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The Black Man's Burden: A People's History of Not being Seen Nor Heard- Decapitation of Africa

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Many Black nations suffer from constant diseases outbreaks, need emergency food reliefs, suffer civil strife, genocide, chronic corruption, nonexistence infrastructure, constitution breaches, state failures; they suffered slavery, colonialism, neocol

Many Black nations suffer from constant diseases outbreaks, need emergency food reliefs, suffer civil strife, genocide, chronic corruption, nonexistence infrastructure, constitution breaches, state failures; they suffered slavery, colonialism, neocol

Decapitated African heads, clad in African cloth, bought from Dutch, who took the Batik from Indonesia, and the cloth making technique from Africa, and resold it to Africans

Decapitated African heads, clad in African cloth, bought from Dutch, who took the Batik from Indonesia, and the cloth making technique from Africa, and resold it to Africans

Black man's Burden

Black man's Burden

Emaciated boys and young men taken from mainland and sold in markets in the Arabian Peninsula. the Indian Ocean slave Trade was much older dating back to around second AD. Notice the Physical features of the Arabs

Emaciated boys and young men taken from mainland and sold in markets in the Arabian Peninsula. the Indian Ocean slave Trade was much older dating back to around second AD. Notice the Physical features of the Arabs

Indian Ocean: East African Slaves taken aboard the Dutch HMS from an Arab dhow, 1 November 1868

Indian Ocean: East African Slaves taken aboard the Dutch HMS from an Arab dhow, 1 November 1868

A detailed drawing of the slave ship Brookes, showing how 482 people were to be packed onto the decks and dates from 1789

A detailed drawing of the slave ship Brookes, showing how 482 people were to be packed onto the decks and dates from 1789

The carving and decapitation of Africa by the indigenous elite and capitalists

The carving and decapitation of Africa by the indigenous elite and capitalists

Captured women,men and children slaves

Captured women,men and children slaves

Slaves taken to the fork

Slaves taken to the fork

Captured Afraicans Liberated from a Slaving Vessel, East Africa, 1884

Captured Afraicans Liberated from a Slaving Vessel, East Africa, 1884

Carving up of Africa by the Europeans

Carving up of Africa by the Europeans

Slaves who were enslaved in East Africa by the rulers of Zanzibar

Slaves who were enslaved in East Africa by the rulers of Zanzibar

Apartheid housing for Africans - corrugated shacks and substandard building structures

Apartheid housing for Africans - corrugated shacks and substandard building structures

Zanzibar remembers the victims of slavery

Zanzibar remembers the victims of slavery

Multiple scars on the back of a slave from being whipped by his master

Multiple scars on the back of a slave from being whipped by his master

African World Revolution

African World Revolution

English colonial armies in their respective uniforms in celebration of the jubilee of Queen Victoria 21 June 883

English colonial armies in their respective uniforms in celebration of the jubilee of Queen Victoria 21 June 883

The scramble for Africa, in a cartoonish way, but accurate depiction of history and how and where the Europeans selected their cuts of the continent

The scramble for Africa, in a cartoonish way, but accurate depiction of history and how and where the Europeans selected their cuts of the continent

President Theodore  Roosevelt

President Theodore Roosevelt

Woodrow Wislonhttp://hubpages.com/u/2290547_50.jpg

Woodrow Wislonhttp://hubpages.com/u/2290547_50.jpg

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Harry Truman

Harry Truman

Dwight Eisenhower

Dwight Eisenhower

John F. Kennedy

John F. Kennedy

W.E.B. DuBois

W.E.B. DuBois

The European West and The Rest Or Us

The Making Of Imperial Race Relations and Perceptions

The Opening Salvo

"To manipulate history is to manipulate consciousness: to manipulate consciousness is to manipulate possibilities; and to manipulate possibilities is to manipulate power. Herein lies the mortal threat of Eurocentric Historiography to African existence. For what must be the form and functionality of African consciousness and behavior if they are derivative of an African history written by their oppressors?

"The history of the oppressed, as written by their oppressors, shapes the consciousness and psychology of both oppressed and oppressor. It helps to legitimate the oppressive system and to maintain the imbalance of power in favor of the oppressor. Eurocentric history writing is essentially an exercise in publishing apologetics for the European oppression of African people; often a gross and crude attempt to create and shape subordinate and inferior African consciousness and psychology.

"It seeks to impose a social/historical/cultural amnesic tax on the heads of African peoples and thereby rob them of the most valuable resources — their knowledge of truth and reality of self; their cultural heritage and identity, minds, bodies and souls; their wealth, lands, products of their labor and lives. Eurocentric historiography is the most formidable ally of White racism and imperialism.

"It's treacherous role in this regard must be explored and reversed by an African-centered historiography, written by African historians, and dedicated to historical accuracy and truth — historians who are unafraid to speak truth to power. The clarion call for the writing of a restorative African-centered historiography — a critical undertaking — is a call for the healing of the wounds of African peoples; for African unity; for the freeing and expansion of African consciousness; for the re-conquest of African minds, bodies, lands, resources, and African autonomy.

"Every Eurocentric social institution conspires with Eurocentric historiography to handcuff and incarcerate African consciousness, to justify and facilitate the subordination and exploitation of African peoples." (Wilson)

The whole African Continent and its people, including those in the Diaspora are in serious trouble. Writing this hub is one of the most sad and painful experiences one has to go through, and not many people want to read much stuff about Africa. I am going to write about those issues one never sees on the Media, or are stored in far flung history books few bother to read and know about. There are many issues which need to be put in correct historical perspective so that we can see the history of Africans, not through rose-colored glasses, but what it is hand what has happened to Africans, and why the present Africans are still persona non-grata in many institutions, countries and history.

The actual and present condition of Africa is one of deep trouble, worse than the one imposed during the colonial times. Deserts have grown wider every year; the broad Savannas have lost their communities and have lost all their means of existence; tropical forest have disappeared through feeding the export maw; cities that do not deserve to called such, have spawned large scale poverty and plagues never seen, known or dreamed-of in human history.

Harsh and evil dictatorships who have ruled and are still ruling over people who distrust and hate them, and for a good reason; and in the case of Africa, one dismal tyranny gives was for another more worse one; despair rots civil society, and the state becomes an enemy, and bandits flourish. Meanwhile, the Developed World, or the industrialized world continues to take its cuts of Africa's dwindling wealth and America and countries of Europe have expanded in value annually. While this is going on, multitudes are starved, suffer many diseases, and are troubled by internecine wars with millions murdered, annually.

Africa's crisis of society derives from many upsets and conflicts. These arise from the social and political institutions within which 'decolonized Africans' have lived and tried to survive. African nationalism produced nation-states of newly independent Africa after the fall of colonialism. These nation-state state began with liberation and looked like liberated states.

What was happening was that this was not Africa's restoration of its own history but a perpetuation of new and indirect rule to the history of Europe. The 50 or so African states were formed as though its peoples possessed no history of their own, and they became the 50 or so states or nation-states formed and governed from the models of Britain and France. African liberation led to African alienation.

European of the 19 century believed that Africans had never built nations but, at best, only tribes. Europeans have continued to affirm that "tribalism" has been, and is still now, Africa's bane. In a large and broad historical sense, tribalism has been used to express the solidarity and common loyalties of people who share among themselves a country and a culture. The reference to tribalism today flourishes on disorder, utterly destructive of civil society, flouts the rule of law and makes hay of morality.

The groups of clans found by early visiting Europeans in Africa was a good force, a force that created a civil society and it depended on laws and the rules of law. Around the 1950s, historians from many cultures and countries have been busily studying the reversal of civil society amongst the Africans, and they found that this was the undermined civil society that was brought down by decades of alien rule after the Imperialists partitioned Africa in the 1880s, and this left no valid and functioning African structures for the future.

This then left the British to declare that its mission in Africa was "nation building"; this meant that, according to the British, they had to this because it was beyond the capacity of Africans to do it themselves. The British then moved ahead and invented tribes for Africans to belong to, making some assurances that these nation-states, under the British, will gain possible independence in the future.

British Assault on Africans and the Rest of the World

When the British were creating Nation-states in Africa, there was no African model they knew of that they could refer to, so they built these states based on European models. These alien models failed to gain any legitimacy in the eyes of the majority of African citizens, and they failed to promote the interests of these citizens, except for a few privileged Africans.

When these Africans were faced with these fallible civil societies and states, a majority of them sought ways to defend themselves. They began to utilize "clientelism" or as the British had framed it, "tribalism," which reflects, in a significant way, the pathological characteristics of contemporary African State: of the postcolonial or the "neocolonial" nation-states which came down from decolonization. (Christopher Fyfe)

When the Scramble for Africa began, Western expansionism had become infectious. It was at this point that Egypt, a nominal part of the Turkish Ottoman Empire, wanted to carve-out an African Empire, and was looking at her backyard to colonize as did the European Empires. Egypt hired Werner Munzinger,who went ahead and in 1894 conquered Darfur, in Sudan, and in both 1875 and 1876 his expeditions into Ethiopia were defeated.

In the long run, this fiasco led Egypt to become occupied by the British in 1882. This was because Egypt had no industrial machinery and could not sustain herself, and depended on European financiers and soldiers, that in the end Egypt became bankrupt. The British occupied Egypt up until 1922.

Elsewhere in Africa, starting out from their toeholds of 1885, the industrial powers of Europe had by 1900 invaded, conquered and divided the entire continent, and this turned out to be the last free for all. Britain and France, who were the leading European powers of the day,obtained the lion's share of Africa, and Belgium, Germany and Italy obtained smaller amounts which corresponded to their levels of maturity of their industrial nationalisms.

Having gobbled-up Africa, the European powers turned their attention to East Asia, South West Asia and Eastern Europe. Their industrial appetites were focused on feudal China, the feudal Ottoman Empire and the feudal Hapsburg Austro-Hungarian empire. However, in these lands they were met with fierce resistance, and they could not succeed completely.

It was at this time that Russia was growing, under Czar Peter the Great, into a sprawling feudal, Euro-Asiatic land empire by the 1700s. Russia's reform of all her institutions and her subsequent beginning of industrialization had earned her a place in the powerful councils of western Europe. By the time Britain, France, Germany and Italy were preparing to carve-out China, Russia, China's neighbor to the North, was powerful enough to want a share for herself.

The Commodore Perry's mission in trying to force Japan to open herself to Western trade, failed and backfired. The autonomous reformation and industrialization known as the Meiji Restoration saved Japan from European conquest and colonization. Japan demonstrated this by wining the Russo-Japanese War in 1904-1905, and this proved her equality with the West, and then Japan joined in the Western scramble for China.

The United States had industrialized, and Japan was alerted of American gun-boat diplomacy, which provoked the Meiji reforms, the United States, with her post-Civil War industrial reform, made her expansionist mark by seizing Cuba, Puerto Rico and the Philippines form what was still left of the Spanish empire. While Western Europe was carving-up Africa, the industrial revolution in Japan, United States and imperial Russia moved their various industrial nationalisms to expansionist maturity.

As the 19 century came to a close, these nations joined the old pac as it converged upon east and South West Asia and eastern Europe. As the days of imperializing weaker countries drew to a close, western Europeans were quickly running out of easy prey. With World War I approaching, the world was no more the same. The year 1914 would come to be regarded as the year that ended an era, and the shot at Sarajevo as the shot that shattered a comfortable and familiar world of easy predatory expansion.

History less Africa

Slavery and Dehumanization

Had European interest and entry into Africa been delayed for fifty or one hundred years, there might not have been any slavery at all. Most of the people on earth would be influenced by this expansion, both for the good and for the bad. The influence on African people was most negative and most tragic because the Africans were the least prepared for the disruption it caused. Africa was having difficulties in developing states between Africans in the East and west coast in developing nation-states.

These differences were accentuated by the both the Europeans and Arab presence in Africa who played a very cruel game against the Africans. Both used different methods and different circumstances by pitying one group of Africans against one another and eventually ended up conquering both groups.

The concept of slavery was not new to Africa. Various African nations and societies had known a form of slavery by this time. This slavery consisted mainly of indentured servitude, the use of prisoners-of-war as slave labor, and small clans of African nations came under the protection of larger and more powerful nations.

These indentured slaves engaged in faring, cattle-raising and sometimes served as shock troops in the armies of dominant nations. Their families were not broken up and a large number of them were permitted to have their own farms and won cattle. This system of slavery in no way resembled the systems of chattel slavery developed by the Europeans in by capturing Africans and enslaving them in the New World.

The concept of slavery was not new to Europe either. Europeans had experienced a thousand years of internal slavery before the start of the Atlantic Slave Trade. The internal slavery in Europe was called 'Feudalism,' and this was slavery in its truest sense because most of the population did not have the right to determine their own destiny. The people were controlled and manipulated by the sloppy politics of Europe and the Catholic Church.

During this period there had been an internal struggle between European nations. Europe that had drained its treasuries and taxed its human resources in a romanticized charade called the Crusades. After the crusades, Europe experienced famine and a drain on its human resources caused by diseases they had never previously known, and which were out of control. When the Europeans awakened to the nightmare of their existence, they began to search for land, food new energy and new resources beyond their shores.

Their knowledge of Asia, and Africa was limited to legend and tall tales, but they suspected that there was a source of food and other resources beyond their shores. With improvement in their maritime skills, they set out to find this new food supply and whatever resources they could find. In their search for Asia and treasures they believed existed there, they found Africa.(Clarke)

The Arabs had built a number of large settlements along the coast of East Africa with the cooperation of the Africans. By the fifteenth century, the Arabs were turning on the former African friends and enslaving them. Later the Portuguese moving up the coast of East Africa from the South, met with the Arabs moving down the coast from the North and they combined their respective slave trades.

Large numbers of these slaves were shipped to Brazil, other parts of South America and the caribbean islands. In West Africa, the Portuguese and the Spaniards dominated the early slave trade. The Danish and the Swedish came late into the trade and remained mostly middle-men. England too, entered the slave trade late because of the difference of opinion with the Catholic Church. However, when England entered, late and furious, the sloppy business of slavery became a business in every sense of the word.

It now had procedures, territorial assignments(for slave-catching and kidnapping), and a code of conduct, (between slave-catchers and sellers). In East Africa, the last of the great trading states were in some kind of disarray. These states were used as trading posts by the Africans and the Arabs at a time when more friendly relationship existed between the two.

In the inner West Africa, sometimes referred to as the Western Sudan,a number of great sovereign states had flourished. The last of these states was Songhay. This state was invaded by a combination of European, Arab and Africa troops in 1591. The wreck and ruin wrought by this invasion facilitated the spread of the slave trade inland.

This period was also a turning point in the history of the world. Europe was emerging from the lethargy of the Middle Ages. It was regaining its confidence, manifesting a new form of nationalism and extending that nationalism into Racism. The Africans had goods and services that the Europeans needed, and the Europeans had the basic technology that the African needed.

Soon after the onslaught of the trading centers of the East African Coast, a systematic traffic in slaves in West Africa was inaugurated by European invader A few Africans were reduced to slavery and transported to Europe early in the 15 century; but the African Slave Trade did not begin in earnest until a century later. This evil enterprise was the outcome of the Spanish conquest of Mexico and Peru. The natives of Peru and Mexico were reduced to slave status and forced to work in the mines.

Their death rate was so high that their foreign masters were compelled to look elsewhere for slave labor; but the question then was where? Bartolomeo de las Casas, Bishop of Chiapa. in 1517 came to their rescue by proposing that each Spanish gentleman be permitted to import 12 African slaves. This advice was adopted by the king of Spain, who issued a patent to one of his friends, giving him the opportunity to import 4 thousand black slaves annually to Cuba, Hispaniola, Jamaica and Puerto Rico.

This patent was soon sold afterwards to Genoese merchants, who allotted a share of the business to the Portuguese; and in a short while, nearly all of the nations of Europe were participants in the traffic. By this time there was no limit on the number of slaves to be imported to the Americas. To quiet their consciences, the European enslavers of africans invoked the endorsement of the Christian Church.

Chapman Cohen States:

"The peculiar and damning fact in the history of slavery[as is pointed out by a careful student of instruction], so far as the Christian Church is concerned, is this.... It was created by Christians, it was continued by Christians, it was in some respects more barbarous than anything the world had yet seen, and its worst feature were to be witnessed in countries that were most ostentatious in their parade of Christianity.

"It is this that provides the final and unanswerable indictment of the Christian Church. ... It should be added that , according to Livingstone, slavery was unknown to the Africans until it was introduced by Christians - the Portuguese." Rev. Loring Brace stated that: "the guilt of this great crime rests on the Christian Church as an organized body."

The first African Slaves were shipped from the coast of Guinea to Haiti in 1510; and by 1576, there were 40,000 black slaves in Latin America. By the year 1800 this number had increased 776,000.In Jamaica, in 1767, there were 140,000 slaves; by 1800 the number had reached 300,000. In the new colony of Virginia, in 1620, a group of 20 slaves were imported; but by the year 1760, the number of slaves had reached 200,000.

It has been estimated that the total number of slaves imported into the English colonies of America was at the least 40 million. The mortality rate of this sordid traffic was high. Livingstone said that one out of every three Africans captured was killed in the raids or on the trip to the coast. All told, the slave trade was responsible for the death of over 100 million Africans. ... Over a hundred Million people dead because of slavery.... This was seriously an african People's Burden....(Clarke)

African people in the United State still have some misconceptions out their education and education in general. They are under the assumption that they were brought to the United States, or the so-called New World, to be elevated and educated,when in fact their sole purpose for being brought here was to become part of a massive slave labor force. Professor Inikore reexamines the situation and tells the story for its very beginning:

"The export slave trade from Africa began early in the Christian era with exports to the Muslim world through the Sahara, the Red Sea ad the Indian Ocean. By the 9 century AD, the annual volume of exports to the Muslim world had become quite significant, and continued so up to the 19 century. For the period up to the fifteenth century, the Muslim territories around the Mediterranean and beyond were the main slave importing regions of the world, fed by supplies from both Europe and from sub-Saharan Africa.

"In the fifteenth and sixteenth centuries, Western Europe, led by Portugal and Spain embarked upon voyages of exploration which gave rise to the establishment of European colonies in parts of the Atlantic territories and Indian ocean Islands. The great need for labor to exploit the resources of these colonies added a new sector to the export slave trade from Africa - the trans-Atlantic slave trade. The New branch quickly came to supersede the older one in annual export volume. For over four centuries, both sectors of the trade went on simultaneously, removing millions of person — men, women and children — from sub-Saharan Africa."

Pious Slave Catchers/Enslavers and God

The modern reader may find it hard to imagine the desolating impact of the slave trade on African society. An accurate picture of a raid by enslavers on a peaceful west coast village is given by a scholarly modern writer, as follows:

"From the black men digging in the village, a cry of sudden fear went up. Women shrieked and children scurried for hiding as if pursued by lions. one of the men, standing on a little eminence, pointed vehemently out to the sea, whose blue serenity was broken by approaching masts.

"Then all men, in terror, dashed to their huts, seized spears and any other weapons they could grab, and herding their families into the shelter of the surrounding forest, swore by all their 'tribal' go to sell themselves dearly.... They knew that other Africans, multitudes of them, had been captured; that villages had been left desolate and empty; that children had been orphaned, mothers wrested from their ons, sons from their mothers, husbands from their wives; and that the lives of whole communities had been devastated as by volcanic blasts. For these strangers from across the waters were pitiless hunters — hunters of men." Stanton A. Coblentz)

These kidnapers and enslavers of the fellow human beings were not inhibited by any pangs of conscience. From their own records we infer that they considered themselves to be very pious people. In the "Conquest and Discoveries of Henry the Navigator" we find the following discourse from a slave raider: "And at length Our Lord god, who rewardeth all that is well done, ordained that in return for the work of this day done by our men in His service they should have the victory and the reward of their fatigues and disbursements, in the taking of one hundred and sixty-five captives, men, women and children, without reckoning those that died or that killed themselves."(cited by Chapman Cohen)

The first Englishman of importance in the slave traffic was John Hawkings, who was later made a knight by Queen Elizabeth I and appointed Treasure of the Navy. Hawkings started out by assembling a fleet of five ships, which was soon augmented by three more, bringing the total to eight. Such a venture required capital, and such notables as Queen Elizabeth, the Earl of Pembroke, and the Earl of Leicester brought shares.

The flagship of the fleet was owned by the Queen, who obligingly lent it to Hawkings, and the name of this vessel was the good ship Jesus. Captain Hawkings was pious man, who admonished his sailors to "Serve God daily," and to "Love one another." On disembarking at Cape Verde, and finding the natives to be of "a nature very gentle and loving," Hawkings and his party proceeded to kidnap some of them.

Then after sailing along, "burning and spoiling" as he went, he visited settlements in Latin America, where he compelled the settlers to purchase slaves at his price. Sir John Hawkings was rewarded by a grateful sovereign by the granting of a coat of arms consisting of "a demi-Moor in his proper colors, bound and captive," as a fitting token of the new and lucrative trade which he had opened up to England.

The chief ports of the British slave trade were London, Bristol and Liverpool, with Liverpool carrying on the bulk of the business. In 1795, one-fourth of the ships sailing out of Liverpool were engaged in the slave trade. There was an increase from 15 vessels in 1730 to 136 in 1792. From January of 1806 to May 1807, 185 ships operating from Liverpool sailed from Africa with a total slave cargo of nearly 50,000. Mr. G. F. Cooke, a well-known tragedian, was hissed by certain members of the audience, while playing at a theater in Liverpool; and he retorted:

"I have not come here to be insulted by a set of wretches, of which every brick in your infernal town has been cemented by an African's blood." In 1781, a case was brought before an English court, in which the captain of a slave ship was charged with throwing 132 slaves overboard. The captain was not charged with murder; the court was only called-upon to decide whether the action of the captain was justified or not, and who should be responsible for the financial loss. [addition mine]

A well known English historian calls our attention to a case that shows the way in which the slave trade was conducted: "During the hearing of a case for insurance, the following facts were brought up. A slave ship with 442 slaves was bound from Guinea to Jamaica. sixty of the slaves died from overcrowding. The captain, being short of water, threw ninety-six more overboard. Afterwards, twenty-six more were drowned. Ten drowned themselves in despair. Yet the ship reached port before the water was exhausted."(Goldwin Smith)

As we have noted above, Christianity was the strongest bulwark of the slave system. The abolitionists of the 18th and 19th centuries were fought by the churches tooth and nail and the only Christian body that took a firm stand against slaveocracy was the Quakers. As late as the middle of the 19 century the Reverend James Wilson referred to slavery as:

"That gracious and benevolent system which elevates the heathen cannibal into the contented, civilized, intelligent domestics we see around us. Nay, more, into humbled, faithful and most joyous worshippers of the true and everlasting God. Bless God for such a system. We don't apologize for slavery, we glory in it, and no society shall exist within our borders that disqualifies or stigmatizes the slave trade."(report of the Anti-Slavery society)

We recall reading of a slave ship that landed on the West Coast of Africa and kidnapped a number of men, women and children; then headed for the New World with its human cargo. The captain of this vessel in checking his records was shocked to find that these hapless Africans had been kidnapped on a Sunday; so, the ship was turned around and headed back to the African coast. Here the captives were turned loose, and then recaptured on a weekday. In the eyes of the captain, God approved of his slaving activities, but frowned upon the desecration of the Sabbath day!

The Colonial Order and Africa's Disorder

How Europe and America Underdeveloped Africa

On how African Culture and society was destroyed by the Atlantic Slave Trade, here is a brilliant and concise summary by modern students of African Affairs: "Year after year, for more than three centuries, tens of thousands of African farmers and craftsmen were shipped away to work in the American plantations, mines and cities. with their labor, they created vast wealth and profits, but seldom for themselves and never for Africa. ... West Africa, like other parts of Africa, possessed its own craftsmen. Often they were highly skilled.

They produced goods that were sold from one end of West Africa to the other. But they produced them by old-fashioned hand-methods. Increasingly they had to face the competition of much cheaper goods made by machinery in Europe. Cheap and foreign goods, produced by europeans or Indians forced to work for very low wages, began to rein the market for cotton stuffs produced by self-employed and often prosperous African craftsmen.

Cheap European metalware, machine-made, competed with the handwork of african metal-smiths. Understandably, African craftsmen suffered from this rivalry. Yet, they were unable to meet it by going over to European factory methods, since they had neither the necessary money nor knowledge, while their way of life kept them faithful to traditional methods. So, the slave trade removed African labor from Africa, and did much to ruin the livelihood of African craftsmen and the continent of Africa(Davidson/Ajayi)

After the abolition of the slave trade, Africans were not given a chance to recover from centuries of bondage. Instead, the European powers got together, invaded the continent, and reduced the majority of African peoples to colonial subjects and status. This caused farther destruction of African culture and society. An example of this destruction is the case of King Leopold was given the Congo at the Berlin Conference of 1844.

He named the Congo the "Congo Free State," in 1885 and declared himself the sovereign of the realm Leopold issued decrees declaring all land, ivory and rubber as property of the state, namely, himself. When Leopold and his cronies said that the Governor-General of the so-called Congo Free State to "neglect no means of exploiting the forests." This was done with murderous cruelty; and Leopold derived a profit of about $1.5 million a year from the operation.

In the words of Lord Russell:

"The methods by which these vast profits were accumulated were very simple. Each village was ordered by the authorities to collect and bring in a certain amount of rubber- as much as the men could bring in by neglecting all work of their own maintenance. If they failed to bring the required amount, their women were taken away and kept as hostages in compounds or in the harems of government employees.

"If this method failed, native troops, many of them cannibals, were sent into the village to spread terror, if necessary by killing some of the men, but in order to prevent a waste of cartridges, they were ordered to bring one right hand for every cartridge used. If they missed, or used cartridges on game, they cut off the hands of living persons to make up the necessary number. The result was, according to the estimate of Sir. H. Johnston, which is confirmed from all other impartial sources, that in fifteen years the native population was reduced from about twenty million to scarcely nine million(Bertrand Russell)

The African peoples were vulnerable to conquest by European invaders on account of a profound difference in cultural outlook. Among Africans, society had a matriarchal basis. The cultivation of peaceful pursuits was a way of life; egalitarianism between sexes was practiced; the fundamental approach to life was hedonistic; religious beliefs were idealistic in form; and the concept of sin was conspicuous by its absence.

On the other hand, the Europeans developed a patriarchal society with an inferior status for women; the cultivation of warfare was adopted as their way of life. Associated with these traits are a materialistic type of religion and a highly developed sense of sin. The Europeans, being warlike, had a distinct advantage over the peaceful Africans. Another factor that aided the European whites in their destruction of African institutions was a strange mixture of race prejudice and Christian theology.

Now this type of propaganda and how it was put forth has been clearly presented by Chapman Cohen as follows:

"In nearly every case, the conquering white professes the Christian religion, and that nearly always the conquest of the colored people by whites is justified on the grounds that they are the carriers of purer religion and a higher civilization. In passing, it may be noted that the color bar is a question that belongs essentially to Christian times. No such distinction appears to have existed in antiquity.

"The Greek might take pride in his superior culture, the roman in his higher degree of salvation, or in the power of the empire to which he belonged, but I cannot recall any case in which the claim was made of superiority on account of a difference of color. To an ancient Greek or roman, nothing would have appeared stranger than to find a ruffianly,illiterate, uncultured white asserting superiority over another man,merely because of a difference in the color of his skin....

"It was left for this to develop under the influence of the Christian religion, and for Christians to provide a religious ground for the distinction in the curse that God had pronounced on the children of Ham. And, as the religious basis weakened, christianity effected here what is affected elsewhere. It provided a rationalization of the color bar on the grounds of here, a biological, there an ethical, elsewhere a cultural difference — all of which owed whatever force they possessed to the very distinction that had been created.

"The whites said it was impossible to mix with colored people on grounds of equality. Having said so, he proceeded to make it impossible. Having made it impossible, he produced the manufactured impossibility as proof of the soundness of the generalization." (Cohen)

When the first European navigators landed on the West African coast at Vaida, on the shore of the Gulf of Guinea, they found well-constructed streets and roads, lined for miles on one end by rows of shade trees; they travelled for days through vast fields producing valuable crops, in a country whose inhabitants wore magnificent costumes of the own manufacture. When they sailed further to the South in the Congo region, they found great states directed by powerful rulers.

The dwellers in this area were tastefully clad in fine silk and velvet; they were well endowed with industrial wealth and were thoroughly civilized. On the Eastern coast, similar condition of wealth, opulence and civility were found. After the onslaughts of slave trade and the invasions of the colonial era, this culture was reduced to a shambles; then the perpetrators of this destruction issued propaganda declaring that Africans had never been civilized. W. E. B. DuBois offered a moving account how African civilization was deliberately wrecked as follows:

There came into Africa an end of industry, especially industry guided by taste and art. Cheap European goods pushed inI and threw the native products out of competition. Rum and gin displaced milder native drinks. The beautiful patterned cloth,brocades and velvets disappeared before their cheap imitations in Manchester calicos. Methods of work were lost and forgotten. With all this went the fall and disruption of the family, the deliberate attack upon the ancient African clan by missionaries.

The invading investors who wanted cheap labor at the gold mines, the diamond mines, the copper and tim mines, the oil forests and cocoa fields, followed the missionaries. The authority of the family was broken up; the authority and tradition of the clan disappeared; the power of the chief was transmuted into the rule of the white district commissioner. the old religion was held up to ridicule, the old culture and ethical standards were degraded or disappeared, and gradually all over Africa spread the inferiority complex, the fear of color, the worship of white skin, the imitation of White ways of doing and thinking: whether good, bad or indifferent.

By the end of the 19 century, the degradation of Africa was complete as organized human means could make it. Chieftains, representing a thousand years of striving human culture, were decked out in second-hand London top hats, while Europe snickered." The African people fought valiantly to preserve their ancient ways, but the odds against them were overwhelming. DuBois continues: "In 906 when I penetrated the territory of Kassai Sankuru[states Frobenius],

I found still, villages of which the principal streets were bordered on each side for leagues, with rows of palm trees, and of which the houses decorated each one in charming fashion, were works of art as well.... Everywhere velvets and silken stuffs. Each cup, pipe, each spoon was an object of art perfectly worthy to be compared to the creation of the Roman European style. But all this was only the particularly tender and iridescent bloom which adorns a ripe and marvelous fruit; the gestures, the mannerism the moral code of the entire people, ... were imprinted with dignity and grace, ...

I know of no northern people who can be compared with these primitives for unity of civilization. And the peaceful beauty was carried away by the floods. It would be fitting to end this part of the history of the Burden Africans had to bear, by relating the story of Kwaku Ananse from West Africa. There was a missionary who came to Africa dressed in the usual attire,short pants and British colonialist hat; also, a bag of everything and they would look at him and spit. Then he went into the forest to pray to Jesus.

He said: "Jesus, I know you are still with me. You have not left me, you were just testing my faith." And just then a lion that somebody had shot cam limping by his side. He said: "Jesus, don't worry about it. I'll tell you, your words are always perfect. I didn't get the humans, but I got this lion. And so the lion sat down with his head and two front legs in the air, and said, while looking at the missionary, "Lord, I don't know what he's praying for, but thanking you , God, for my meal."

The Colonialist's Scramble for Africa and Indirect Rule

According to Lord Lugard, who became one of the most impressive of the British colonizing agents in Africa, the conqueror who brought both Uganda and Nigeria under British heels, and the Architect of Britain's staple colonial policy of "indirect rule, "the partition of Africa was, as we all recognize [italics mine], due primarily to the economic necessity of increasing the supplies of raw materials and food to meet the needs of the industrialized nations of Europe."

And so they called the Berlin conference in Germany in 1884, at that time, headed by Otto Van Bismarck and Kaiser Wilhem, attended by the same United States who apparently claim that they had nothing to do with the Scramble for Africa. At the Conference, as we have already noted above, they gave another 'Christian civilizer,' King Leopold II, the biggest and richest half of Africa, they thought at the time.

Leopold went all over Europe, England and the USA and as we have seen above, renamed the Congo to Congo Free State, and we have seen what he did to the inhabitants. There were African nations at the time of the Berlin Conference in 1884-1886. Haiti in the Caribbean Sea, Liberia in West Africa by 1847, and Ethiopia on the East side of Africa and all were not invited to the Berlin Conference. The Conference was strictly for England, twelve European states, along with the United States of America.

The USA of America sent representation in the Berlin Conference in the form of John A. Kasson, and Edwin H. Terrell at the Brussels Conference. Both of them carried the title of Minister Plenipotentiary and Ambassador extraordinaire, respectively. This whole saga has been told in the second volume of Sir Edward Hertslet's official documents on the Berlin Conference and Brussels Conference.

The scramble for Africa saw the destruction of Ancient Ghana, for which modern Ghana is named, in 1076 by the Almoravids, or otherwise Almahodes. The destruction of the University of Djenne, which was more than a thousand years before the university that was copied in Salamanca, Spain, Europe's first University. The University of Djenne was rebuilt as the University of Sankore, in the city of Tombut, which the French later called Timbuktu.

The scramble fro Africa was to continue even when the First World War, 1914-1918 AD, was over,in which Africans fought for their masters' freedom, i.e., France, England and everybody else but themselves. And when the Kaiser was defeated, nothing like "freedom" came for Africans. Africans again went to fight against Hitler to Free England, France and other nations of Europe. In this war, Africans were able to stop bombs from dropping on Coventry and elsewhere. But the "freedom" that the Europeans gained was not 'freedom' for Africans. That mad scramble for Africa went on until Dr. Kwame Nkrumah intervened in 1947 and fought the British until independence was won in 1957 for Ghana.

In May 1873, David Livingstone, the celebrated missionary-explorer, died at Ilala, in an unknown continent of Africa, and his sun dried body was buried in Westminster Abbey. From his brass-plated tomb under the nave, Livingstone sounded a call for a worldwide crusade to open up Africa.

A new slave trade was, arranged by the Swahili and Arabs in East Africa, was eating out the heart of the continent. Livingstone's answer was the '3 Cs': Commerce, Christianity and Civilization, a triple alliance of Mammon, God and social progress. Trade, not the gun, would liberate Africa. And it was in Protestant Britain, where God and Mammon seemed made for each other, that Livingstone's works struck the deepest chord. The '3 Cs' would redeem Africa.

That was not the way Africans perceived the Scramble. There was a fourth 'C' - Conquest - and it gradually predominated. At first European expedition were too weak to challenge African rulers. It was safe to use blank treaty forms, explained away by an empire-minded missionary, than to use live ammunition.

But paper imperialism proved to be inadequate, and when effective occupation became necessary to establish a good title, conflict became inevitable. The resistance came from Cetshwayo, King of the Zulus, King Lobengula of the Ndebele in today's Zimbabwe, the Emperor Menelik of Abyssinia, the Mahdi in Sudan, and the Boers in the Transvaal and Orange Free State.

Soon the Maxim - not trade or the cross — became the symbol of the age in Africa(although the Maxim was the superior part of the armament used to subjugate Africa, meanwhile, the magazine rifle did the job better). Most battles were one-sided(but not for the British against the boers, or the Italians against the Abyssinians). At Omdurman, British officers counted 10,000 Sudanese dead or dying in the sand. They made no effort to help the 15,000 wounded.

Atrocities were commonplace during the first phase of occupation by the Powers of Europe. When German brutality in South West Africa provoked a revolt by the Hereros, the German General, Lothar von Trotha,issued a Vernichtungbefehl ('extermination order') against the whole clan, women and children included. About 20,000 of them were driven away from the well to die in the Omaheke desert. Europe had imposed its will on Africa at the point of a gun. It was a lesson that would be remembered, fifty years later, when Africa came to win its Independence.

The Structur