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Terminologies of Zoogepgraphy, Paleaontology and Wildlife Management

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Terminologies

The various terms have been arranged in alphabetical order.

terminologies-of-zoogepgraphy-paleaontology-and-wildlife-management

1. Biodiversity

Bio means life and diversity means variety of life on the Earth. So, biodiversity means variability among living organisms from the terrestrial, marine and aquatic ecosystem. Over generations, all of the species that are currently alive today have evolved unique traits that make them distinct from other species. These differences are what scientists use to tell one species from another. Organisms that have evolved to be so different from one another that they can no longer reproduce with each other are considered different species. All organisms that can reproduce with each other fall into one species. Some areas in the world, such as areas of Mexico, South Africa, Brazil, the southwestern United States, and Madagascar, have more biodiversity than others. Areas with extremely high levels of biodiversity are called hotspots. Endemic species—species that are only found in one particular location—are also found in hotspots.

Meaning of biodiversity

Meaning of biodiversity

2. Carnivore

Carnivore are those animals that eats other animals or organisms. So, A carnivore is an organism that mostly eats meat, or the flesh of animals. Sometimes carnivores are called predators. Carnivores are a major part of the food web, a description of which organisms eat which other organisms in the wild. A carnivore is an organism that mostly eats meat, or the flesh of animals. Sometimes carnivores are called predators. Organisms that carnivores hunt are called prey.
Carnivores are a major part of the food web, a description of which organisms eat which other organisms in the wild. Organisms in the food web are grouped into trophic, or nutritional, levels. There are three trophic levels. Autotrophs, organisms that produce their own food, are the first trophic level. These include plants and algae. Herbivores, organisms that eat plants and other autotrophs, are the second trophic level. Carnivores are the third trophic level. Omnivores, creatures that consume a wide variety of organisms from plants to animals to fungi, are also the third trophic level.


example of carnivore

example of carnivore

3. Carrying Capacity

The maximum number of individuals of a given species that can be supported by a particular environment. Carrying capacity can be defined as a species' average population size in a particular habitat. The species population size is limited by environmental factors like adequate food, shelter, water, and mates.

carrying capacity

carrying capacity

4. Community

A group of population of plants or animals living together in a given place or area share some environment. Community, also called biological community, in biology, an interacting group of various species in a common location. For example, a forest of trees and undergrowth plants, inhabited by animals and rooted in soil containing bacteria and fungi, constitutes a biological community.

living in same area

living in same area

5. Ecosystem

A complex of plants, animals and micro organisms communities, and their non living environment interacting as a functional unit. A system that includes all living organisms (biotic factors) in an area as well as its physical environment (abiotic factors) functioning together as a unit. The biotic components include all the living things whereas the abiotic components are the non-living things. Thus, an ecosystem science definition entails an ecological community consisting of different populations of organisms that live together in a particular habitat.

ecosystem understanding

ecosystem understanding

6. Endangered Species

Plants and animals whose members are so few that it is at a risk of becoming extint. For Example: There are only 50 Javanese rhinoceroses alive today and if no conservation measures taken, these may probably become ectinct within next decade. An endangered species is a type of organism that is threatened by extinction. Species become endangered for two main reasons: loss of habitat and loss of genetic variation. Loss of Habitat. A loss of habitat can happen naturally. Dinosaurs, for instance, lost their habitat about 65 million years ago.

Endangered species

Endangered species

7. Endemic

It refers to a group of organisms local or native to a given area. So, An organism that is native only to a particular locality or region.

Any species whose range is restricted to a limited geographical area.

Special Protection Area (SPA) and Biodiversity Protocol 1997 1

Note: Within the International Finance Corporation's Performance Standard 6 (IFC PS6), an endemic species is one that has ≥ 95 percent of its global range inside the country or region of analysis.

terminologies-of-zoogepgraphy-paleaontology-and-wildlife-management

8. Exotic

Any plant or animal introduced from a foreign country. It is introduced into an area where it does not occur naturally. The introduction of the species may be deliberate or accidental. An exotic species, with respect to a particular ecosystem, refers to any species, including its larvae, seeds, eggs, spores, or other biological material capable of propagating the species, which is not native to that ecosystem

terminologies-of-zoogepgraphy-paleaontology-and-wildlife-management

9. Extinct

An animal or plant not in existence today. Extinction of a particular animal or plant species occurs when there are no more individuals of that species alive anywhere in the world - the species has died out. This is a natural part of evolution. But sometimes extinctions happen at a much faster rate than usual. For example, at the end of the Cretaceous period 65 million years ago, a mass extinction caused the death of many different types of animals and plants, including the dinosaurs. Today human intervention is also causing rapid extinction. Hunting, habitat destruction and the over exploitation of wildlife means that many different types of plants and animals are being pushed to the edge of extinction. It is this type of extinction, caused by humans, that we deal with in these pages.

terminologies-of-zoogepgraphy-paleaontology-and-wildlife-management

10. Feral

Domestic plants or animals which having escaped accidentally and now live wild under natural conditions. A feral organism is one that has escaped from domestication and returned, partly or wholly, to its wild state. Rarely will a local environment perfectly integrate the feral organism into its established ecology. Therefore, feral animals and plants can cause disruption or extinction to some indigenous species, affecting wilderness and other fragile ecosystems. The goat is one of the oldest domesticated creatures, yet readily goes feral and does quite well on its own.

terminologies-of-zoogepgraphy-paleaontology-and-wildlife-management

11. Game Reserve

An area where hunting and shooting of wild animals is regulated under a special permit. Such a permit specifies the number of animals that may be killed or captured, the area in which it can be done, and a time period for hunting. A game reserve is an area of land set aside for conservation purposes. Many game reserves are located in Africa. Most are open to the public, and tourists commonly take sightseeing safaris. A game reserve is more than just a piece of land or a place to keep wildlife; it is a place where ecosystems are protected and conservation is a key. Indigenous wildlife in its natural habitat makes for an ideal situation as this helps in providing an environment where growth in numbers at a natural rate can occur. Some game reserves boast more than one ecosystem, sometimes even five, ranging from valley bushveld, savannah grassland and fynbos to riverine forest and acacia woodland; this provides a dramatic improvement on the types of wildlife that are present and the numerous species of birds that thrive on in these environments.

terminologies-of-zoogepgraphy-paleaontology-and-wildlife-management

12. Habitat

It is the place or type of site where an organism or population naturally occurs. In simple words, habitat means the natural home of an organism. For a plant, a good habitat must provide the right combination of light, air, water, and soil. For example, the prickly pear cactus, which is adapted for sandy soil, dry climates, and bright sunlight, grows well in desert areas like the Sonoran Desert in northwest Mexico. It would not thrive in wet, cool areas with a large amount of overcast (shady) weather, like the U.S. states of Oregon or Washington.
The main components of a habitat are shelter, water, food, and space. A habitat is said to have a suitable arrangement when it has the correct amount of all of these. Sometimes, a habitat can meet some components of a suitable arrangement, but not all.

terminologies-of-zoogepgraphy-paleaontology-and-wildlife-management

13. Herbivore

An animals that eats only plant matter. Herbivores are animals whose primary food source is plant-based. Examples of herbivores, as shown in Figure 1 include vertebrates like deer, koalas, and some bird species, as well as invertebrates such as crickets and caterpillars. These animals have evolved digestive systems capable of handling large amounts of plant material. Herbivores can be further classified into frugivores (fruit-eaters), granivores (seed eaters), nectivores (nectar feeders), and folivores (leaf eaters).


terminologies-of-zoogepgraphy-paleaontology-and-wildlife-management

14. Home range

The area in which an animal generally travels and gathers its foods. The home range of an animal is the area where it spends its time; it is the region that encompasses all the resources the animal requires to survive and reproduce. Competition for food and other resources influences how animals are distributed in space. which is the area in which the animal normally lives. Home range is not associated with aggressive behaviour, although parts of the home range may be defended: in this case the defended part is the territory.

terminologies-of-zoogepgraphy-paleaontology-and-wildlife-management

15. I.u.c.n.

An abbrevation for International Union for Conservation of Natural resources. It was founded in 1948. The International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN) is a union with more than 1,000 government and NGO member organizations, and about 11,000 scientists from 160 countries. Its purpose is to preserve nature and, for this reason, it seeks to solve the most urgent environmental problems. The IUCN is composed by 6 commissions, among which there is the Species Survival Commission (SSC), which have more than 10,000 volunteer experts from all over the world, distributed in different working groups. The IUCN and the Species Survival Commission are the responsibles of elaborating the Red List.

terminologies-of-zoogepgraphy-paleaontology-and-wildlife-management

16. National Park

An area of outstanding scenic and natural interest where flora and fauna are protected and preserved in their natural state. These parks are open to public for recreation, research and education. First national park was established in Yellowstone Montana, U.S.A. in 1872. National park, an area set aside by a national government for the preservation of the natural environment. A national park may be set aside for purposes of public recreation and enjoyment or because of its historical or scientific interest. Most of the landscapes and their accompanying plants and animals in a national park are kept in their natural state. The national parks in the United States and Canada tend to focus on the protection of both land and wildlife, those in the United Kingdom focus mainly on the land, and those in Africa primarily exist to conserve animals.

yellowstone

yellowstone

17. Omnivore

An organism that eats both plant and animal tissue. Common Omnivores include bears, pigs, rats and humans. An omnivore is an organism that regularly consumes a variety of material, including plants, animals, algae, and fungi. They range in size from tiny insects like ants to large creatures like people. Human beings are omnivores. People eat plants, such as vegetables and fruits. We eat animals, cooked as meat or used for products like milk or eggs. We eat fungi such as mushrooms. We also eat algae, in the form of edible seaweeds such as nori, which are used to wrap sushi rolls, and sea lettuce, eaten in salads. Bears are omnivores, too. They eat plants like berries as well as mushroom fungi and animals like salmon or deer.

eating both plant and animal

eating both plant and animal

18. Population

A group of individuals of single species living together in a given area. A population is defined as a group of individuals of the same species living and interbreeding within a given area. Members of a population often rely on the same resources, are subject to similar environmental constraints, and depend on the availability of other members to persist over time. In statistics, a population is the entire pool from which a statistical sample is drawn. A population may refer to an entire group of people, objects, events, hospital visits, or measurements. A population can thus be said to be an aggregate observation of subjects grouped together by a common feature. Unlike a sample, when carrying out statistical analysis on a population, there are no standard errors to report that is, because such errors inform analysts using a sample how far their estimate may deviate from the true population value. But since you are working with the true population you already know the true value.

terminologies-of-zoogepgraphy-paleaontology-and-wildlife-management

19. Predator

A free-living animal that actually catches, kills, and devours individuals of other species. In ecology, predators are those animals that live by preying on other organisms for food. Many predators hunt and eventually kill their prey, such as lion preying upon a buffalo, mantis eating a bee, baleen whale consuming millions of microscopic planktons, etc.

terminologies-of-zoogepgraphy-paleaontology-and-wildlife-management

20. Prey

An animal that is killed and eaten by another animal. Prey is a term used to describe organisms that predators kill for food. Predator/prey relationships can be illustrated in a diagram called a food chain or food web. A food chain shows the linear flow of energy between organisms. A food web shows the energy flow through interconnected food chains in an ecosystem.

terminologies-of-zoogepgraphy-paleaontology-and-wildlife-management

21. Protected area

As defined by IUCN is an area of land or sea especially dedicated to the protection and maintenance of biological diversity, and of natural and associated cultural resources, and managed through legal or other effective measures. A protected area is a clearly defined geographical space, recognised, dedicated and managed, through legal or other effective means, to achieve the long term conservation of nature with associated ecosystem services and cultural values.

terminologies-of-zoogepgraphy-paleaontology-and-wildlife-management

22. Ramsar site

A wetland of international importance declared as conservation site. A Ramsar site is the place where wetlands are conserved. Ramsar convention is the international treaty signed in 1971, for the conservation and sustainable utilisation of wetlands. It was named after the city Ramsar in Iran where it was signed. Wetlands play crucial ecological, economic, cultural and scientific role.

terminologies-of-zoogepgraphy-paleaontology-and-wildlife-management

23. Red data book

This book is published by IUCN and is updated continually. It contains details of threatened species and the protected areas of the world. Established in 1964, The International Union for Conservation of Nature’s Red List of Threatened Species has evolved to become the world’s most comprehensive information source on the global conservation status of animal, fungi and plant species. The IUCN Red List is a critical indicator of the health of the world’s biodiversity. Far more than a list of species and their status, it is a powerful tool to inform and catalyze action for biodiversity conservation and policy change, critical to protecting the natural resources we need to survive. It provides information about range, population size, habitat and ecology, use and/or trade, threats, and conservation actions that will help inform necessary conservation decisions.

terminologies-of-zoogepgraphy-paleaontology-and-wildlife-management

24. Safari Park

A big park where animals are kept in the open for visitors to see from their cars as they drive around. A Safari Zoo is established since 1996-2001 for public entertainment / recreation within the suitable environmental location, just 13 KM away from motorway link Thokar Niazbaig, Multan Road, Lahore. The Safari Zoo is offering stunning display of the animals and birds unique in this region.

terminologies-of-zoogepgraphy-paleaontology-and-wildlife-management

25. Sunctuary

It is a place or area where wild indigenous animals are kept in protection so that they breed and are thus preserved. Shooting or hunting is prohibited in this area. A sanctuary is established by a notification and it can be abolished by a similar procedure. A wildlife sanctuary is an area where animal habitats and their surroundings are protected from any sort of disturbance. The capturing, killing and poaching of animals is strictly prohibited in these regions. They aim at providing a comfortable living to the animals. India has beautiful wildlife sanctuaries, with dense forests, large rivers, high and beautiful mountains.

sanctuary

sanctuary

26. Species

Taxonomic subdivision of a genus. Each species has recognizable features that distinguish it from other species. Members of one species generally will not interbreed with members of other species. A group of living organisms consisting of similar individuals capable of exchanging genes or interbreeding. The species is the principal natural taxonomic unit, ranking below a genus and denoted by a Latin binomial, e.g. Homo sapiens.

terminologies-of-zoogepgraphy-paleaontology-and-wildlife-management

27. Sustainable Use

It means the use of components of biological diversity in a way and at a rate that does not to the long term decline of biological diversity thereby maintaining its potential to meet the needs and aspirations of the present and future generations. Use of resources in a way and at a rate that does not lead to the long-term degradation of the environment, thereby maintaining its potential to meet the needs and aspirations of present and future generations.

terminologies-of-zoogepgraphy-paleaontology-and-wildlife-management

28. Territory

An area occupied by an animal or group of animals and defended against the members of the same species.

making territory

making territory

29. Wetland

As defined by IUCN, is an area of marsh, fen, peat land, swamp or water with natural or artificial, static or flowing, fresh or brackish or saltwater, including areas of marine water, the depth of which at low tide does not exceed six metres.

wetland

wetland

“If we can teach people about wildlife, they will be touched. Share my wildlife with me. Because humans want to save things that they love.”

30. W.p.a.

It is an abbrevation for world Pheasant/ Association.

31. W.w.f.

An abbrevation for World Wide Fund For Nature ( formerly known as the World Wildlife Fund). It was set up in 1961 and has its headquater in Switzerland.

terminologies-of-zoogepgraphy-paleaontology-and-wildlife-management

32. W.w.f-p

An abbrevation for World Wide Fund for Nature Pakistan. It was established in 1972, headquatered in Lahore.

33. Zoological Gardens

Institutions popularly known as Zoos, mostly located near the cities, that display live animals for public recreation, education and conservation. The animals are kept in cages, terraria or aquaria for show. The animals in zoo are not allowd to roam freely. The first modern zoological garden was established in Vienna in 1752, and opened to public in 1765.

zoological gardens

zoological gardens

34. Zoological Museum

A place where dead animals are displayed as stuffed preparations or mounted in jars with some preservative.

terminologies-of-zoogepgraphy-paleaontology-and-wildlife-management

35. Zoological Park

A place where different types of wild animals are kept in conditions, keeping in view their natural habitats and habits. They are laid out in open grasslands and forests covering vast areas so that animals can freely roam about and almost lead a normal life. The first zoological park, the Kruger Park was established in 1895 in South Africa. This park preserves 500 species of birds and 114 species of mammals. Not a single species has been lost from this park during last 100 years.

terminologies-of-zoogepgraphy-paleaontology-and-wildlife-management

This content is accurate and true to the best of the author’s knowledge and is not meant to substitute for formal and individualized advice from a qualified professional.

© 2021 AQSA SHAHID

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