The Chinese Blitz
Well before London was subjected it, a Blitz devastated the south-western Chinese city of Chongqing, China’s temporary wartime capital. At roughly 12:45 pm, 36 Japanese bombers appeared in the sky and unleashed hell. In just one hour, much of the city had been totally obliterated, with most of the buildings, including residential districts bombed into hollow wrecks. When darkness fell, the blood curdling screams and moans of the wounded and dying filled the entire city.
However, the darkness brought no respite at all, as another 27 Japanese bombers deposited their deadly load on the already stricken city at roughly 5:15 pm. Those citizens lucky enough to find adequate shelter had to wait an agonising two hours before they could re-emerge. When they did, virtually the entire city had been flattened.
Sadly Chongqing became used to aerial devastation. Between May 1938 and August 1941, there would be some 218 separate raids using incendiary and fragmentation bombs, resulting in nearly 12,000 deaths, mostly of civilians. The air raid signals became an infamous part of everyday life. But why exactly were Chongqing and other Chinese cities subjected to such terrible devastation at the hands of the Japanese?
The Theatre Of War
Enter The Pillagers
Conflict In The East
Nearly two years earlier, war had broken out between the Chinese and Japanese. The confrontation would prove to be the first salvo of the Second World War in Asia. For years, there had been a simmering tension between the two great nations of the Far East. Chinese weakness had come into confrontation with an ever-stronger Japanese imperialism. As a result, from the late 19th century, more and more of China’s territory came under Japanese control. Taiwan fell in 1895, followed by parts of Manchuria in 1905, with the whole of the region succumbing after a lightning strike by the locally garrisoned Japanese in 1931.
By 1937, it became clear that the Japanese wanted to dominate north China. When fighting broke out on the 7th July between Japanese and Chinese troops at the Marco Polo Bridge near Beijing, Chiang Kai-shek, the head of the Nationalist party that ruled China, decided that the time for compromise was over. Within weeks, China and Japan were locked in full-scale conflict.
The fighting lasted more than eight years, and cost the lives of 14 million Chinese. Additionally, a further 80 to 100 million would become refugees, and the tentative modernisation of roads, railways and industry that had been under way in the 1920’s and 1930’s was utterly destroyed. Yet the war also marked a turning point for China’s standing in the world. From 1941, after Pearl Harbour, China would sit alongside two of the great Allied powers, the US and Britain in the fight against fascism in Asia.
The war would also change the face of Asia. It hastened the fall of the British and Japanese empires, and resulted in a vastly increased American and Soviet influence right across the continent. Scarcely imaginable atrocities were commonplace; from the Nanjing Massacre (widely known as the Rape of Nanjing, December 1937 to January 1938), when Japanese troops murdered and looted in the captured Chinese capital, to the terror bombings of cities such as the aforementioned Chongqing. Although China under Chiang survived until 1945, the eventual victor in China was Mao Zedong, whose Communist party came to victory in 1949 after a civil war fought across the already devastated Chinese landscape, created by years of bitter conflict with Japan.
Yet today, most of us in the West are hardly aware of China’s participation in the Second World War. We mostly tend think of China as a bit-part actor in a war which the US, the Soviets and Britain were much more important. But China was the first country to face an Axis power in 1937, two years before Britain and France, and four years before the United States. By holding down large numbers of Japanese troops (800,000 at their peak), China was a key part of the overall Allied strategy. If the Chinese Nationalists and Communists had not resisted Japan, all Asia might have fallen under Japanese control. The war marked a vital step in China’s progression from victim of global imperialism to its rise to the world stage as a sovereign power with wider regional and global responsibilities.
China’s leaders during the war with Japan had very different ideas of what the Chinese nation should be. At the heart of the conflict stood Chiang Kai-shek, the military leader who led China’s national government. Chiang was a ramrod-stiff figure, a believer in military force whose political pragmatism nonetheless meant that he never hesitated.
The Leading Men
The Forgotten Man
If Chiang is remembered at all, it’s as a corrupt and incompetent leader whose greed led his American allies to nickname him ‘Cash-my-Check.’ Yet it was Chiang who made the decision early on that China must resist Japan, if necessary alone.
Within weeks, Chiang had withdrawn his government to the far off inland city of Chongqing, which was relatively safe from Japanese invasion. He also made a powerful last stand at Shanghai, China’s greatest port city, pouring some half a million of his best troops into the battle, of whom 187,000 would be killed. The British writer WH Auden, who was there shortly afterward, described the devastated city as a ‘moonscape’ and a ‘charnel-house.’
Although the Chinese could not keep control of eastern China against a technologically superior enemy, Chiang made it very clear that the Japanese could only win China battle by battle and at an immense price in lives.
However, the price the Nationalists paid to maintain the war effort was also huge. Their regime became increasingly impoverished, corrupt and tyrannical as they struggled to maintain control. Two men sought to fill the gap in authority left by Chiang. In the north-west of China, Mao Zedong, Chiang’s wary ally against Japan, strengthened his grip on China’s Communist Party (CCP) and instigated the social reforms that would provide a blueprint for revolution across all China just a few years later.
Less well remembered is Wang Jingwei, a former rival of Chiang’s for the leadership of the Nationalist Party in the 1920’s. By 1938, Wang became convinced that China’s desperate and isolated position doomed it to defeat. Only collaboration with Japan could provide some of peace with dignity. In December 1938, he made a secret flight to Hanoi, from where he announced that he would co-operate with Tokyo, and in March 1940, he was installed as the president of a ‘reorganised’ Nationalist government in Nanjing. There was a terrible poignancy to this decision after the devastation of the city by the invading Japanese troops.
Until recently, accounts of the Second World War in the west routinely dismissed the contribution of Chiang and the Nationalists to the Allied war effort. On the Chinese mainland too, after Mao’s victory in 1949, the only politically acceptable viewpoint was that the Communist party had taken the leading role in winning the war against Japan. In recent years, the situation has changed radically. Chinese scholars have been given greater leeway to examine the war with more nuance, in part because politicians thought that being more favourable towards Chiang Kai-shek’s memory might aid reunification with Taiwan.
Revealing The Secrets Of Chiang Kai-shek
Taiwan: The Nationalists Last Refuge
There has also been a wealth of new materials made available to scholars both inside China and elsewhere. At the Hoover Institution, the diaries of Chiang Kai-shek have been opened to scholars and are forcing a reconsideration of the wartime leader’s decisions as more rational than had previously been acknowledged.
The war was a tragedy for China. Yet, somehow, the country resisted and survived to the end. In 1945, because the Americans and British had to acknowledge China’s wartime resistance to Japan, Chiang Kai-shek was able to finally shake off the colonial-era treaties that had bound his country in a submissive relationship with the west ever since the Opium Wars of the mid-19th century. Now China was invited to the top table of global diplomacy, the only non-western country to sit permanently in the new UN Security Council.
The legacy of that first Chinese rise in 1945 remains crucial in Asia today. At the end of the Second World War, China could have been brought into the world community, but the chance was lost as it remained isolated from the west after the communist revolution of 1949. Seven decades later, the rediscovery of China’s experience in the Second World War could be valuable both for China and for the west. For China, it would mean that the Chinese contribution to the Allied war effort would at last be acknowledged. And the shared history of China’s co-operation with the Allies at a time of peril could be used to shape a new partnership in the Asia-Pacific region.
© 2014 James Kenny
Graham Lee from Lancashire. England. on October 04, 2015:
hi James. Another first class informative hub. As always your research and presentation is first class. Your opening paragraph is excellent, that with your second paragraph was a first rate introduction. Tip Top.
MG Singh emge from Singapore on June 23, 2015:
A wonderful hub, but I have a lurking feeling that the importance given to China by the west at that time and after the war is the root cause of the insecurity the world faces from China now
jonnycomelately on April 23, 2014:
James, a beautifully written Hub.... thank you. I like your writing style, your attention to grammar and punctuation, research and presentation.
As an ex-pomme, now living in Australia, I feel the importance of Asio-Pacific history, somewhat ignored in the UK.
Today is ANZAC Day in Australia. As an ex-serving member of the Royal Navy, I think and feel deeply about the "world scene," and how its history is manipulated to suit ulterior motives.
Lance Olsen on April 21, 2014:
WW2 in China, a quarter of WW2, is a blank even to people who are very knowledgeable about WW2 in Europe and the Pacific.
That blank, and more importantly -- the difference it made to the other 3 quarters of WW2, is made clear in "Taierzhuang 1938 – Stalingrad 1942" (ISBN 9780983843597).
See excerpts at --
James Kenny (author) from Birmingham, England on February 12, 2014:
Indeed Ann. The things is the West has for too long believed that their way of life, their version history and so on is right beyond question. Perhaps in this century, we will see a fundamental paradigm shift. Thanks for stopping by as always.
Ann Carr from SW England on February 12, 2014:
You present your excellent research and knowledge to provide such a compelling read. This is a fascinating story, one I'd never heard of before. China certainly is beginning to play a larger role in world affairs and 'opening up' as you say. It adds a valuable, different viewpoint which is always a good thing; it means that the US, Europe and Russia have to take stock and realise that they don't actually rule the world with their arrogance. It's good that China is allowing a degree of historical information to 'filter through' to their scholars.
Great read! Ann
James Kenny (author) from Birmingham, England on February 08, 2014:
Thank you very much!!
FlourishAnyway from USA on February 07, 2014:
Wow! Such an impressive and well-researched hub. I knew nothing about this. I am emailing this to some history buffs I know.
James Kenny (author) from Birmingham, England on February 07, 2014:
I think you're right Mike, also bear in mind that German atrocities were very well documented, leading to an inevitable sense of guilt and shame in terms of population. Whereas with the Japanese, things were and still are kept very quiet. Thanks for the comment.
James Kenny (author) from Birmingham, England on February 07, 2014:
Thank you Eddy.
Eiddwen from Wales on February 07, 2014:
Interesting and so very useful.
Enjoy your day.
Mike Kelly from London on February 07, 2014:
Great hub James. I grew up in Australia but now I live in the UK and over here its as though the war in the Pacific never occurred. It's also interesting to note how different the occupations of Germany and Japan were after the war. The entire German state was destroyed whereas the Japanese emperor was even allowed to stay on in his role. Perhaps this dichotomy might go some way to explaining the difference in the levels of culpability accepted by Germany and Japan today.
James Kenny (author) from Birmingham, England on February 06, 2014:
Thanks David, in my view WW2 began in 1931 with the Japanese invasion of Manchuria and ended in 1945 with the Japanese surrendering to the Americans. Also, relations between China and Japan are still quite tense, mainly because the Japanese have yet to apologise for the Nanjing massacre.
David Hunt from Cedar Rapids, Iowa on February 06, 2014:
Great hub, JKenny. You're so right about our West-centric view of history. It may be only natural, but it's a viewpoint historians (especially amateur historians) really need to shake off if we're not to be stuck in a provincial fog. It's bad enough that the Soviet Union's contribution is considered by many (if at all) as a side-show when, in fact, most of the fighting was between the Germans and the Russians. And I'm just as guilty when it comes to China's role in the war. "Forgotten" is right-- or maybe "Not Even Known". You've planted the seed of curiosity about this aspect of WW2 in my mind at least.
James Kenny (author) from Birmingham, England on February 06, 2014:
It also goes a long to explaining why China is eager to assert itself as a world power now. Really, in the right hands, China could have been a world power long before any of the European nations.
Nathan Bernardo from California, United States of America on February 05, 2014:
That is very fascinating, I didn't know too much about China's involvement in World War Two. It's interesting too, how kind of shabbily they were treated both by the West and Japan around the late 1800s and early 1900s. Kind of makes me think that's why they got so hard-line after awhile. Seems there was a bit of effort on the part of the West to treat them a bit better after the War. Great history, very fascinating.