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The Architecture and Art of Egypt (Kemet): The Etching and Encryption of Dynasties I to IV

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Triad sculpture of Pharaoh Menkaure (4th Dynasty) with Hathor and the Seventeenth Nome of Upper Egypt.

Triad sculpture of Pharaoh Menkaure (4th Dynasty) with Hathor and the Seventeenth Nome of Upper Egypt.

Photography Poster: Menkaura reigned for 63 years during the IV Dynasty, which itself lasted for 135 years; the other two Pharaohs to reign during the IV Dynasty being Khufu and Khafra; the remaining Kings had reigns within Menkaura's reign.

Photography Poster: Menkaura reigned for 63 years during the IV Dynasty, which itself lasted for 135 years; the other two Pharaohs to reign during the IV Dynasty being Khufu and Khafra; the remaining Kings had reigns within Menkaura's reign.

Funerary Complex and the Step Pyramid of Zoser(Djoser) This was built by Vizier Imhotep and is the first Monumental structure to be constructed entirely of carved stone. #9 photo

Funerary Complex and the Step Pyramid of Zoser(Djoser) This was built by Vizier Imhotep and is the first Monumental structure to be constructed entirely of carved stone. #9 photo

Inside the Great Pyramid of Khufu.

Inside the Great Pyramid of Khufu.

A cross-section of the Pyramid showing the passageways.

A cross-section of the Pyramid showing the passageways.

The Great Pyramid instead of using a golden rectangle, the Pyramid uses what is called a Golden Triangle.

The Great Pyramid instead of using a golden rectangle, the Pyramid uses what is called a Golden Triangle.

In the tomb in Hierakonpolis is the detail of the watercolor copy. In the painting on one of the walls on the boats which are like those  on the pottery appear to belong to a funeral scene, by Gerzean craftsmen. #5 Photo

In the tomb in Hierakonpolis is the detail of the watercolor copy. In the painting on one of the walls on the boats which are like those on the pottery appear to belong to a funeral scene, by Gerzean craftsmen. #5 Photo

Decorated ware with boats with standards from the Gerzean period. These decorated vessels represent the beginning of painting in Egypt #1 photo

Decorated ware with boats with standards from the Gerzean period. These decorated vessels represent the beginning of painting in Egypt #1 photo

The Narmer Palette shown in its front and back part and King Narmer is shown bashing the heads of his victims, but at the same time, by him shown on the back part wearing the Crown of Upper Egypt(North) and his attendants line up with him; and the fr

The Narmer Palette shown in its front and back part and King Narmer is shown bashing the heads of his victims, but at the same time, by him shown on the back part wearing the Crown of Upper Egypt(North) and his attendants line up with him; and the fr

Negada I -Amratian vessel red topped  and polished  vessel decorated with cream-colored paint. #3 Photo

Negada I -Amratian vessel red topped and polished vessel decorated with cream-colored paint. #3 Photo

 Schist bowl from Saqqara, Dynasty I. The Ornamental tri-loved bowl has maximum diameter of 61 cm and a maximum height of 10 cm, and is on display at the Cairo Museum. #8 photo

Schist bowl from Saqqara, Dynasty I. The Ornamental tri-loved bowl has maximum diameter of 61 cm and a maximum height of 10 cm, and is on display at the Cairo Museum. #8 photo

An extraordinary ivory comb from Hierakonpolis, Egypt and can be seen in the new Nubia Museum in Aswan #4 Photo

An extraordinary ivory comb from Hierakonpolis, Egypt and can be seen in the new Nubia Museum in Aswan #4 Photo

An Ivory Comb from Naqada II. And it was at this time when there was a propensity for cultural-territorial encroachment and development at all levels of specialization (ideological, technological, artistic, political-organizative, commercial, spiritu

An Ivory Comb from Naqada II. And it was at this time when there was a propensity for cultural-territorial encroachment and development at all levels of specialization (ideological, technological, artistic, political-organizative, commercial, spiritu

A reconstruction of the Tomb of Merneith in Abydos

A reconstruction of the Tomb of Merneith in Abydos

The Step Pyramid Complex, Dynasty III.  #11 photo

The Step Pyramid Complex, Dynasty III. #11 photo

Statue of the Dynastry III King Zoser(Djoser)

Statue of the Dynastry III King Zoser(Djoser)

Vizier Imhotep, the World First Multi-Genius, Original Architect, Doctor for the Royalty, Deity of Medicine, and other accolades bestowed upon him too many to numerate.

Vizier Imhotep, the World First Multi-Genius, Original Architect, Doctor for the Royalty, Deity of Medicine, and other accolades bestowed upon him too many to numerate.

This 1.5 Kilometer wall enclosing the Pyramid has only one gate here. #6 photo

This 1.5 Kilometer wall enclosing the Pyramid has only one gate here. #6 photo

Tombs of the Nobles at Saqara #7 photo

Tombs of the Nobles at Saqara #7 photo

Cairo, False Door tight close-up #12 photo

Cairo, False Door tight close-up #12 photo

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Papyrus Columns, in Egypt #13 photo

Papyrus Columns, in Egypt #13 photo

Seated,  Statue of Khafre(Cephren), at Giza, Old Kingdom - Dynasty IV. He was the son of Khufu, builder of the Great Pyramid.

Seated, Statue of Khafre(Cephren), at Giza, Old Kingdom - Dynasty IV. He was the son of Khufu, builder of the Great Pyramid.

Khufu was the second Pharaoh of the Fourth Dynasty. He had nine sons and fifteen daughters, one of whom later became Queen Hetepheres II

Khufu was the second Pharaoh of the Fourth Dynasty. He had nine sons and fifteen daughters, one of whom later became Queen Hetepheres II

The Sphinx and the Great Pyramid in the Background. The Sphinx guards the Number One Ancient Wonder of the World.

The Sphinx and the Great Pyramid in the Background. The Sphinx guards the Number One Ancient Wonder of the World.

The Sphinx, close-up.

The Sphinx, close-up.

Fragmentary face of King Khafre. It displays - even at a small scale - the subtle and very sensitive modeling and finely finished surfaces of these masterpieces of Old King royal sculpture

Fragmentary face of King Khafre. It displays - even at a small scale - the subtle and very sensitive modeling and finely finished surfaces of these masterpieces of Old King royal sculpture

Pharaoh Khafre in black diorite with white veins, his head embraced by the hawk god Horus. It has a concentrated force and presence unequalled over 5,000 years. #16 photo

Pharaoh Khafre in black diorite with white veins, his head embraced by the hawk god Horus. It has a concentrated force and presence unequalled over 5,000 years. #16 photo

The Three pyramids of Giza, and these were commissioned by the pharaohs of the 4th Dynasty #14 photo

The Three pyramids of Giza, and these were commissioned by the pharaohs of the 4th Dynasty #14 photo

Men-Kau-Re stands on Hathor's left with his left foot advanced. His remarkably individualized facial feature - the prominent eyes, fleshy nose, moustache and protruding lower lip are all characteristics recognizable in other presentations of the King

Men-Kau-Re stands on Hathor's left with his left foot advanced. His remarkably individualized facial feature - the prominent eyes, fleshy nose, moustache and protruding lower lip are all characteristics recognizable in other presentations of the King

Menkaure: "Traditional Legend provides that Menkaure's reign was both benevolent and prosperous(Herodotus)

Menkaure: "Traditional Legend provides that Menkaure's reign was both benevolent and prosperous(Herodotus)

Bed with Headrest from the funerary furniture of queen Hetepheres, from the 4th Dynasty- the bed's length is 177 cm (5ft 9in). #17 photo

Bed with Headrest from the funerary furniture of queen Hetepheres, from the 4th Dynasty- the bed's length is 177 cm (5ft 9in). #17 photo

Gilded Queen's wooden armchair

Gilded Queen's wooden armchair

This is a rough estimation of how Cleopatra looked from the coin, artifact and wall depiction of her. She was of African ancestry.

This is a rough estimation of how Cleopatra looked from the coin, artifact and wall depiction of her. She was of African ancestry.

This is a limestone stela showing Cleopatra dressed in kilt and crown of a male king, but offering to Isis

This is a limestone stela showing Cleopatra dressed in kilt and crown of a male king, but offering to Isis

A joint team of Egyptian and Dominican Republic archeologists found a new head of Cleopatra in a temple near Alexandria in Egypt

A joint team of Egyptian and Dominican Republic archeologists found a new head of Cleopatra in a temple near Alexandria in Egypt

The Birth and Evolution of A Civilization and iIt's Dynasties

The Egyptian culture had attained a high level of development both in Art and Archeology in very ancient times.

"When the curtain goes up on the Nile Valley, at the dawn of history, an astounding scene is disclosed, and one as far from primitive as the Cafe de la Paix... The solid foundations of civilization was full blown, as it were, and in full working order.

"Yet what mighty structures were to be erected on those foundations as the next three millenniums were ticked off on time's clock! And be read in sequence and in detail as nowhere else on earth. Fifty-three centuries of unbroken history!"(George A. Dorsey)

Even in pre-Dynastic times, the Egyptians had reached a high level of civilization. They imported gold, silver, copper,tin,lead, iron, hematite, emery, galena, turquoise, obsidian, serpentine, lapis lazuli, coral and tortoise shell. With these materials, they produced beautiful and useful works of art, which were to call forth the wonder and admiration of later ages.

The Step Pyramid of Zoser(Djoser)

This was built in 2,800 BC by Vizier Imhotep, is the first monumental structure to be constructed entirely of carved stone. It comprises the vast funerary complex of Djoser, the second King of the 3rd Dynasty, that served ancient Memphis. Vizier Imhotep himself has been called Doctor, Sage, Architect, Astronomer, High Priest and so forth. James Henry Breasted says about Imhotep:

"Before taking leave of the Pyramid Age, we must say something about Imhotep, the architect who designed the first pyramid. This truly great man, besides being an Architect, was Vizier(Prime Minister) to King Zoser of the Third Dynasty(5343-5307 BC). In addition, he was an Astronomer and Magician, and held the post of Chief Physician to the Monarch. In those latter days he was deified and became the God of Medicine. Known to the Greeks as Imouthes, he was recognized as their own Aesculapius.

A Temple was erected for him near the Serapeum at Memphis, and at the present day every Museum possesses a bronze statuette or two of this apotheosized wise man, The Proverb Maker, Physician, Multi-linguist, Priest, Architect, for Zoser and Administrator.

The priest who conducted the rebuilding of the temple of Edfu under the Ptolemies, claimed to be reproducing the structure formerly erected there after the plans of Imhotep(James Henry Breasted). Imhotep was the World's first Genius. On the Step Pyramid, most of the outer casting is now gone. In some paces the core masonry has disappeared as well. (See #9 photo)

The Great Pyramid of Khufu

The Pyramids are very old, and yet it, in their own inimitable way(even in ruinous condition) it still evokes the same kind of awe and astonishment; standing, still exuding its particular brand of serenity and regalness, they still continue to serve as immobile and silent witness to the inevitable passage of time — sightless and silently, interminably tolling the hours, days, years, centuries, in witnessing man's tenuous mortality. Herodotus gave a classic account of the building of the Great Pyramid:

"The Pyramid itself was twenty years in the building. It is a square 800 feet each way. ... Built entirely of polished stone, fitted together with utmost care. The stones of which it is composed are none of them less than 30 feet in length.... After laying the stones for the base, they raised the remaining stones to their places by means of machines formed of short wooden planks. ...

"There is an inscription in Egyptian characters on the pyramid which records the quantity of radishes, onions and garlic consumed by the laborers who constructed it; and I perfectly well remember that the interpreter who read the writing to me said that the money expended in this way was about 1,600 talents of silver [A talent in ancient Egypt contained about 56 pounds of silver].

So the modern equivalent of 1,600 talents would be the value of 89,000 pounds of silver. If this then is a true record, what a vast sum must have been spent on the iron tolls used in the work, and on the feeding and clothing the laborers, considering the length of time the work lasted, which has already been stated, and the additional time-no mall space, I imagined — which must have been occupied by the quarrying of the stones, their conveyance, and the formation of the underground apartments."

The architecture of the pyramids served many purposes for religion,science and carving a civilization.

The French Astronomer, Abbe Thomas Moreaux points out that the Great Pyramid was used as a vault for the preservation of scientific instruments, and of standard weights and measures, rather than as a tomb. In place of a sarcophagus there is a granite slab, which evidently served as a standard of measure.

The length of this slab on one-ten-millionth of the distance of either pole from the center of the earth. This invariable distance, only recently determined by modern science of the poles to the center of the earth is 3,949.79 miles. From this measurement we are enabled to calculate the circumference of earth through the poles, which is 24,817.32 miles. Abbe Moreaux was convinced that this fact was known to the Egyptian Astronomers sic thousand years ago.

The Chaldeans were able students of astronomy, but their best estimate of the circumference was twenty-four thousand miles. The Egyptians has vast and extensive knowledge of astronomy and mathematics than we had hitherto been led to suspect. The height of the Great Pyramid is one-billionth of the distance form the earth to the sum a unit of measure not accurately established in modern times until 1874.

This pyramid is orientated within one-twelfth of a degree, a remarkably accurate precision; and that parallel of longitude passing through the pyramid traverses the most land and the least sea of any world — a fact which also applies to the parallel of latitude passing through the structure. In the North side of the Great Pyramid is the entrance o an underground tunnel, which is bored through 350 feet of solid rock, at an angle of 26 degrees 17 minutes to the horizon.

Alpha Draconis, or Thuban, was the pole star about 3440 BC, and for several hundred years before and after that date. At its lower culmination, when 3 degrees 42 minutes from the pole, this star shone down the underground tunnel. The ascending passage suns from the underground tunnel of the pyramid at the base-line level, and leads into the grand gallery.

Both the ascending passage and the grand gallery are inclined to the horizon at an angle of 26 degrees 17 minutes — the same as that of the underground tunnel, but in the opposite direction. These passages served two purposes; first, they enabled the builders to orient the base and the lower layers of the masonry up to the King's chamber in a true north and south line; and secondly, the passages were so arranged that the grand gallery could serve ad the equivalent of the equatorial telescope of a modern astronomical observatory.

Richard Proctor, and English Astronomer shows that the Great Pyramid was used as an Astronomical observatory. He pointed out that the sun's annual course round the celestial sphere could be determined much more exactly than by any gnomon by observations made from the great gallery.

The moon's monthly path and its changes could have been dealt with in the same effective way. The geometric paths, and thence the true paths of the planets, could be determined very accurately. The place of any visible star along the Zodiac, could be most accurately determined.(Samuel Laing)

The triangular area of each of the four sides of the pyramid equals the square of the vertical height, a fact mentioned by Herodotus. The added lengths of the four sides of the square base bear to vertical height the same proportion as that of the circumference of a circle to its radius.

This involves the mathematical constant [pi sign](3.1416), so important in modern mathematics. The length of each side of the square base is equal to 3651/4 sacred cubits, an equivalence of the length of the year in days. The two diagonals of the base contain 25,824 pyramid inches, a good approximation of the number of years in the precessional cycle(Prof. Piazzi Smyth)Dr. Alfred Russell Wallace summarized Smyth's careful measurements as follows:

1. That the pyramid is truly a square, the sides being equal and the angles right angles.

2. That the four sockets on which the first four stones of the corners rested are truly on the same level.

3 That the directions of the sides are accurately to the four cardinal points.

4. That the vertical height of the pyramid bears the same proportion to its circumference at the base as the ratio of a circle does to its circumference.

Now all these measures, angles, and levels are accurate, not as an ordinary surveyor or builder could make them, but to such a degree as requires the best modern instruments and all the refinements of geodetical science to discover any error at all. In addition to this we have the wonderful perfection of the workmanship in the interior of the pyramid, the passages and chambers being lined with huge blocks of stone fitted with the utmost accuracy, wile every part of the building exhibits the highest structural science.

The Great Pyramid is 756 feet long on each side, 450 high and is composed of 2,300,000 blocks of stones each averaging 2 1/2 tons in weight. No side is more than 8 inches different in length than another, and the whole structure is perfectly orientated to the point of the compass.

Until the 19 century, it was the tallest building in the world and, at the age of 4,500 years, it's the only one of the famous Seven Wonders of the Ancient world still standing. Another less known example of the golden ratio, is its use in the Great Pyramid . Instead of using a golden rectangle, the pyramid uses what is called a golden triangle.

The golden ratio is represented by the ratio of the length of the face(the slope height) inclined at an angle O to the ground, to half the length of the side of the square base, equivalent to the decant of the angle-it's an isosceles triangle with base angles equal 72 degrees and vertex equal to 36 degrees.

If you divide the long side by the short side you get Phi or the Golden Ratio. If you bisect one of the 72 angles, you get a smaller one exactly proportional to it. And next to it is an obtuse triangle with angles 36-36-108. You will have also created another golden section. This repeating number has been observed when scientist and mathematicians surveyed the lengths of the Great Pyramid.

The peculiarly Egyptian concern with the continuity of life after death in a form similar to that which had been experienced upon earth provided an element in the development of the arts which was not present to such an extent in to other countries.

While architecture, painting and sculpture ordinarily appeared in the service of a religious organization or to glorify the wealth and power of the rule, in Egypt we find emphasis laid upon providing a lasting dwelling-place for the dead, and recreation of life magically in pictures to serve him and lastly provision of a substitute in stone for his perishable body.

The Egyptian had an instinct to imitate closely what he saw about him. His natural disposition towards balance and proportion, combined with a long-maintained tradition or orderly craftsmanship, and this strike a sympathetic note for the Modern day civilizations(Heinrich Schafer)

The availability of working materials in one other factor that must be taken into consideration. The abundance of stone was an advantage for the Egyptians. The Egyptians learned how to cut block of building-stone, and for the sculptor, there was plentiful supply of rectangular blocks from the quarry for his work. This allowed for largeness of scale which is another outstanding feature of Egyptian work both in sculpture and architecture.

Predynastic Paintings, Art, and Architecture

Pre-Dynastic Period: (5500-3100 B.C.)In the Predynastic Period of Ancient Egypt, people evolved from hunters and gatherers using stone weapons into an organized central society. Animals such as donkeys were tamed and used in daily life, not just for food, Egyptians trace their roots to a place in Africa a lot of scholars of Egyptian history and African history, geneticists, along with other disciplines, have generally accepted the hypothesis of man's monogenetic and African origin.

More than 150,000 years ago, beings morphologically identical with the man of today were living in the region of the Great Lakes.

The Edfu Text is an important source document on the early history of the Nile Valley. According to this record, civilization was brought from the South, around the Great Lakes region of Central Africa. In fact, the indigenous Southern African origin of the ancient Egyptians, who were Africans,is based upon a historical message extracted from the highly respected "Papyrus of Hunefer" found in the Egyptians' and other Nile Valley indigenous Africans' "Book of the Coming Forth By Night," as follows:

"We come from the beginning of the Nile where the God Hapi dwells, at the foothills of the mountain of the moon" (Kilimanjaro - between Kenya and Tanzania, or Rwenzori in Uganda). By the time history evolved in the lands of Somali land or Punt, King Horus invaded Egypt and brought civilization.

This ruler, Horus, was later deified and became ultimately the Egyptian Christ. The followers of Horus were called "Black Smiths," because they possessed iron instruments. This early culture has been traced from Somalia and back to the regions and areas of the mountain of the moon, as attested to by the Edfu Text. This migration of Africans from the mountain of the moon began long before 7,000 BC

That these ancient Africans possessed tolls and weapons of iron should occasion no surprise; for the magazine, Natural History, Sept.-Oct 1932, there is an article by the Italian explorer, Nino del Grande, entitled "Prehistoric Iron Smelting in Africa" in which the author tell of his discovery of an iron-smelting furnace in Northern Rhodesia of an antiquity of from five to six thousand years or more(Northern Rhodesia is modern-day Zambia which has Lake Nyasa part of its land and water mass).

Art in the Nile Valley early 7th Millennium BC ...

At around 7,000 BC, the early inhabitants in the Nile Valley were beginning to emerge from the neolithic culture of the villages of Upper-Egypt and those of Merimdeh on the western edge of the Delta and on the shore of the lake of Fayum, which was in the escarpment of the western desert a little south of Cairo.

The early inhabitants of Kemet(kmt), began the task of controlling the flood waters of the Nile by building dykes and canals. Joint effort and co-operation of several communities came together and accepted an appointed leadership and the pre-eminence of it's local god… These districts coalesced and came to be known in later times as Nomes, each with its chief city.

The coalition of these districts resulted into the two Kingdoms of Upper and Lower Egypt, which was late in pre-dynastic times, and the uniting of the whole country at the beginning of the historical period. These periods fit into well defined groups; The Earlier Amratian of Upper Egypt, and the Gerzean; then there is also the material from Fayum in Northern Egypt called the Negada I for Amratian and Negada II for the Gerzean. Most material of the Gerzean was found in Northern Egypt, where it succeeds the Amratian.

While the same types of material like same types of pottery and other grave equipment that goes into Late Gerzean, showed the advance stages of development, which characterized a much more sophisticated culture like that of Dynasty I. The sculptured objects deposited into the ancient shrine of the Southern Capital at Hierakonpolis are commemorating victories of the south over the north, in a struggle which finally resulted in the subjugation of the Delta(north) which had been ruled from Buto.

The Predynastic Period was a time in which man was beginning to learn the use of coper for tools and weapons and was slowly working out of a Stone Age Culture. In the designs on pottery and figures modeled in mud and fashioned from bone and ivory, we see the beginnings of Egyptian art. The craftsman was also learning how to work stone in the form of vessels as well as palettes(See #1 and #2 photos) The crafts men were also learning how to work stone in the form of vessels as well as palettes for mixing the green paint, made from powdered malachite, which was smeared around the eyes.

The skill that they had gained was to form a basis for the Egyptian's extraordinary mastery of stone, along with the fine black-topped red pottery which had begun to appear in the Badarian times, and the Amratian pottery produced a red polished ware which was decorated in cream-colored paint(See #3 Photo)

The Hierakonpolis ivories present a considerable variety in pose, costume and headdress. However, it's not easy to distinguish an early group among the statuettes, since there is too general resemblance to the small carvings of stone, faience, and ivory objects found in the Abydos temple deposit, which indicate that they belonged to Dynasty I and II, and to ivory carvings found in the first Dynasty tombs at Helwan(Smith)

Egyptian Pictographic language

The Hierakonpolis painting does show an advance over the linear one-color treatment of the vases in that the red of the flesh and white of the skirts, and the black and white of the animals and boats are filled with solid color inside the red outlines. It is a development manifest on the relief of a series of palettes and mace heads which display much more accomplished drawings than paintings, but also show a progression towards orderly arrangement from the confusion of animals on the Oxford palette from the Hierakonpolis temple.(N. de G. Davies)

Pharaoh Min of the 4th Millennium

Egyptian Pharaoh Min who was know as the God of Fertility and Power and and purported to be the earliest Ruler of Egypt as told to Herodotus by the Egyptians themselves

Egyptian Pharaoh Min who was know as the God of Fertility and Power and and purported to be the earliest Ruler of Egypt as told to Herodotus by the Egyptians themselves

To this place from the sea[Now] is seven days passage up the river ... Later Solon, en route from Greece, happened upon an Egyptian priest of Sais. Trying to engage him in an historical debate the priest answered thus, "you Greeks are novices in all knowledge of antiquity. you are ignorant of what passed here or among yourselves in the days of old.The history of eight-thousand yeas is deposited in our sacred books, but we can ascend to much higher antiquity and tell you what our fathers have done for nine-thousand years. I mean their institutions, their laws, and their brilliant accomplishments."

According to Diodorus' sources, which corroborate those of Herodotus, the Ethiopians began to migrate into Egypt while some of it was still underwater: "They even allege that this country was originally under water, but that the Nile,dragging mud as it flowed from Ethiopia, and finally filled it in and made it a part of the continent." The is ample evidence that the Mediterranean still covered Egypt while the rest of the continent was already dry, and that the firs of the new Egyptians began to build as the water receded.

Herodotus, as we have already said, was told that the first ruler Min lived at this time and recorded his own conclusion: "I not only believe the people who gave me this account of Egypt, but my own conclusions strongly support what they said ... Now it is my belief that Egypt was originally an arm of the sea." In support he noted, "I have observed for myself that Egypt at the Nile Delta projects into the se beyond the coast on either side; I have seen sea shells on the hills and noticed how salt exudes from the soil to such an extent that it affects even the pyramids; I have noticed too, that the only hill where there is sand is the hill above Memphis, and that the soil of Egypt does not resemble that of the neighboring country of Arabia, or Libya, or even Syria ... but is black as one would expect of an alluvial soil ..."

More evidence comes from books of Thoth (Hermes). It describes one of the pyramids as standing upon the seas-shore, "the waves of which dashed in powerless fury against the base."

Modern scientists confirm these ancient writers. An archeologist, Dr. H. Getzinger produced startling photographs of one of the sides of the Great Pyramid revealing the incrustation of sea-shells at a certain level quite above the present level of the base of the structure. Dr. R. Rennel and American geologist substantiates this by saying, "The configuration and composition of the low lands of Egypt leave no room to doubt that the sea once washed the base of the rocks on which the the pyramids ... stand; the present base of which is reached by the inundations of the Nile at an elevation seventy or eighty feet above the mediterranean."

Apart from the question of Egypt's chronology, there remains the intriguing questions as to who were the Egyptians and from where did they originate? Having raised this question, it is better that we learn as to what the Egyptians have to say about their origins. I maintain, as the author of this article that the Egyptians are of Southern African origin. My reason for stating that the Egyptians originated from Southern Africa is covered in my Hub(soon to be published called "From Gondwanaland to Mzantsi: Untold Human Origins and African History Of African South African," wherein I trace the history and architecture of South Africa, which thus far has been hidden in plain-sight by theApartheid regime.

I was still stating my reasons for emphasizing the indigenous Southern origins os the Ancient Egyptians, who were equally "Africans," is based upon historical message extracted from the highly respected "Papyrus of Hunefer" found in the Egytpians' and other Nile Valley indigenous Africans' "Book of the Coming Forth by Day and Night"; thus, the Egyptian clearly state that:

"We came from the beginning of the Nile where the God Hapi dwells, at the foothills of the Mountain of the Moon." (Kilimanjaro-between Kenya and Tanzania, or Rwenzori in Uganda).

The Places/Areas Where the Egyptians say they have originated from

he Rwenzori Mountains are steep, rugged and very wet. They owe their origins to thrusting of the earth's crust associated with the creation of the Albertine Rift, which makes them geologically quite different to the other high East African mountains

he Rwenzori Mountains are steep, rugged and very wet. They owe their origins to thrusting of the earth's crust associated with the creation of the Albertine Rift, which makes them geologically quite different to the other high East African mountains

The foot of Mount Kilimanjaro in Kenya

The foot of Mount Kilimanjaro in Kenya

In reviewing Egypt's beginnings, we find an advanced civilization already intact from the earliest Dynasty. This fact has perplexed historians down through the ages. common sense dictates that if Egypt began fully mature, then its civilization must have originated elsewhere. "we find when we discover egypt in what we call the First Dynasty, under Menes, that it is at its absolute zenith of culture in Painting, Sculpture, Architecture and history

So that, after the first four Dynasties discussed in this Hub, that is, from this peak period, the Egyptian culture steadily declines. It is very much as if the Egyptians found themselves the inheritors of a great ready-made culture of which they could take advantage, which they could utilize and even to some degree emulate, but which they themselves did not create. But this is what this part of this Hub is going to attempt to debunk and tell a bit about the how the creation of the architecture, art, sculpture and pyramids that we see was done by the egyptians themselves.

enes made an impact on his civilization by unifying (uniting) Upper and Lower Egypt. He could have unified the two kingdoms by military force or being peaceful. How did he do this by being peaceful? It could have been marriage or administrative measu

enes made an impact on his civilization by unifying (uniting) Upper and Lower Egypt. He could have unified the two kingdoms by military force or being peaceful. How did he do this by being peaceful? It could have been marriage or administrative measu

The Anu

The Anu

Abbe Emile (1850-1916) is credited with the discovery of the Anu and their contribution to Egyptian civilization. It was Amelineau who designated the first African race to occupy Egypt as the Anu. He followed their path along the Nile, and revealed that they built cities of Esneh, Erment, Qouch, and Heliopolis. According to Amelineau, "All those cities have the characteristic symbol which serves to denote the name Anu.

&