor known, and I plan to add it onto this Hub in the very near future. I have also covered a bit the history of the Moors in Portugal and Scotland, and not yet in China, Italy and so forth.

I guess what I am saying is that there is still a lot that I am going to be reworking and adding into this Hub above, that the Hub's last sub-title, 'A history of Africa', was put there for the time when I will have to add this part of the history after I have covered Europe and part of North Africa.

Like I said, the History of the Moors is African history, and I pan to show what I meant by that assertion. For me it is not only a history that is of North Africa/Spain/Portugal/Scotland and the rest of Europe, but also the rest of Africa, South of the Sahara.

I am not a fan of Skip Gates and I have my own take on him. I would never use his works on any of my writings and I think that I will leave it at that.

When it comes to music, I may have spoken about the Music of the Moors above, but I have my own take about the music of Africans and have written different Hubs on the various genres of the Music of Africans in Africa and the African Diaspora, and will be going even much more deeper into the subject of music as it pertains to African people.

Another thing I have noted is that You have to start writing Hubs and post them. This will help you expand your ideas here on Hub pages. I see you say you have more to share/write and so forth, well, writing some stuff down is part of the exercise of being here on HubPages. It is very hard and time consuming to write Hubs, and I will encourage you to start doing so whenever you have time. I look forward to reading your Hubs as soon as you will start(whenever you have time) writing them. Thanks for the information and hope that I will be hearing from you. You can check some of my hubs on ixwa.hubpages.com, and maybe you might get an idea the extant and extent of the topics that I deal with. I write very long and engaging Hubs, and they take time to research. I hope you check them out in due time.

As for the errors you noted, well-taken by me. You will write, and you might find that it is part of the trade to have such errors, and no one is perfect here on HugPages. The pressure to write and publish is great, and perfection of a Hub comes with time-editing too, is an art in of itself. Write and you will get my drift. Thanks.

JonDIDit on December 09, 2013:

Thanks for the prompt response! Did you know...Tariq was from Senegal and his Hebrew aunt Kohanna encourage him to join Islam because it was the political thing to do. He gathered some like minded men and went North and added more along the way to Mauritania and found more there after meeting up with General Musa in 710. Theirs would be the SECOND invasion of the continent. The first being 1070BCE under a leader named Batrikus (Romanized). They came ashore at what is now Cadiz spread themselves all around the country sides and eventually made their capital at Talikah/Italica or modern Seville.

People identified as Moors were a leading power in 6th & 7th C AD : they dominated the Mediterranean and North Atlantic ; the held power over the coasts of Western Europe and the British Isles (Orkneys ). You really have to be careful and try to find those of wrote descriptions of various people because "scholars" not wanting to give anyone dark skinned credit for any advancements make them lighter in their description and drawings even the modern Arabs do it.

Are you aware of Book of the Glory of the Black Race by Abu'Uthman Amr Ibn Bahr Al-Jahiz? I have several of his writings. He was a brilliant Arab of the 9th C AD. I have found if you search deep you can find many of the Arab Crows who I first learned of from reading Bernard Lewis, a scholar of the Middle East, Muslims and Arabs The Crows were brilliant Arabs of the 9th & 10th C who wrote on so many subjects and wrote of lot of poetry with is a Arab favorite subject. Music too. It was from him I learned of an incident in 1169 outside of Cairo where Saladin set fire to the living quarters with the women and children of Moors as a way to distract them from a battle he could not win. (very few books speak of it) Prof. Henry Louis Gates of Harvard was taken to several homes of people around Timbuktu and Jenne when he traveled there years ago and they had libraries of books in various stage of decay that they had been protecting. He set up groups of translators with the support of Mali gov't to save as many of these treasure as possible. They are having some trouble with the translations because they are mostly written in archaic arabic which they are not that familiar with so it takes a while. He said he would set up a website and make them available as they are translated but I haven't seen any yet. Come to think of it,it is time to check :) Wish we could speak or share files...I have so much more!

ixwa (author) on December 08, 2013:

JonDiDit: Thanks for the encouraging comments and additions and I appreciate them very much. It's just a pity one cannot cover the whole history of the Moors, especially the one from the Portuguese and other sailors and historians of the later periods on the Moors. But I have been able to glean, from your comments, some important issues, which if one finds time, would add, and elaborate on those that are still outstanding.

It's good you have Van Sertima's stuff, and he was a colleague(that will be for another time and Hub-a series I have started on the Master Teachers of African History)- and I hope I am still strong enough to cover such a great man and his vast body of work and teaching/lecturing mastery. But I hope I have covered those areas you find of interest, as you observed above, and hope will continue to do so, as time allows. Thanks for the comments and accolades, again, and I appreciate that very much.

JonDIDit on December 08, 2013:

I have learned so much and filled in so many gaps in my own time lines....I am eternally grateful.

I am not surprised that there are some who resist the clarifications to the history they were "taught"... even the lady that got her "degree." I am never surprised at the incompleteness of college degrees in anything and those graduates who think they have been taught EVERYTHING only to learn there were whole chunks left out and they usually deal with people of color or some foul action whites took and it is justified. There ARE typos and grammatical errors that can change the entire meaning of what you are trying to say. It takes a little more research if you are really serious but that is fine with me. I say just give me the "kernel and I will find the cob." I have the Van Sertima book/s and 60 % of the ones you listed. I have many that you didn't list and I can understand why (space) :)

You haven't mentioned my favorite Ziryab (sp Zaryab) /”black bird” In Arabic means a bird with black plummage. Abu l-Hasan ‘Ali Ibn Nafi‘ (789-857) who was invited to the court of al Hakam I who died before he got there. He was accepted by his son Abd al-Rahman II who after hearing him sing lavished him with land and money. He added the 5th string to the lute became most fashionable arbiter of taste in 9th C, affecting the way the upper class of Andalusia/ Al Andalus, how they ate at the table by introducing crystal tableware, the style of serving/courses and eating new foods, etiquette, fashions and color, personal hygiene and hairstyles. Too much to detail here

The Arabic writings of Syrian, Iraqi and Iranian historians up until 14th C give their description of early ‘pure’ Arab clans of Arabian peninsula… [i.e. “blacker than the blackest ink – no shred of white on them except their teeth.”]… REAL Arabs were identified as black of skin in these times by outside historians and themselves. It did not change until after the fall of Granada in the 15th C AD Color was discussed as a side bar because what was most important was the religion you followed. Christianity was not banned but Islam was preferred. If the Prophet (pbuh) came from a family and had 9 uncles [and his father ]who were "black as night"...what color could you imagine the Prophet (pbuh) to be? (that is another reason Islam today wants no pictures of him). A red or pale-skinned Muslim would have been a profound oddity in 7th C AD Arabia and would have had little chance of success amongst the proud, black Meccans and Medinese. But I digress....

Any way keep up the GREAT WORK !!!!!!!!!!!!

ixwa (author) on November 18, 2013:

qlgdwyfgdwuyde: Everyone is entitled to the their opinions and feelings; but facts remain facts!

qjgdwyfgdwuyde on November 18, 2013:

I feel as if you exaggerated the part about the dark ages, the monarchs were just very corrupt.

ixwa (author) on October 03, 2013:

Jeffrey Mills: Thank you very much for visiting and reading the Hub above. I hope in it you found a lot that will be passed on to the many people you mention. I would be glad for that and I appreciate your input. We are only writing our Story(History).. Thanking you, again...

Jeffrey Mills on October 02, 2013:

Had a conversation yesterday with a friend and he introduced me to this bit of history. Made a point to learn more and boy did I! Gotta share this with my family starting with my grandchildrens and everyone who is intrested as I was. True BLACK HISTORY! Tkx!

ixwa (author) on September 23, 2013:

BWANIKA RICHARD: Thanks for the response you gave above. True, Africa should write our own history as we se fit, and this is what I have done above. You are also correct saying some of our books have been burnt and the rest of what we read has been falsified. It is then our duty to write this history anew and face up to our would-be detractors who are bothered by such efforts. Also, it is important that such information should be circulated amongst Africans and people of goodwill around the world. If we do the writing and reconstruction of our history, we should do so with erudition and forthrightness. I have tried to do so above, and it is there for all to see and read.

It is also true what you have said about the achievements of the Moors who really 'developed', and I would aver, all the countries you mentioned above and then some. Until the day we realize we are as good as we think we are and ought to be, we will always be learning about ourselves from others, who expect us to do nothing but march-in-step with their distortions and misinformation. I believe and will always work towards to prove that to the contrary.

Today, in the days of the viral information, we ought to do better than we have done thus far, and it is all in our abilities to to make it a truism that: we are just as good as any other peoples in this world, and we know the lies that have been told about us-it is incumbent upon us to throw the light into our truth and be able to defend and elaborate upon it effectively and intelligently.. The Hub above does so, and I am glad there are many people out there in the Internet World who seem to concur. Thanks for the input BWANIKA...

BWANIKA RICHARD on September 23, 2013:

Africa should rewrite our history books; Europeans burnt some of our history books.

And the other challenge was we passed on information and Knowledge verbally, so we never wrote some of the literature for example that the moors colonized Spain, Portugal and some parts of Italy.

ixwa (author) on September 22, 2013:

C'ma: Thank you for commenting on the Hub above. Well, your question is somewhat broader and it depends where you are in the world. For instance, there are many universities in America and Europe, I would like to think, where some of this history is taught, and certain Universities in Africa. I know that there are African Studies Departments in some of these universities, in these countries, and not all, by the way do have courses designed to focus on the subject-unless you are referred to some books by some erudite and knowledgeable professors. But the way you are asking the question above, and the way this Hub is written, I really do not know if they do. But visiting professors, in some of these institutions, do try to cover the subject. But the way I have written it, I doubt, but certainly not so so sure. I wrote this Hub by doing some serious research, which I am still onto up to the point of answering. I wrote the Hub because I knew that African History needs a synergy and synthesis of some of the issues related to this subject and the History of African people globally. But, I have found that in many of the institutions I have visited over my life-time, one needs a professor and a Department of African history which will allow the professor to design such a course, and they9the Department) approve it, so that in that case, the fortunate students will get to learn. I am only glad that this history of African people can be written and you are able to access it. We just need bold teachers and African Studies Departments in these academic institutions to be brave enough to allow some professor to teach subject matters and areas such as those presented by the Hub above.. I hope I am making some sense to your question. Thanks again... Ke a leboha.. Hola!

C'ma on September 22, 2013:

But my question is that; can this history be found at least in any academic institution? Am just asking to confirm something here. Please brother Ixwa I would like to hear your response or perhaps any who might have the info about my question.

Dankie ngyabonga..

ixwa (author) on September 08, 2013:

DebNBrooklyn: Thank you for the response above and I appreciate your elaboration on some little known aspects and reality about the literature and language of Arabic-language. I do understand you, and am very much clear about what you are talking about. There are some people who have pulled this stunt before of saying the grammar and the spelling in my Hubs need to be checked! I guess the old ruse of "Putting Africans in their places" colonial dictum. I remember one of Fela's songs wherein the lyrics somewhat state that, "I am doing you a favor in speaking your language(English). I, for one, speak 11(eleven) African Languages, English and Afrikaans, to whit. So that, I am non-plussed by such shenanigans of those who utter those demeaning inconsequential blathering, and yet have nothing to say about the "Whole" Hub above. And I think it is those people's problem, and they do not believe nor can comprehend that African people, in the present, are telling African history, to the World, from an African perspective, by African historians; which, supposedly, according to these detractors, there are no Africans capable of telling their history, but they also never bother to read the body of literature that is so vast written by Africans, and some conscious Europeans and so forth. Yes, You are making sense, and we only shall have to work hard to write some serious African history for ourselves and the coming generations. Hola! DebNBrooklyn....

DebNBrooklyn on September 06, 2013:

Spell check? Really? IXWA, please continue with your truth. I'm about to come upon some time to catch up and hopefully keep up as I've wanted to for a year now. I appreciate your research. Your response above is excellent. In terms of the Arabic language, it's important to remember that the Arabic of the Quran is a grammar language, a scholarly language - not a spoken one. This is why the illiteracy that's rampant in the current "arab world" doesn't allow the average Arab to read let alone understand the Quran. In other words, African Muslims left literature, art etc in Quranic arabic but may or may not have spoken any arabic dialects. Moreover, in this day there are Africans (diasporic) who understand/teach the arabic language of the Quran but speak their "tribal" language or national language - not even able to speak any conversational arabic. Am I making sense?

ixwa (author) on September 06, 2013:

Anonymous: Thanks for the accolade, and the spell check if you meant for my responses, that is one matter.. But as for the articles, those are the errors which are picayune and have no direct affect on the whole context and content of the Hub.. thanks any way, and you will find that those errors which you perceived, were inconsequential, if none-existant-the Hub is still relevant and historically correct.. Thanks...

Anonymous on September 05, 2013:

Very informative, thank you. However, you may want to use spell check, for there are many grammatical and spelling errors...

ixwa (author) on August 18, 2013:

Giltedged: Thank you for responding to the Hub the way you did. I would quickly point out that your statements have been the bane of African historical distortion and falsification for centuries, and there is nothing more to it. But as your comments pertain to the Hub and what is contained therein, that is another matter which I think your response lacks. You are still left with the whole Hub to deal with.

It is true, as you point out that the Berbers were African, which you quickly counter and contradict that if one were to think that they were like Ugandans etc, one couldn't be more wrong, defeats the purpose and intent of your first statement, and you have not really said much here. That there are White inAfrica is a no-brainer for many historians and there is historical precedent to that story. Your point thus far has nothing to do with the "Whole Hub" above.

I have not yet given myself time to write about Carthage, and that is one helluva and interesting history of African people. I will not talk about Hannibal and the struggle that the Carthaginians waged against Rome when both were at the top of their 'civilized' historical zenith. And since you are preoccupied with the whitening of Africa, well, you should be really be fully versed with the history and what took place in Carthage before you throw about some distorted aspersions as to thee history of the Carthaginians.

The paltry Whiteness you have bandied around, can be traced back to the incursions of many Europeans into Africa at different epochs of African history. In todays Information and technological rapture and proliferation, much of what can you have said thus far is that warp and hoof of fly-by night experts(or Johnny-come'latelies), who really have yet to dig into the Historiography of Africans without casting aside their usual patronizing and ignorantly arrogant European intellectual disposition in giving any analysis to African History and what it 'really means' toAfricans, not Europeans, as we, Africans, begin to reset, and rewrite African history using all sources(translated Arabian works; European and African writers from all disciplines imaginable), that, at this juncture, faced with intolerance and full and deep lack of African history that is splurged throughout the Web, I am non-plussed by such utterances which really do not contribute much to the article above.

Your quibbling about language is a non-starter and really weak. Africans speak many European and Asiatic languages(Arabic for one) because of many historical factors that gave rise to the Arabic language to be embedded into and attempting to swamp the language systems of Africans.

But still, as you have noted above, are a well travelled and learned man, that should have been obvious to you as to why that is so. One, as you may be aware, should really know about the History of Africans(Ethiopians) who once ruled the world well beyond Arabia right into China, that also should be something you should recall with ease and take thoroughly into consideration African historical context and content, also, the intent of it being written today by African Historians.

As you display your portfolio and Resume above, you make note of may important aspects of African History, but also add a negative bias and twist to your narrative, which is what has happened to so many African historical detractors, that, I will not respond much to the language issue, because, it too, makes no mention of the fact that the art/writing9as you have duly noted), on the frescoes and many places that has been left behind in Spain and Portugal, including Britain, by the Moorish African rulers, speak for themselves.

In fact, one could write or publish a Hub using all the pictures and images that are still found in Spain, to establish African presence and rule, and with that too, there are still nay-sayers, which is to be expected, because those who think less of Africans, have never found any treason to believe anything said , written or published by Africans meriting any acceptance or recognition because of what the Rule of the Arabs and Europeans did in colonizing the African people and their continent.

And of course, the Moors also built up from and utilized Greek and Roman parts of human progress and development, as did this modern civilization we live in. The Greeks got it from the Egyptians, and the Romans acquired it from the Greeks-So? But they, the Moors, also added more to that by coming up with their own solutions, methodologies, inventions that suited them in that era and historical time-line. This too, has nothing to much with the Hub above, and you have not gone to the more hard-core points that have been stated in this Hub.

But the Hub above still lists, narrates and points out to very specific and critical features of this African rule, and I have yet still to read from you disputing the stated evidence found in the Hub above.

Africa is a very big continent, and as to who practices Moorish cultures today, and that those who do, were the ones who were kicked out of Spain, and now are petitioning to go back to Spain because they are White, might hold some kernel of truth, but full of distortion and omissions that happened-like you do not say which Moors were kicked out of Spain; or the fact that when the Moors were run out of Spain(which Moors-you did not say), which is true, but Spain killed the Goose that had lain the golden egg-and to date, has not recovered ever since...

Since you last point is so convoluted, I will not really take your advise because I find the statements you made self-serving, patronizing and ahistorical. The are many wars that ongoing as we speak throughout Africa, and this is not new, and they change their context and thrust/purpose depending on the historical times. Our duty as African historians is to wade through the muck, and past jaundiced and biased falsified African Antiquated Historiography and also tell the present by presenting a correct and irrefutable body of evidence that point to the contrary. The Hub above aptly does that in its length and breadth, both figuratively and literally.

I do acknowledge you have some knowledge of 'Things African' up to a certain point, but beyond that, you still refuse nor are either acknowledging the context and content of this "Whole" Hub, but instead, your comments, as I have deconstructed them thus far, have nothing really to do with the Hub above, for in all seriousness, you will have to dispute everything I have said above, line by line, paragraph by paragraph, maybe we can begin talking about something.

The rest and what you have said, I have demonstrated is all huffing and puffing, but it leaves the whole Hub intact, standing and not disproven. To that end, I will simple say, Giltedged, I do appreciate your attempt, but it really falls short, and I would advise you re-read theHub and honestly point out as to what is your gripe about it about.. Repeating what I have already addressed, will not cut it. Thank you...

ixwa (author) on August 18, 2013:

Bakari Sidiki: Welcome to the Hub above, and am glad you read it, commented and asked some question. I will be brief.

I think the Hub answers your first question as you have read it in its entirety. Within the Hub I have described why it is that I have said the Moors Civilized Europe, because at the zenith of its power, opulence and grandeur, the was nothing in Europe that was close to what they were seeing in Spain ceated by the Moors from Africa; more so, what they were learning and the introduction of what we see as modern civilization, today, and its accoutrements, was made possible by Moors for Europe, which at that time were non-existet in the Europe pre- and post Dark Ages.. To answer your question, you need to re-read the Hub carefully, you will see my point above, and you will better understand the topic of the Hub.

There are many sources and I will dole out a few...

1. M.A. Martin: ""'Abd ar-Rahman bin Muhammad bin Khaldun," in John Hayes, ed., "the Genius of Arab Civilization, Cambridge: MIY Press, 1978

2. Anwar G Dejne,: "Muslim Spain: It History and Culture," 1974

3. Wayne B. Chandler: "The Moor: Light of Europe's Dark

Age," 1985

4. John M. Chernoff: "African Rhythm and African Sensibility-Aesthetics and Social Action in African Musical Idioms, " 1979

5. Thomas J. Abercombie: "When The Moors Ruled Spain," National Geographic, July 1988)Marguerite Brown: "Magnificent Muslims: The Story of Spain's Arab Centuries," 1981Norman Daniel: "Islam and the West: The making of an image," 1962

6. Leornard Harvey: "Islamic Spain," 1990-One of the focuses of this book is also being given to the Moorish Contribution to the making of Early Europe

7. W.E.B. DuBois: ""The World and Africa," 1972

8. George O. Cox: "African Empires and Civilizations," 1974

9. H.V. Livemore: "The Origins of Spain and Portugal," 1971

10. Basil DavidsonDavidson: "The Story Of Africa," 1984

I think this will maybe give you some ideas, and there is too much more from whence this comes from. Your third question is partly being address in the Hub and . For the part of Science, I have given some information above, and also for the music and instruments of the Moors, you can look-up Henry George Farmer's, "Historical Fact for the Arabian Musical Influence," 1970.

Studying African History from accredited Colleges would also help, for if you are taught only European History, you lack the other half, which is African history. In the Hub above I have listed in some depth, the achievements of the Moors and I think you can ask the Librarian to specifically point you to the books that will deal with the more specific achievement of the Moors. I have really attempted to do so, above, so that, I would like it if you could revisit the Hub above, and read it more closely and carefully, and in it you will find most of the questions you have asked in the the third part of your question being answered fully. I hope the bit of the referenced material I have given above will suffice for now, Bakari. Thanks and I would like to get a feedback from you as to whether I have somewhat answered your queries above.

giltedged on August 17, 2013:

I come from the Mediterranean. I have a villa in Spain where I spend about 5 months every year. I have been to Egypt a number of times(it's only 350 miles ) and in North Africa have been to Carthage, to the Berber strongholds in Kabilye and the Atlas , as well as the Riff Berber city of Al Hoceima. I speak fluently three Mediterranean languages and can understand Arabic and other languages.

I would like to make these points:

1. The Berbers are Africans . Africa is a Berber word after all. But if by African one understands they looked like Ugandans or Nigerians or Senegalese one couldn't be more wrong. They have more green-eyed ,red or brown-haired people than Spaniards. They look "White"

2. Similarly the broken statues of Carthaginians in Carthage , statues of Numidian kings and mosaics in Tunisia and Rome attest to the that fact that North Africans looked White

3. The language of the Moorish culture in Spain was Arabic which is not an African language. The writing on the walls of the Alhambra and the Mezquita in Cordoba , are in Arabic. Similarly the scientific work done by the Moors , often showing the translation from the Greek was in Arabic.

4. The Moors kicked out of Spain kept their own culture, customs, music, cuisine, architecture . They call themselves "andalusi" and as such have petitioned to be allowed to go back to Spain. Basically they look Spanish

5. But there WAS some connection between the Moors and Saharans or sub-Saharans. Gao, Djenné and Timbuktu amongst other towns in what is now Mali, had huge slave markets, where the Berbers and Arabs bought huge numbers of Black slaves . These were then entrusted to the Tuaregs to transport them across the desert. Obviously the Tuaregs often helped themselves resulting in many Tuaregs looking "black" For the last 1,000 years the generic word in Arabic for Black people has been "abid" or "slaves" People from Mali, Chad, Burkina Faso, Niger etc will tell you why Black people should not try to be Moors or North Africans but rather to condemn them.

Bakari Sidiki on August 16, 2013:

Hello, I have recently finished my History degree, and stumbled upon some the name "Moore" couple of days a go. It is baffling that in my 4 years of study also on the Dark ages, none have once mentioned this name. I have just finished your post, and it is absolutely mind blowing, thank you so much for the information.

For my further study i was hoping if you could provide me some more information or answer, or a direction i could continue my research in.

Question 1: When you say that the moors civilized Europe, what exactly do you mean with that? Are you saying that Europe had no science, philosophy,civilization? If so, can you provide me any sources i can look into this?

Question 2: Could you provide me any sources or information on the highly superior civilication of the moors compared to that of the europeans.

Question 3: Do you have any information on, which buildings, castles, instruments, science, or inventions from moors. I would love to look into the specific achievements of moors.

ixwa (author) on July 10, 2013:

John: thanks for responding to the Hub above to be honest with you, this is not a religious Hub, but a historical review of the role played by Africans in the civilizing of Spain. The discussion you are are having above, is not really appropriate for this Hub above, and as you have noted that you are deviating. I would advice you to write your own Hub/Blog about your assertions above. Otherwise, please note, I am not in the habit of responding to such statements such as you have used above, as I have not written about that. please, I would really much appreciate if you could have responded to the contents and context/thrust of the Hub above... Much respect, Man...

john on July 07, 2013:

I will like to add one thing which ma ya little bit deviate from the topic blacks were not only the first people in europe but were the first people to be created by Allah and are the first people to see paradise we learn that Allah created man out of black clay and he Allah taught him the names of everythingit is a bitter pill to swallow for many people but this is where it all began

ixwa (author) on June 01, 2013:

cortez: Wow! in a long time has anyone taken words out of my mind and mouth.. Thanks for the accolades, and i will work hard to expand the paper above and hope you come, after some time, to check it out.. Wow! again and I hope I reach many people, as you say as much as possible.. Thanks... Hotep!

cortez on June 01, 2013:

you are a beast.....(good thing) Ive been doing alot of research on black history myself and found your Hub informative........See the thing i like about you is that you give facts, facts, facts..............and you have the unique ability to respond to critics in a clear, intelectual level headed manner inwhich pisses the na sayers off even futher.......i love it......As a african american i think one of are biggest problems is learning how to express ourselves. keep doing what your doing brother we need more like you...and i wish there were some type of stage or forum were you can give this info to the masses.....hotep

ixwa (author) on May 13, 2013:

Marilyn: welcome to the Hub above and I appreciate your interesting comments. I find that interesting because from a historical perspective, the Hub helped in linking the past in order for you to validate your research. Your research , combined with history, and other disciplines will assist you in locating your lineage in the proper context of time and story. I say this because I find what you have said to be important, and I hope to learn more of your findings in the future. Thank you very much...

Marilyn on May 13, 2013:

I had my father's DNA analyzed and was shocked when the results showed, although he's of African descent, he shares DNA mostly with people in Spain and Portugal. I especially wanted to know my father's heritage because his father and many of the males on that side look to have not been mixed with other bloodlines. In 1982, I saw a man in Senegal who looked just like my paternal SC-born grandfather -- short, dark and hunchbacked -- so of course I thought the DNA would show Senegal or a nearby West African country. Your work has given me more insight and understanding into my probable heritage and history. I continue to work on my genealogy. Thank you and please keep sharing.

ixwa (author) on May 02, 2013:

Thank you very much Saleban for visiting and reading the Hub above, and I appreciate your kind and encouraging comments. I am also happy to learn that this article has given you something and you got a lot out of it. That is partly my aim, to help inform people about Africans and their history, and in the process hope to restore African History and Pride in its place and respectable commentary in the World and Human history.

Saleban on May 01, 2013:

You have done an excellent work. i am a Somalian and i wanna learn the hidden history of africa wich no one hears about. And i did thanks to you my friend :)

ixwa (author) on April 21, 2013:

lateefmazyck: Welcome to the Hub above and thank you for acknowledging, reading and kindly commenting on the History above. As long as we are able to tell the truth about African past and history, I believe it is the truth, and also a correction of the falsification of African history to as real close to the truth about that history as one can, is what I am attempting to do in the Hub above, and hope it get the real facts about what took place and what African people did with as much facts, truth and reality as possible, which has been my goal in the Hub above.. Thanks again...

lateefmazyck on April 21, 2013:

I'm proud in the way you handle delusion and denial from those that tried a presentation of lies.

ixwa (author) on April 19, 2013:

DebNBrooklyn: Thank you for the feedback and the accolades heaped on this Hub above. That was precisely why I wrote this, to debunk the Falsification of African history and push-back on the distortion of African people's image and story. If you can glean that from the Hub above, I will at least have achieved my intended goal. Thanks and I hope you can re-direct some people and students to read the Hub above.. I appreciate all you have said above, which is true and we need to work of rebuilding the history of African people and their reconstruct their image whenever the opportunity presents itself..

C'ma on April 19, 2013:


breden or sisteren, fortunately am at University now doing my degree, and am doing history importantly. I encountered and situation where a certain history was manipulated because of sexism and racism. This is always a case, we're fed what they want us to fed on. Anyway it's becoming late now 'cause people like Ixwa reveals the truth, however, media and the gatekeepers won't let many of us to get such information instead they'll keep on manipulating the truth so that we will always believe we never contributed nothing in the world history.

Arise black man, arise and denotes thyself..

C'ma on April 19, 2013:

I believe you're a brother sorry if you're a sister. Ok, getting to business, My comment may sound racist but I'll just say what I believe and think.

The thing is, I believe that our white-men brothers hated us a lot such that they want nothing from us but wanting to crush everything good about us.

Am at Africa, and at school we don't learn about us much but about Jan van Ribeecks and the rest. They teach us their languages such that if you fail their language you fail the whole grade. I do believe in your history research, Mutabaruka a Jamaican poet talks about this history, and that's where I started to believe that we blacks also have a history. I like the fact that civilization is from Africa, yes let me repeat this, 'civilization comes from Africa.

As am concluding my comment, some few days I listened to another black pastor who hates black people. This pastor says there's nothing good came from black people, He even blames Obama's mother to have sex with a stupid black man, and he continues saying that she was stupid and disgraceful. My point is that, we're made to believe that we're nothing but suckers. Ixwa continue dig and tell us the truth about us, this is the right time to know about us not these traitors. I apologize if this may sound racist and hatred speech.

I like listening to reggie 'cause it strengthens my hope a lot and hate to be brain washed as we most are.

Big up Ixwa... Arise and denotes thyself.

ixwa (author) on April 16, 2013:

Thank you very much DebNBrooklyn, and I somehow understood your first post and am not offended.. Thank you very much for the great accolades and I will be adding some more information to the Hub above and I appreciate your reading it too...

DebNBrooklyn on April 15, 2013:

I just realized my comments could be taken other than intended. I meant absolutely no offense. I am so appreciative of this hub and actually will be re-reading and re-reading this particular post that you've broken down excellently. One of my issues is that AAs continue to relate the history as though our first dealings with Europeans was them coming as slave traders when we had (at least our men did) , at the very least, hundreds of years of involvement with them prior to any of the modern triangular trades. So I don't know if we are suffering from cognitive dissidence or if the history just hasn't been told in proper chronology or what. That's why I'm grateful for your research and will be begging for more of the clarity that I know you can bring :)

ixwa (author) on April 15, 2013:

DebnBrooklyn: Thank you very much for visiting the Hub above, and I take note of your tongue-in-cheeck comment above, and take no offense, although I could elaborate much more than I am doing here. Anyway, I hope you come back and maybe I can fathom what you what you will be able to "..follow as much as you have wanted and still plan to, but will continue to check until Until you can put in more time"... as you have stated above.. And, I too, am looking forward to that and I also appreciate your comments and input, and will wait for your second time around...

ixwa (author) on April 14, 2013:

Thank you very much Olea, and am glad to meet the descendant of the moors, and also, am happy that you can use the work above as reference. I hope you find out ore about your ancestry which is a very powerful and rich one. Thank you again and I appreciate your input..

DebNBrooklyn on April 14, 2013:

Recently returned from West Africa. Wow! Africans "civilized" Europeans? Really? Can't tell from the neo-colonialism ever present today. Talk about biting the hand that fed. But then again, I do believe the Moors made a huge mistake in not, at least, bringing their own women with them.

I appreciate this page. Haven't been able to follow as much as I 've wanted to and still plan to but will continue to check in until I can put more time in. Thank you so much.

Olea on April 12, 2013:

Thank you for posting! I recently discovered I am of Spanish Moorish descent in 2010. I reflect on this page for reference in researching my ancestry.

ixwa (author) on April 03, 2013:

Thank you very much Castelle and I appreciate your warm and cordial comments above. It is true what you are saying, we need to read and write about and our own history since that was forbidden for us you wisely observe. Thanks that you could find some edification from reading the Hub above, and am grateful for that.

castelle on April 03, 2013:

Im very pleased to see my people learning about our history,, I honestly feel like its a war that has been waged on melanated people and until we realize what has been done and what they are still doing to us we will never get out of this state that we are in. They made it illegal for us to read back in the day for a reason. good stuff brother...... love

ixwa (author) on March 21, 2013:

Joe: Welcome to the Hub above and am glad you wee able to read it. Also, I am happy that I was able to contribute and add to your knowledge of African history. Our task as Africans writingAfrican history is even more challenging in the age of technological gadgets and Social networks. We only have to try and capture the essence of it to keep and set the record straight and hope that the future generations will have references should they want to know more about their history. So far, I appreciate your kind accolades and will try and improve on the article in due time. Thank you and am humbled...

joe masajjage on March 20, 2013:

Thanx alot for this great piece of work I've learnt about african history and were we have come from our contributions to the development of the world are un speakable its high time the world noted that because the gods are turning the pages once again our history is written on stones can never die out.