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Scientific Thinking: Step by Step

Scientific thinking is thinking using scientific methods of thinking, and moving away from myths and everything related to them.


Scientific thinking gives you the ability to solve any problem you encounter in a sound manner and thus helps you to overcome the obstacles you face in your daily life,whether in study, at work or even in your relationships with others.In this article, we introduce you to scientific thinking clearly.

Thinking is a mental activity that cannot be seen as it is invisible, but its results can be observed. It is characterized by observing events and facts, processing them, analyzing them and linking them to each other. Using previous experience, a certain result can be reached. Some types of thinking are superficial or exaggeration or omission, and these are wrong ways of thinking because they do not lead to practical results. On the contrary, they may exacerbate the original problem and may increase other problems that you do not need.

As for scientific thinking, it is the correct approach to solving problems, building a personal opinion, or making a decision. It is enough for you to know that the greats in all fields would not have succeeded in their work without following this method.

How do you think scientifically?

Thinking scientifically is based on precise, specific and organized steps. You cannot make a decision before you go through all the stages of correct scientific thinking.

Observation Problem

Before you decide, think about what you should do. This is where your senses and perceptions come into play. For example, if you were sitting in your room and heard screaming in the house.

The first thing that comes to your mind is the question.

Defining the Problem

Noting the problem doesn't mean you know what it is. it must specify the nature of the problem. If you do not understand the problem well, you will not solve it. As they say, knowing the problem is half the solution.

The problem here is reflected in the question Who is yelling and why?

Assumptions and Probabilities

Based on your previous experience and the information available to you, you will develop possibilities to understand the problem at hand. You know your dad is at work. There is no one in the house but your mother and your sister. This is the data you have. So the one who shouted would definitely be one of them. You now have two possibilities. Either your mother screamed or your sister screamed.

Experiment or Test the Possibilities

Here you will verify your hypothesis. If you suspect your sister is the one yelling, she will go to her room and make sure. If you see something that supports your hypothesis, such as falling to the ground or being electrocuted, for example, then this is a valid possibility, otherwise you will move to the second possibility.

Answer or Solution

When you have tested all the possibilities, you should have solved the problem. In this case, the problem was who cried and why. And the answer I got using scientific reasoning is that your sister screamed because she was electrocuted. Here you should help her. To know how to do that, you will use the same method as before to reach the best solution to this problem.

When do you need to use scientific thinking?

Scientific thinking is not limited to problem solving only, but can help you to make decisions and adopt your own opinions on philosophical events and ideas.

Characteristics of scientific thinking

Scientific thinking has characteristics and conditions that must be met in order for it to be considered a correct approach based on two foundations. They are characteristics that we will discuss here with their explanation and some examples for you to understand well.


Scientific thinking needs previous experiences, information and experiences that one has been exposed to previously. Knowledge is like a ladder, each step leads to another, and it is not possible to jump on the steps and ignore the successive steps, and this is called cumulative.

Precision, Definition and Abstraction

They are necessary elements for analysis and reflection. It is necessary to put a clear framework for the problem or issue to be solved and to avoid getting lost in matters not related to the problem or using vocabulary that carries multiple meanings. The one who researches a scientific issue cannot use the language of emotions and feelings. If I ask you, for example, about the temperature of the air, you cannot answer me that it is cold, but you must give me its exact temperature, so it says the temperature is 12 degrees.


It means relying on sufficient, convincing and correct evidence. But there is no absolute certainty in science because facts are constantly changing and knowledge is always evolving. What was right yesterday may be wrong today. Hundreds of years ago, there was a certainty that the Sun revolved around the Earth. This certainty was based on the knowledge and techniques available at the time, and that idea was acceptable.

But with the progress of science, it was concluded that it is a wrong idea and that the earth is the one that revolves around the sun.


Scientific thinking is based on organization. It is not possible to practice randomness and move from one idea to another without a link between them, or to rush to a conclusion before conducting the test and experiment.

Scientific thinking is a systematic method, that is, it has steps that must be followed, and thus it differs from ordinary thinking, which can be chaotic and unclear.

Finding the Reasons

One of the most important advantages of scientific thinking is the search for causes. This is the reason for the great progress witnessed by technology and medicine.

The Importance of Scientific Thinking

The results of scientific thinking are conclusive evidence that can be relied upon and referred to when needed. Since the conclusion of scientific thinking is to find a logical explanation for a phenomenon or a problem based on a set of scientific methods; Such as experimentation, analysis, inference, and studying the relationship between all variables and interpreting them accurately and clearly. Scientific thinking is also reflected positively on individuals in terms of enhancing their abilities in the following areas.

  • Ask accurate questions,
  • Search for useful scientific problems, and formulate them accurately and clearly. Gathering and evaluating relevant data and information using abstract ideas to arrive at effective interpretations.
  • Arriving at logical conclusions and solutions and testing them within appropriate standards.
  • Acceptance of other ideas and knowledge of, and evaluation of, as many hypotheses, their implications, and practical implications.
  • Communicate with others effectively to reach the most appropriate solution when facing any problem.

Science, my boy, is made up of mistakes, but they are mistakes which it is useful to make, because they lead little by little to the truth.

— Jules Verne, Journey to the Center of the Earth

Scientific Thinking Errors

Many people make mistakes while thinking which causes them to make incorrect decisions. This is due to their ignorance or accustomed to this kind of thinking. There are many errors and here are some of them in this article:


It means that the individual picks and chooses the information he wants according to his whims and desires. There are many reasons why he is often reluctant to validate his point or win for himself so that he is not offended by his defeat. But we must remember that the truth does not change even if we ignore it or deny it.

Exaggeration and Generalization

If you meet a man of a certain nationality who does not love your country, this does not mean that everyone of that nationality is racist. These qualities cannot be generalized to everyone. It is also not useful to overestimate some qualities and give them more than their size. If you ever see your teacher angry, don't say he's always nervous. Because you don't see it permanently, but only once or twice.

Obstacles to scientific thinking

Although scientific thinking is very effective for solving problems and reaching useful practical results, it is less followed than the rest of the thinking patterns that dominate our societies.

  • This is mainly due to the great spread of false ideas, myths and false beliefs. Working on the principle of this is what we found our parents on. People insist on following the same customs that they inherited from our ancestors despite the development of knowledge. Where magic and envy are still causes of diseases, although science confirms the existence of other causes more logical. Thus, people resort to witches and sorcerers instead of treating sickness, depriving them of the opportunity to be cured, and their disease worsens further.
  • The second obstacle to scientific thinking is the human tendency to follow the dominant idea instead of the correct one. If a group of people believe in a wrong idea, you will find that anyone will believe it and not think about its validity. One imagines that what people have agreed upon is always true, and this is a wrong idea.

In Fact, talking about scientific thinking is long and may not end. I tried to shorten them in this article so that you understand their most important features and start following them. Scientific thinking is not limited to matters related to science as you think, we have seen that it is a useful way of thinking in all issues and You have to abide by the steps and conditions of scientific thinking that have been mentioned so that you can succeed in your life and always move forward on a right path. It is unfortunate that a person thinks that the mind is incapable of understanding phenomena and is insufficient to reach the truth. Believing that the unseen matters can only be known through divine revelation, although God always urges us to think, contemplate and use reason.

This content is accurate and true to the best of the author’s knowledge and is not meant to substitute for formal and individualized advice from a qualified professional.

© 2021 Rawan Osama


Rawan Osama (author) from Egypt on June 06, 2021:

Thank you ,Amara

Amara from Pakistan on June 06, 2021:

Informative Hub..

Rawan Osama (author) from Egypt on June 06, 2021:

Thank you for your kind comment!

Rawan Osama (author) from Egypt on June 06, 2021:

Thank you my dear

Have a good day!

Rawan Osama (author) from Egypt on June 06, 2021:

Glad you liked the article

Thank you,Brian!

EK Jadoon from Abbottabad Pakistan on June 06, 2021:

That was an informative read. Thanks for sharing.

Stay blessed...

Misbah Sheikh from The World of Poets on June 06, 2021:

Well written!! This is a very informative and helpful article, Rawan

Many Blessings to you

Brian from Kuala Lumpur Malaysia on June 06, 2021:

I am impressed with your detailed description on the flow that goes into scientific thinking. It serves as a checklist of sorts when one engages in the act of thinking scientifically to solve any problems or issues. It's great to know you covered all the bases which shows that there is possibility of instances where scientific thinking is misguided.

Rawan Osama (author) from Egypt on June 06, 2021:

Thanks for your comment.

Have a good day

Rawan Osama (author) from Egypt on June 06, 2021:

Most welcome, thank you

Pamela Oglesby from Sunny Florida on June 06, 2021:

I think you explained scientific thinking very well, Rawan. I found this article to be very interesting and informative.

Eman Abdallah Kamel from Egypt on June 06, 2021:

Thank you, Rawan, for sharing this helpful article.

Rawan Osama (author) from Egypt on June 06, 2021:

Im glad that you like it

Thanks for your comment

Nian from Pakistan on June 06, 2021:

Informative and helpful article. I will try to use these techniques.

Rawan Osama (author) from Egypt on June 05, 2021:

Most welcome dear

Thank your for your kind words :)

Chitrangada Sharan from New Delhi, India on June 05, 2021:

Well explained and well made points.

A useful guide to scientific thinking.

Thank you for sharing.

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