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Tarumanegara Kingdom

Tarumanegara Kingdom

4th to 7th century Tarumanagara, the earliest Hindu kingdom in Java.

4th to 7th century Tarumanagara, the earliest Hindu kingdom in Java.

Introduction

The second oldest Hindu kingdoms in Indonesia located in West Java. The Kingdom Namesd is Tarumanegara ( Some people Called it Tarumanagara ). In Chinese news, Tarumanegara was known as To-lo-mo.

The establishment of the Tarumanegara Kingdom was suspected was around the same time with Kutai Martadipura kingdom, namely the 4th century AD. Evidence that reinforces this opinion is the finding of seven royal inscriptions which written using Pallava letters and Sanskrit. In historical records and artifacts / relics that are found around the site, it can be concluded that the Tarumanegara kingdom is the Vishnu Hindu kingdom.

The Tarumanegara word itself comes from the word Taruma and Negara. Negara mean Kingdom or Country while Taruma is derived from the word Tarum, Tarum here to show the name of the Citarum River, the river that divides the region of West Java. At the mouth of the Citarum found the vast enshrinement. This enshrinement are Cibuaya enshrinement and Batujaya enshrinement. Those two enshrinement was thought to be relics of the Tarumanegara Kingdom civilization.

In this Article, i will try to cover any information about this kingdom. Here's the point that i will try to cover :

  1. Tarumanegara Kingdom Location
  2. Tarumanegara Kingdom Source of Information
  3. Tarumanegara Kingdom Politic
  4. Tarumanegara Kingdom Religious / Believe System
  5. Tarumanegara Kingdom Socio-Cultural Life
  6. Tarumanegara Kingdom Economic
  7. Tarumanegara Kingdom Based on Wangsakerta Manuscript
  8. Tarumanegara Kingdom a brief history
  9. Tarumanegara Kingdom list of king


Taruma Negara Kingdom Territory

4th to 7th century Tarumanagara, the earliest Hindu kingdom in Java.

4th to 7th century Tarumanagara, the earliest Hindu kingdom in Java.

1. Tarumanegara Kingdom Location

Based on the record from various inscriptions, Tarumanegara kingdom standing in West Java in the late 5th century. Tarumanegara region covers almost all of West Java, to be exact from Banten - Jakarta to Cirebon.

Tarumanegara Kingdom Prasasti Location

Tarumanegara Kingdom Prasasti Location

Tarumanegara Kingdom Prasasti Location

2. Tarumanegara Kingdom Source of Information

There are two things that can be used as source of information that proves the existence of Tarumanegara Kingdom, first is the news from a foreign nation, second is the seven inscription ( prasasti ) that tells the kingdoms Tarumanegara. Five inscription found in Bogor, one in Jakarta and one in Lebak Banten.

There are also Wangsakerta Manuscript, information about Tarumanagara Kingdom is quite clear explained in this manuscript. Unfortunately, this text invites debate and many experts doubt the history of these texts can be used as a reference of history.

News from foreign nations

Many news from foreign nations which revealed the existence of the Tarumanegara Kingdom. Among them are as below

  1. One of the news came from Claudius Ptolemy. In his book Geography, Ancient Greek geographer mentions that in the Far East there is a town named Argyre which is located at the end of Iabadium Island (Yavadvipa = Barley Island = Java). Argyre word means silver, peacock in question is allegedly located in the west of the island of Java.
  2. Other news coming from Gunawarman, a priest of Kashmir saying that the religious affiliations of the people of Taruma are Hindu.
  3. News Fa Hien ( Fa Xian ), in 414 CE in his book fo-kuo-chi (414 CE) tells that in Ye-po-ti ("Yavadvipa"), there are found few people who are Buddhists, which is a lot of people are Hindu and "dirty religion" (ie animism). Ye Po Ti have often considered for designation Yavadvipa, but there are other opinions that propose that Ye-Po-Ti is the Way Seputih in Lampung, in the the flow of way seputih (white river) found evidence of an ancient royal relics in the form of pyramid terraces and others that are now located in the archaeological park Pugung Raharjo, although this time Pugung Raharjo located tens of kilometers from the coast but not far from the site was found rocks that showed the area that was once the coastal area exactly narrative by Fa Xian.
  4. News from Sui Dynasty, relates that in 528 and 535 delegates have come from To-lo-mo ("Taruma") located in the south.
  5. News of the Tang Dynasty, also asserts that the 666 and 669 have come envoys of To-lo-mo.

Map of The World by Claudius Ptolemy

A printed map from the 15th century depicting Ptolemy's description of the Ecumene or  the inhabited universe, (1482, Johannes Schnitzer, engraver).

A printed map from the 15th century depicting Ptolemy's description of the Ecumene or the inhabited universe, (1482, Johannes Schnitzer, engraver).

List of 7 Tarumanegara Inscription ( Prastasi )

  1. Prasasti Kebun Coffee, made around 400 AD (H Kern 1917), found in coffee plantations owned by Jonathan Rig, Ciampea, Bogor
  2. Prasasti Tugu, found in Kampung Batutumbu, Tugu Village, District Tarumajaya, Bekasi, now housed in museums in Jakarta.
  3. Prasasti Cidanghiyang or Prasasti Munjul, found in streams of the flowing Cidanghiang river in Lebak village, District Munjul, Pandeglang, Banten.
  4. Prasasti Ciaruteun, Ciampea, Bogor
  5. Prasasti Muara Cianten, Ciampea, Bogor
  6. Prasasti Jambu, Nanggung, Bogor
  7. Prasasti Pasir Awi, Coventry, Bogor


Land where the inscription was found was shaped like a low hills with flat road and flanked by three river: Cisadane, Cianten and Ciaruteun. Until the 19th century, this place was called Pasir Muara. it was a part of private land in Ciampea. Now it was part of Cibungbulang District.

Kampung Muara is the place of Prasasti Ciaruteun and Prasasti Telapak Gajah found, first is was a "river port city" located on the edge of the bookie Cisadane meeting with Cianten. Until the 19th century the river path is still used to transport coffee plantation. Now bamboo is still used by merchants to transport their wares to the downstream area.

This Inscription using the ancient Sundanese script, which was originally an adaptation of the Advanced Pallava script type, which refers to the Cambodian alphabet models with some characteristics that are still attached.

A. Prasasti Kebon Kopi

Prasasti Kebun Kopi was found in Kampung Muara Hilir, Subdistrict Cibungbulang. There are two painted elephant footprints identified with Airawata elephant (owned by Lord Vishnu )

According to Hindu mythology, Airawata is the name of the elephant ride by Batara Indra the god of war and pengawa Guntur. According to the Parawatwan i Bhumi Jawadwipa parwa I, sarga 1, Purnawarman war elephant was named Airawata, the same name of Batara Indra elephant. Also reported that Tarumanagara kingdom flag bearing the image of a lotus flower arrangements on the head of an elephant. Similarly Purnawarman carved crown worn pair of bees.

Flag carving and a pair of bee that clearly described on Prasasti Ciaruteun that has provoked debate among experts engrossing history of the meaning and value that it have. Crowned with lotus carved on elephant head is believed by experts as "letters curls" that still cannot be understand about how to read, even until this article is written.

Similarly, a pair of carved sign on the front foot there make many people guessed about the meaning of it. Some guess it as a symbol of a spider, or a combination of solar twins solar-moon (sun and moon). Information from the Wangsekerta Manuscript, Taruma flag and carving a pair of "Bhramara" (bees) is a symbol on Purnawarman crown.

Teks:
~ ~ jayavisalasya Tarumendrasya hastinah ~ ~
Airwavatabhasya vibhatidam ~ padadvayam

Scroll to Continue

Translation:
"In here drawn imprint pair of feet ... who like Airawata, elephant own by the great rulers of Taruma... and (?) in Glory"

Prasasti Kebon Kopi Picture

Prasasti Kebonkopi in Museum Sejarah Jakarta, Indonesia

Prasasti Kebonkopi in Museum Sejarah Jakarta, Indonesia

B. Prasasti Tugu

The most important inscription from 7 Prasasti Tarumanegara is the inscription that was found in Cilincing, Jakarta. Compared to the other Tarumanagara inscriptions, Prasasti Tugu is the longest inscription issued by Sri Maharaja Purnawarman.

This Inscription contains, among others, about digging a canal along the 6,112 spears (11 km), named Gomati. The job was done on the 22th year Purnawarman rules and completed within 21 days. The inscription also mentions the excavation of Candrabhaga River or River Bekasi now. Excavation rivers are done to avoid natural disasters of flooding that often occurs during the reign of Purnawarman, and drought in the dry season.

Tugu inscription is unique ornaments which are carved on the yag rod end equipped with some sort of trident. The image sticks carved upright extends down as serves as dividing line between the beginning and the end sentences of this inscriptions.

Teks:

pura rajadhirajena guruna pinabahuna khata khyatam purim prapya candrabhagarnnavam yayau//
pravarddhamane dvavingsad vatsare sri gunau jasa narendradhvajabhutena srimata purnavarmmana//
prarabhya phalguna mase khata krsnastami tithau caitra sukla trayodasyam dinais siddhaikavingsakaih
ayata satsahasrena dhanusamsasatena ca dvavingsena nadi ramya gomati nirmalodaka//
pitamahasya rajarser vvidaryya sibiravanim brahmanair ggo sahasrena prayati krtadaksina//

Translation:

"Once the river is named Candrabhaga been dug by the noble emperor who have strong arms named Purnnawarmman, to stream the water into the sea, after the river (river channel) reach the famed royal palace. In his 22th year holding the throne, His Majesty King Purnnawarmman dazzling brilliance and wisdom as well as a banner of all the kings, (it is now), he also decree to dig river (river channels) which has a scenic clear water, Gomati is the name , after the riever (river channel) flows across in the home of our Highness the reverend Nenekda (King Purnnawarmman). The work began on a good date, the 8th of the dark half-moon Caitra, it only takes 21 days, whereas the excavated channel length 6122 bow. Congratulations was given to him by the Brahmins who bring 1000 head of cattle as a gift "

Prasasti Tugu Picture

Prasasti Tugu in Museum Nasional, Indonesia.

Prasasti Tugu in Museum Nasional, Indonesia.

C. Prasasti Cidanghiyang / Prasasti Munjul / Prasasti Lebak

Prasasti Cidanghiyang / Prasasti Munjul / Prasasti Lebak was found in the flowing stream of river Cidanghiang in Lebak village, District Munjul, Pandeglang, Banten, Indonesia. Contents of this inscription is praise to King Purnawarman.

Teks

Vikranto ‘yam vanipateh/prabhuh satya parakramah narendra ddhvajabhutena/ srimatah purnnawvarmanah

translation

"This is the (sign) of heroism, greatness, and true courage of the king of the world, that His Majesty King Purnawarman is a banner of all kings."

Prasasti Cidanghiyang / Prasasti Munjul / Prasasti Lebak Picture

Prasasti Munjul Picture

Prasasti Munjul Picture

D. Prasasti Ciaruteun / Ciampea

Prasasti Ciaruteun are found in Ciaruteun regions, Bogor, West Jawa, Indonesia. Place of the discovery of this Prasasti is a hill which flanked by three rivers: Ci Sadane, Ci Anten and Ci Aruteun. Until 19 th century, this place still called as Pasir Muara, which include as a private ground in Ciampea, (now it was a part of Cibungbulang). According to Pustaka Rajya Rajya i Bhumi Nusantara parwa 2, sarga 3, pages 161 is mentioned that Tarumanagara possessed Rajamandala (region subordinate) which named after "Pasir Muhara".

Prasasti Ciaruteun was reported by leader of Bataaviasch Genootschap van Kunsten en Wetenschappen (now Museum National) in the year 1863. Due to big flood in 1893 this inscription was moved a few meter downstream and part of the stone which have text turn upside down. Later in 1903 this inscription was moved into it's original place. On year 1981 Directorate of Protection and Fostering Relics History and Antiquities Ministry with Education and Culture Dept. lift and moved the stone inscriptions in order to avoid the flood to move the stone again.

Within Inscription / Prasasti Ciaruteun, there are a sculptured of tread foot which testified that the pair of tread the foot that are carved belongs to Raja Tarumanegara which looks like tread foot of Vishnu.

Prasasti Ciaruteun / Ciampea Text:

vikkrantasyavanipat eh
srimatah purnnavarmmanah
tarumanagarendrasya
visnoriva padadvayam

Translation :

"This is the (sign) of a pair of feet which feet such as Visnhu feet (maintainer) is a palm of noble the Purnnawamman, king of Taruma, king which gallant and brave in the the world".

This foot symbolizes the king's power top of the regions where the discovery of those inscriptions are. This case means that Purnawarman who have visnhu role then it regarded that Purnawamman is ruler and protector of the people.

Prasasti Ciaruteun / Ciampea Picture

The Sunda Kingdom of West Java From Tarumanagara to Pakuan Pajajaran with the Royal Center of Bogor.

The Sunda Kingdom of West Java From Tarumanagara to Pakuan Pajajaran with the Royal Center of Bogor.

E. Prasasti Muara Cianten

Prasasti Muara Cianten located on the edge of the Cisadane (river) near Muara Cianten formerly known as the Prasasti Pasir Muara (Pasiran Muara) because it is part of the Pasirmuara village area . This inscription was first discovered by N.W. Hoepermans in 1864.

Prasasti Muara Cianten carved on a large and natural stone with the size of 2.70 x 1:40 x 140 m3. This historical heritage called inscription because there are scratches but is sculptured images tendrils (helical) or curls coming out of the bulb.

Text:

ini sabdakalanda rakryan juru panga-mbat i kawihaji panyca pasagi marsa-n desa barpulihkan haji su-nda

Translation by Bosch:

Ini tanda ucapan Rakryan Juru Pengambat dalam tahun (Saka) kawihaji (8) panca (5) pasagi (4), pemerintahan begara dikembalikan kepada raja Sunda.

This is marks of Rakryan Juru Pengambat speech in Year (Saka) kawihaji (8) five (5) pasagi (4), the Begara government returned to the king of Sunda .

Because the numbers use "Sangkala" pattern who follow the rules of "angkanam vamato gatih" (numbers read from right), the inscription was made in the year 458 Saka or 536 AD.

Prasasti Muara Cianten Picture

F. Prasasti Jambu

Prasasti Jambu located on top of Koleangkak Hill, Pasir Gintung village, Leuwiliang District, Bogor, West Java, Indonesia. On this hill flow Cikasungka (river).

Jambu inscriptions discovered first in 1854 by Jonathan Rigg and reported to the Department of Antiquities in 1947, but this inscription was first studied in 1954.

This inscription / Prasasti carved with a pair of feet with two lines of poetry.

Text

shriman data kertajnyo narapatir - asamo yah pura tarumayam nama shri purnnavarmma pracurarupucara fedyavikyatavammo tasyedam - padavimbadavyam arnagarotsadane nitya-dksham bhaktanam yangdripanam - bhavati sukhahakaram shalyabhutam ripunam.

Translation according to Vogel:

The famous and loyal to his Job is an unequaled king named Sri Purnawarman who rule Taruma which shields and armor can not be pierce by arrows of his enemies; it is his this both of feet trail, which always managed to destroy the enemy castle, which always presented a banquet of honor (to those who are loyal to him), but it is a thorn in the side of his enemies.

Prasasti Jambu Picture

Prasasti Jambu Picture

Prasasti Jambu Picture

G. Prasasti Pasir Awi / Ciampea

Prasasti Pasir Awi located on the southern slope of a hill in Pasir Awi, Cipamingkis forest, Sukamakmur villages, Sukamakmur district, Bogor regency. This inscription was first discovered by N.W. Hoepermans in 1864. Pasir Awi inscription has been known since 1867 and is reported as Prasasti Ciampea This heritage carved in natural stone. Inscription Pasir Awi show images of branches with twigs and leaves and fruits (not characters) and also a pair of feet. I cannot find any information about the meaning of this inscription.

Prasasti Pasir Awi Picture

Prasasti Pasir Awi Picture

Prasasti Pasir Awi Picture

3. Politic of Taruma Kingdom

In the 4th century has stood the Kingdom Tarumanegara. Tarumanegara kingdom ruled by King Purnawarman. King Purnawarman is the king of qualified and strive to improve the welfare of the people. Therefore, people prosper in an atmosphere of safety and peace.

Influence of Hinduism and the news from China proves that the Kingdom Tarumanegara have established relationships with foreign countries. Relationship with foreign Country make Tarumanegara society become better, both in sciences and trade.

4. Tarumanegara Kingdom Religious / Believe System

From the Translation of Prasasti Tugu:

"Once the river is named Candrabhaga been dug by the noble emperor who have strong arms named Purnnawarmman, to stream the water into the sea, after the river (river channel) reach the famed royal palace. In his 22th year holding the throne, His Majesty King Purnnawarmman dazzling brilliance and wisdom as well as a banner of all the kings, (it is now), he also decree to dig river (river channels) which has a scenic clear water, Gomati is the name , after the riever (river channel) flows across in the home of our Highness the reverend Nenekda (King Purnnawarmman)