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My Life As A Sped Teacher: A Fractions Unit Plan

I have been employed in the field of education for over 7 years and have dual licensure in special/general education as well as a BA.

Math CAN Be Fun!


Students in grades 1st through 4th must have a basic conceptual understanding of fractions and how they work. This unit plan/outline can help you plan your curriculum and instruction. This unit plan has standards, objectives, and mode of instruction laid out by lesson in a graph. I hope you find it helpful.

Unit Plan Overview

This is an overview of the plan's goal and standards. Goal: students will use multiple methods to represent equations involving fractions with like denominators.



Explain why a fraction a/b is equivalent to a fraction (n × a)/(n × b) by using visual fraction models, with attention to how the number and size of the parts differ even though the two fractions themselves are the same size. Use this principle to recognize and generate equivalent fractions.


Understand addition and subtraction of fractions as joining and separating parts referring to the same whole


Solve word problems involving addition and subtraction of fractions referring to the same whole and having like denominators, e.g., by using visual fraction models and equations to represent the problem.

Past, Present, and Future

Students should know the basic concept of fractions. These standards are prerequisite skills for future grades and essential math skills. Students must learn about fractions to be successful in school and in the real world. As a result of this unit, students will have greater confidence in their knowledge of fractions and be able to relate this abstract concept to real-world situations and problems.

Unit Plan






Students will demonstrate understanding of equivalent fractions by cutting two cookies of the same size into different numbers of pieces. Students will write fractions to represent their visual representations.

CCSS.MATH.CONTENT.4.NF.A. In this lesson the material covers equivalent fractions, a concept introduced in early elementary school.

• Instructional: Small groups Hands on Student-led •Assessment Observation Student work samples of cut cookies and corresponding written fractions.


Students will join and separate parts of a whole to represent a given fraction. Students will separate parts of a whole and represent the separations as fractions in writing.

CCSS.MATH.CONTENT.4.NF.B.3.A Students will learn how to visually add and subtract fractions within a whole.

• Instructional: Direct instruction Think pair share •Assessment Student work samples Observation.


Students will use manipulatives to represent word problem scenarios. Students will write equations with fractions to represent a word problem. Students will solve basic addition and subtraction problems that include fractions.

CCSS.MATH.CONTENT.4.NF.B.3.D Word problems with fractions are introduced.

• Instructional: Small group Individual • Assessment Student work samples Observation


Every class is different. As a result, you may need to make some alterations to the plan. Here are a few suggestions:

- Some students may not find basic addition and subtraction challenging enough. These students may become bored and cause disruptions within the classroom, causing distractions and unrest. To challenge students who have mastered basic addition and subtraction, a teacher could utilize a peer coaching or tutoring system where the more advanced students encourage and support those who need additional help. This will keep everyone stay busy and helps build a positive classroom environment. The advanced students gain skills in content-specific vocabulary and less advanced students both stay engaged and learn a new skill (National Association of Special Education Teachers, 2019).

Alterations Continued

- Direct instruction makes formative evaluation challenging.

Direct instruction leaves less time for formative assessment and observation (Markusic, 2008). The purpose of the first lesson is to build foundational skills and better understand what students do and do not know about fractions, addition, and subtraction. Presenting curriculum content would be easier. However, measuring student's understanding of the presented material is another matter entirely. How can a teacher know if their students have conceptualized a concept if they are not able to assess them? In addition, being stuck at the front of the room would mean that the teacher would not be able to effectively manage their classroom. A teacher needs to be able to monitor the classroom and observe student behaviors, especially in special education. This is not just a matter of learning, but a matter of safety. If a teacher is not able to pay attention to all corners of the room at the same time, who knows what students are up to…….

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Markusic, M. (2008). Teaching by Direct Instruction Pros and Cons. Retrieved from

National Association of Special Education Teachers. (2019). Peer Tutoring: A Strategy to Help Students with Learning Disabilities. Retrieved May 12, 2020, from

Routledge. (2010). Transfer: Fostering Generalization in Learning

Retrieved from:

This content is accurate and true to the best of the author’s knowledge and is not meant to substitute for formal and individualized advice from a qualified professional.

© 2020 Miranda Hoepfner

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