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Astronomy; The Biggest Star Than The Sun & Existing Solar System- Photos, And Facts

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Writing is my passion and continuing from 2013 to date on various platforms. I completed my M.Sc. in 1996 in Applied Physics & Electronics.

A Big Thanks and Credits to NASA

All the photos (except one that was drawn by myself) were captured by NASA. Otherwise, it would never be possible to demonstrate this article. A big thanks to NASA, and all the credits goes to them for providing such unobtainable photos.


UY Scuti” is the Newly discovered star that is bigger even than the sun as scientists state. The radius it posses incredibly high comparing to the sun. The details would be found below. Furthermore, the elements associated within our solar system has also been discussed in brief. Keep reading from beginning to the end.

Table of Contents

  • UY Scuti
  • The sun
  • Mercury
  • Venus
  • Earth
  • Mars
  • Jupiter
  • Saturn
  • Uranus
  • Neptune
  • Pluto
  • Moon
  • Frequently Asked Questions
  • The Bottom Line

UY Scuti-The radius, that is incredible!!!


UY Scuti has got tremendously big radius which is 1,700 times in comparison to the Sun. It is being predicted that the mass of UY Scuti would be 30 times more than the Sun. That does mean, 3.69 billion Suns can be accommodated within a “UY Scuti”. It is amazing.

Some important features of this giant star have been included in below:

Radius: 1.1883 billion km

Radial velocity (Rv): 18.33±0.82 km/s

Absolute magnitude (MV): −6.2

B−V color index: +3.00

Apparent magnitude (V): 8.29 - 10.56

Surface gravity (log g): −0.5 cgs

U−B color index: +3.29

The distance of “UY Scuti” from the Sun is,

5,219 light-years and in kilometer, 4.937 × 10^16 km

The Solar System That Is Most Familiar To Us

There are many different types of objects found in the solar system. Those are sun, star, planets, moons, dwarf planets, comets, asteroids, gas, dust, etc. Everything is bound to the sun by gravity i.e. the planets Mercury, Venus, Earth, Mars, Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus, Neptune, Pluto. There are dozens of moons and millions of asteroids, comets, and meteoroids are also bound due to the gravitational attractive force of the sun.

All the planets in the universe are in motion. So, a question might arise and that is, what effect would be observed if the sudden rotation of the earth is stopped. The answer is, if the earth stops rotating suddenly, the atmosphere would still be rotating. As a result, all existing elements or things like mountains, buildings, living things would be swept away or be destroyed due to unable to maintain synchronization with the sudden static motion of the earth.

At the center of the solar system, the sun is in the driving seat which ceaselessly extracting tremendous energy throughout the universe. In reality, the main energy of the universe received by different planets is from the sun. In past, the scientists thought, the sun doesn’t move. They stated that, without moving, it keeps itself static and extracts energy throughout the universe.

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On the contrary, they also stated that the earth moves around the sun. But as the research progresses, they concluded that both sun and earth are in moving condition through their rotating path is different. In a word, nothing is static in this universe. We the human being also in motion with the earth and there exists a synchronized scenario between us. This synchronized phenomenon does not allow us to feel whether we’re in motion or not. Sometimes, it is also seen that all of a sudden, we’ve fallen, say on the ground. It doesn’t always happen due to low/high blood pressure or any of our physical problems. It happens due to the same reason and that is, our body has become failure to maintain synchronization with the motion of the earth.

As said earlier, all the elements in the universe are moving but their motion or speed might be different. That is, they all have got dynamic nature.

All the planets rotate along their specified orbit and also spin on their axis in the same orbit. To move or rotate an object, force is required. Two basic forces compel planets not to derail from their orbits. If would happen, then there would be no existence of the universe due to conflict between planets. The specified two forces are,

  • Centripetal force is the force acting towards the center of the circular path.
  • Centrifugal force acts in a direction pointing away from the center of the circle.

The resultant of the two forces compel planets to rotate through their orbit rather being derailed. At time will come, when this scenario would dramatically be changed as per the statement of the scientists and obvious destruction would happen. A real life example would be more understandable about the above mentioned forces. Let’s say, a stone has been tightly bound with a rope and then it is being rotated in circular motion fashion. Three cases would be observed:

1. If centripetal force is higher than centrifugal force, the stone will move towards the centre and some damage would happen.

2. If centrifugal force becomes high, then the stone will throw away or be isolated.

3. If both forces are in balancing condition, then natural rotation would be observed and no damage or unusual scenario would be seen.

Let’s discuss the planets and other entities associated with solar system. The basic planets or elements of the solar system are,

Our Solar System


The prime elements integrated within the solar system are,

  • The sun
  • The Mercury
  • The Venus
  • The Earth
  • The Mars
  • The Jupiter
  • The Saturn
  • The Uranus
  • The Neptune
  • The Pluto
  • The Moon


The Sun

The Sun:

The Sun is a star at the center of the solar system. The scientists assumed that the sun formed more than 4.5 billion years ago when a cloud of dust and gas called a nebula collapsed under its gravity. As it did, the cloud spun and flattened into a disk, with our sun forming at its center. The disk's edges are later accreted into our solar system, including Earth and the other planets. The radius of the Sun is 696,340 km. It is a huge glowing sphere containing hot gases. Most of the gases are hydrogen (about 70%) and helium (about 28%). Carbon, nitrogen, and oxygen cover 1.5% and the other 0.5% is made up of small amounts of many other elements like neon, iron, silicon, magnesium, and sulfur. As said earlier, it is the source of energy of the universe containing elements i.e. Star, Moon, Earth, and so on.

Element’s information:

Density‎: 150 g/cm3

Age‎: 4.6 billion years

Surface temperature: 5,778 K

Radius: 6,96,340 km

Surface area: 6.09×1012 km2; 12,000 × Earth

Mean radiance (Isol): 2.009×107 W·m−2·sr−1

Escape Velocity (from the surface): 617.7 km/s; 55 × Earth

Equatorial Surface Gravity: 274 m/s2; 28 × Earth

Luminosity (Lsol): 3.828×1026 W; ≈ 3.75×1028 lm; ≈ 98 lm/W

Mean distance: The distance from Earth to the sun is called AU (Astronomical Units). AU (Astronomical Unit) represents the mean distance between the Earth and the sun. So, the mean distance is 93 million miles (150 million km). More precisely, one astronomical unit (AU) = 92,955,807 miles (149,597,871 km).


The Mercury

Mercury is the closest and hottest planet to the Sun. As it closest to the sun among all the planets, this planet is the highest temperature-oriented planet. Its orbit is very eccentric (i.e. non-circular) and it comes within 46 million km from the Sun at its closest point and 69.8 million km at its furthest point.

Relevant information:

Distance from Sun: 57.91 million km

Mass: 3.285 × 10^23 kg (0.055 M⊕)

Radius: 2,439.7 km

Orbital period: 88 days

Surface area: 74.8 million km²

Length of day: 58d 15h 30m

0.0000051575 light-years


The Venus

Venus is the second planet from the Sun. It is named after the Roman goddess of love and beauty. As it is the second brightest object, its position is just after the moon in the night sky. Venus can cast shadows and, rarely visible to the open eye in bright daylight.

Element’s information:

Distance from the sun:

107.71 million km; 0.000011385 light years

Orbital period: 225 days

Length of day: 116d 18h 0m

Mass: 4.867 × 10^24 kg (0.815 M⊕)

Distance from Sun: 108.2 million km

Radius: 6,051.8 km

Equatorial rotation velocity: 6.52 km/h (1.81 m/s)


The Earth

The planet Earth rotates in the third orbit of the solar system and based on size, Earth has got the fifth largest position. It is the only planet in the solar system with liquid water on the surface. Among the four planets closest to the sun, Earth is the biggest. Other planets but Earth, all are made of rock and metals. It is a rocky, terrestrial planet. It has a solid and active surface with mountains, valleys, canyons, plains, etc. It is special as it is an ocean planet that covers 70 percent of water. The term “terrestrial” means, living on the land or the ground, rather than in water, in trees, or the air. On this planet, human beings and other living things exist.

Within the Solar System, the terrestrial planets are the inner planets closest to the Sun, i.e. Mercury, Venus, Earth, and Mars. The terms "terrestrial planet" and "telluric planet" are derived from Latin words for Earth (Terra and Tellus), as these planets are, in terms of structure, Earth-like. In a nut-shell, let’s discuss the inner construction of the Earth.

Element’s Information:

Distance from the sun:

147.99 million km;0.000015632 light-years

Moon: Moon Trending

Age: 4.543 billion years

Mass: 5.972 × 10^24 kg

Radius: 6,371 km

Surface area: 510.1 million km²

Land area: 148.9 million km²


The Inner Portion of Earth

The inner portion of the Earth is mostly divided into three main sections. That is,

  • Mantle
  • Molten outer core
  • Solid inner core

The hard portion just under the surface of the Earth which bounded the inside of the Earth is called Crust.

The mantle is the part of the Earth below the Crust and surrounding the core. It could be spread out up to 100 kilometers from the Earth's surface. The scientists assume that after the creation of Earth it was initially tremendously hot but at last became cool. Though the reason is unknown.

From then, living things became possible to survive. The “Molten outer core” and “Solid inner core” are tremendously hot. The “Solid inner core” has got an approximate radius of 3500 km from the center of the Earth. Various metals are available in this portion.

The inner portion of the “Solid inner core” is hard but the outer portion is comparatively soft. On the other side, most of the portion of “Molten outer core” is hard.

The Mars


Mars is the fourth planet from the Sun and the second-smallest planet in the Solar System after Mercury. In English, Mars carries a name after the Roman god of war and referred to as the “Red Planet”. The surface of Mars is full of dust and the atmosphere is very thin. The scientists assume that there might be a possibility of having water under the ground of Mars. Though this hasn’t yet been proved.

Element’s Information:

Distance from the sun:

230.03 million km; 0.000024314 light years

Gravity: 3.711 m/s²

Mass: 6.39 × 10^23 kg (0.107 M⊕)

Length of day: 1d 0h 37m

Orbital period: 687 days

Surface pressure: 0.636 (0.4–0.87) kPa; 0.00628 atm

Surface area: 144.8 million km²

Radius: 3,389.5 km

The Jupiter


Jupiter occupies the fifth orbit from the Sun and is the largest in the Solar System. It is a gas giant having a mass of one-thousandth that of the Sun but two-and-a-half times that of all the other planets in the Solar System combined.

Element’s Information:

Distance from the sun:

779.7 million km; 0.000082414 light years

Mass: 1.898 × 10^27 kg

Radius: 69,911 km

Surface area: 61.42 billion km²

Orbital period: 12 years

Distance from Sun: 778.5 million km

Orbits: Sun

Length of day: 0d 9h 56m

The Saturn


Saturn is the sixth planet from the Sun and the second-largest in the Solar System, after Jupiter. It is a gas giant with an average radius about nine times that of Earth. It has only one-eighth the average density of Earth. In comparison to Earth, the mass of Saturn is 95 times more.

Element’s information:

Distance from the sun:

1.4975 billion km; 0.00015829 light years

Orbital period: 29 years

Radius: 58,232 km

Distance from Sun: 1.434 billion km

Gravity: 10.44 m/s²

Surface area: 42.7 billion km²

Orbits: Sun

Mass: 5.683 × 10^26 kg

Length of day: 0d 10h 42m

The Uranus


The planet Uranus occupies the seventh orbit from the Sun. It has got the third-largest planetary radius and fourth-largest planetary mass in the Solar System. Uranus is similar in composition to Neptune, and both have bulk chemical compositions which differ from that of the larger gas giants Jupiter and Saturn.

Element’s Information:

Distance from the sun:

2.9639 billion km; 0.00031329 light years

Orbital period: 84 years

Mass: 8.681 × 10^25 kg (14.54 M⊕)

Distance from Sun: 2.871 billion km

Radius: 25,362 km

Length of day: 0d 17h 14m

Orbits: Sun

Surface area: 8.083 billion km²

Orbital period: 84 years

The Neptune


Neptune is the eighth and farthest known planet from the Sun in the Solar System. In the Solar System, it is the fourth-largest planet by diameter, the third-most-massive planet, and the densest giant planet. Neptune is 17 times the mass of Earth.

Element’s Information:

Distance from the sun:

4.477 billion km; 0.00047322 light years

Orbital period: 165 years

Surface area: 7.618 billion km²

Discovered: September 23, 1846

Radius: 24,622 km

Length of day: 0d 16h 6m

Mass: 1.024 × 10^26 kg (17.15 M⊕)

Surface area: 7.618 billion km²

The Pluto


Pluto is an icy dwarf planet in the Kuiper belt, a ring of bodies beyond the orbit of Neptune. It was the first Kuiper belt object to be discovered and is the largest known dwarf planet. Pluto is the ninth planet from the sun. A question might arise and that is, what dwarf planet is.

According to the definition adopted by the IAU (The International Astronomical Union) in 2006, a dwarf planet is, “a celestial body orbiting a star that is massive enough to be rounded by its gravity but has not cleared its neighboring region of planetesimals and is not a satellite.

The International Astronomical Union (IAU)” defines a planet as being in orbit around the sun which has got enough gravity to pull its mass into a rounded shape (hydrostatic equilibrium), and has cleared its orbit of other, smaller objects. The planets and dwarf planets differ based on the last criterion. If we look below, the difference between a planet and a dwarf planet would be clear.

ü A planet's gravity either attracts or pushes away the smaller bodies that would otherwise intersect its orbit

ü The gravity of a dwarf planet is not sufficient to make this happen.

On the above aspect, we can conclude that Pluto is not a planet and reside outside of the solar system.

Officially, there are five dwarf planets. Those are,

  • Ceres
  • Pluto
  • Haumea
  • Makemake
  • Eric

It should be noted that Ceres held the title of the smallest dwarf planet until now, with a diameter of almost 590 miles (950 km) and located in the asteroid belt and the rest planets of above are found in the outer solar system.

Element’s Information:

Distance from the sun:

5.1958 billion km; 4-6 light hours (not light years)

Radius: 1,188.3 km

Orbital period: 248 years

Surface area: 1.779×107 km2; 0.035 Earths

The Moon


By name, it is a noun. The round objects move around once every 28 days and shine at night with light reflected from the sun. The Moon is Earth's largest natural satellite, and we usually see it in the night sky. Some other planets also have moons or natural satellites. The gravity on the moon is one-sixth of the Earth's gravity. It means that something will be six times lighter on the Moon than on Earth. The Moon is a rocky and dusty place.

A question naturally might be raised and that is, why Moon is called the satellite of the Earth. The answer would be found if we go for the definition of the satellite from below.

A satellite is an object which moves around a larger object. So, based on this definition, if we go for to differentiate between Sun and the Earth, we would find below;

The Sun is 864,400 miles (1,391,000 kilometers) across. This is about 109 times the diameter of Earth. The Sun weighs about 333,000 times as much as Earth. It is so large that about 1,300,000 planet piles of earth can fit inside of it. That’s why the Earth moves around the Sun and the satellite of the Earth.

Similarly, The Moon has a diameter of 2,159 miles (3,476 kilometers) and is about one-quarter the size of Earth. The Moon weighs about 80 times less than Earth. That is why the moon is the satellite of the Earth and moves around it.

Now, let’s talk about the “Tidal Effect” imposed on the planet Earth.

The high and low tides happen due to the gravitational force which pulls the water into the ocean, river, etc. This force is called tidal force. The closest side of the Earth bulges water called high tide and the other side farthest from the moon’s gravitational force caused low bulges of water. This for the force of the water called low tide.

We know in every 24 hours the Earth covers its rotation through its axis. During this time low and high spot on the Earth, surface faces moon’s gravitational effect. This gravitational force of the moon imposes a high impact on the high spot and a low impact on the low spot of the Earth’s surface.

It should be noted down here that, the sun also imposes a gravitational force on the ocean. But, due to long-distance between the sun and Earth, its pulling is not pronounced.

We determine tidal force as,

Tidal force= (moon’s gravitational pull in a specific location on Earth) – (moon’s average gravitational pull over the whole Earth)

As per the statement of “Duncan Agnew”, a geophysicist at the University of California, San Diego, "The tides are largest when the sun and moon line up". He stated that this happens during two separate lunar phases:

  • Full moons
  • New moons

Astronomers and Earth scientists refer to these tides as “spring tides”. It should be noted that spring tides occur throughout the year.

During spring tides, the "high" tides are “really high” and the "low tides” are unusually low. This scenario gets less extreme when the sun and moon sit at right angles to each other relative to Earth. Such an arrangement produces a neap tide when the difference between high and low tides becomes minimal.

The spot on the globe that sits right beneath the moon at any given time is called the sub-lunar point and the spot of the Earth located directly to the sub- lunar point is called the antipodal point.

Element’s Information:

Distance from the sun:

147.89 million km; 0.000015632 light-years

Mass: 5.972 × 10^24 kg

Surface area: 510.1 million km²

Land area: 148.9 million km²

Frequently Asked Questions

What is the biggest star in the universe?
UY Scuti is certainly the biggest star that has invented just 2 years back. It has got 340,000 times more luminous than the Sun and a radius 1700 times larger than the sun.

How long will UY Scuti live?
To keep our planet safe, the planet has to be within its orbit about 1.5 trillion km away from UY Scuti. By maintaining this distance, the Earth needs 10,000 years to complete just one orbit around the celestial body.

How many earths can fit in a UY Scuti?
A single UY Scuti can accommodate more than 4 quadrillions of Earths into it.

Is there any star that is bigger than UY Scuti?
As per the statement of the scientists, WOH G64 is a star bigger than the UY Scuti having a Large Magellanic Cloud. It is located 168,000 light-years from Earth, approximately.

What is the most horrific thing in the universe?
The answer is supermassive Blackhole. The biggest Blackhole ever discovered weighing 40 billion times than the sun.

The Bottom Line

In this article, we have discussed the invented elements of our solar system. The newly discovered giant star has also been included here though we know very little about it. Astrology as a subject is vast and the invention by scientists is not adequate till now. There are a lot of things available in the space which is beyond our imagination. The scientists are ceaselessly continuing their research to invent new things as they have got strong and honest belief in their mind that, till date they haven’t become successful to discover too much, the elements existing in the universe. Their belief establishes when all of a sudden new thing comes into the picture. I hope, in near future, we shall be lucky enough to know about any discoveries.


UY Scuti

Solar System












This content is accurate and true to the best of the author’s knowledge and is not meant to substitute for formal and individualized advice from a qualified professional.

© 2021 pervez

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