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The Babylonian Empire

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I am a software engineer. I have been working with C++, MFC, and .net technologies for 15 years. I like video games and reading books.

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1. About the Empire

A 4,000-year-old village on the Euphrates River became the most spectacular metropolis in the Near East.

This was Babylon, and when Hammurabi (High King – Details in Next section) conquered Mesopotamia, he made it his capital. Babylonian fortunes grew and declined over ages when the city was conquered by many civilizations. These includes the Hittites, Kassites, and Assyrians. In 689 BC, the Assyrians devastated Babylon. In 612 BC, the Babylonians replied by defeating the Assyrians and once again making their city the biggest in the world. It is very interesting to know Babylonian Empire and how they were an example for today’s advanced world of living.

2. Babylonia's first empire

Hammurabi had conquered much of Mesopotamia by around I770 BC. The Mesopotamia is a historic region in the western front, today is known as Iraq. For the lifetime of the Babylonian Empire, Babylon was designated as the capital of the south.

Map of Babylonia

Map of Babylonia

3. King Hammurabi

High King Hammurabi (1792- 1750 BC), Mesopotamia's smartest monarch, followed historical custom by writing rules to safeguard his subjects. He had 282 statutes inscribed on a black stone pillar in cuneiform writing. The empire he established was destroyed in 1595 BC by Anatolian Hittites. The Kassites colonised Babylon from the mountains to the east.

High King Hammurabi

High King Hammurabi

4. The Kassites

The Kassites were an ancient Near Eastern nation that ruled Babylonia following the fall of the Old Babylonian Empire. Babylonia was controlled by the Kassites from l600 and 1190 BC. They are most famous for their boundary stones (kuddurus), which were used to mark property divides and to document land grants. These were frequently etched with divine symbols. Following the end of Kassite rule, Babylonia was engulfed in a protracted era of instability.

The kudurrus would contain symbolic images of the deities who guarded the pact, as well as the contract itself and the divine curse put on anybody who broke it. Certain kudurrus also included an image of the king who had given the land as a gift. Kudurrus were engraved on large stone slabs because they contained a lot of imagery as well as a contract.

kuddurus

kuddurus

5. Persian Rulers

Cyrus II of Persia, often known as Cyrus the Great. He was also called as ‘Cyrus the Elder’ and by the Greeks. Cyrus II was the first Persian empire. He conquered the Babylonian kingdom and included Mesopotamia into his empire in 539 BC.

Cambyses II ruled the Achaemenid Empire as the second King of Kings from 530 to 522 BC. Cassandane was his mother, and he was Cyrus the Great's son and heir. Prior to his ascent, Cambyses had previously served as governor of northern Babylonia under his father from April 539 BC until December 538 BC.

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Darius I, often known as Darius the Great, was the Achaemenid Empire's third King of Kings, reigning from 522 BCE to 486 BCE. He expanded the empire to its greatest extent.

6 Ruler Nebuchadnezzar

Following the defeat of the Assvrian invaders by the Babylonian ruler Nabopolasser, his son Nebuchadnezzar (0605—562 BC) rebuilt the ruined Babylon on a great scale. His achievements include the famous Ishtar Gate, as well as a temple and ziggurat tower. He also erected the Hanging Gardens for his homesick wife, according to Greek legend. These become one of the World's Seven Wonders.

Nebuchadnezzar invaded the kingdom of Judah in 596 BC. He returned ten years later, sacked Jerusalem, and led the Jews into exile in Babylon. They were not made available until the reign of Cyrus II.

Nebuchadnezzar

Nebuchadnezzar

7. Art & Literature of The Babylonian Empire

The Babylonian Empire was well-known around the world for its exceptional aesthetic and literary achievements. Cuneiform clay tablets were used to compose literature, including the legendary epic of Gilgamesh, a Sumerian hero. Among the aesthetic highlights were terracotta plaques, exquisite sculpture and glassware, and, most all, the expensive and beautiful gateway to the city - the Ishtar Gate and Processional Way.

One of Nebuchadnezzar's most remarkable buildings, the Ishtar Gate, was built of clay bricks that were shaped and gorgeously coated with colour.

Nebuchadnezzar's the Ishtar Gate

Nebuchadnezzar's the Ishtar Gate

8 Religious Belief

The Sumerians gave the Babylonians their religion. They believed that gods and spirits ruled over all aspects of life. Anu, the sky deity, gave birth to several of the most famous deities, including Ishtar, the goddess of love and battle, and Ea, the god of knowledge and fresh water. Ea was the father of Marduk, the Babylonian deity who created the universe and humanity by combining soil and divine blood.

9 Science & Technology of Babylonian Empire

Babylonia was well-known for producing scientists and thinkers. The motions of planets and stars were studied by Babylonian astrologers, who recorded their findings on clay tablets, and utilised them to forecast the future. Many manuscripts are adequate that current astronomers can use them to date ancient occurrences. The Babylonian method was utilised by the ancient Greeks and Romans to name planets.

References

https://www.worldhistory.org/Ishtar_Gate/

https://www.britishmuseum.org/

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kudurru

This content is accurate and true to the best of the author’s knowledge and is not meant to substitute for formal and individualized advice from a qualified professional.

© 2022 sirama

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