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Role of Learning and Development

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Role of Learning & Development

Role of Learning & Development Introduction

We live in a very challenging business environment today. Globalization, increased competition & the advancement & the changes in technology has taken the business to a level. Today’s customer is exposed to various products & different levels of service & this have resulted in an increase in the customer bargaining power. The companies that will survive these challenges are the companies that are innovative & are prepared to adapt to the ever-changing & increasing customer needs.

“Today it is fashionable to talk about the new economy. We hear that the businesses are operating in a global economy; that things are moving at a nanosecond pace; that our markets are characterized by hyper-competition; that disruptive technologies are challenging every business; and that business must adapt to the empowered consumer The old economy seemed simpler. It was based on the industrial revolution & on managing manufacturing industries.

A manufacturer applied certain principles & practices for the successful operation of their factories. They standardized products in order to bring down costs. They aimed to continually expand their market size to achieve economies of scale. They tended to replicate their procedures & policies in every geographical market. The goal was efficiency; and to accomplish this, the firm was managed hierarchically, with a boss on the top issuing orders to middle managers, who in turn guided the workers. The new economy, in contrast, is based on the Digital Revolution & the management of information. Information has a number of attributes.

It can be infinitely differentiated, customized, and personalized. It can be dispatched to a great number of people who are on a network & it can reach them with great speed. To the extent that the information is public & accessible, people will be better informed & able to make better choices” — Marketing Management by Philip Kotler 11th Edition -

Gagne’s Nine Levels of Learning

Gagne’s Nine Levels of Learning provide a step-bystep checklist that helps you ensure that you present a comprehensive and successful learning experience. Each step is designed to help your trainees understand and retain information effectively.

Level 1: Gaining Attention (Reception)

Start the learning experience by gaining the attention of your audience. This change in stimulus alerts the group that learning will soon take place. Apply: Gain attention by raising the volume of your voice, gesturing, showing a short video on the topic of instruction, or using any other event that brings the period of “waiting for the lesson to start” to an end.

Level 2: Informing Learners of the Objective (Expectancy)

Next, you must ensure that your team knows what they need to learn and that they understand why they’re about to learn this new information Apply: Explain to your team what they will have learnt by the end of the session. Then, explain how their learning is going to benefit them, and the organization.

Level 3: Stimulating Recall of Prior Learning (Retrieval)

When your people learn something new, match the new information with related information or topics they’ve learned in the past. Apply: Review any previous learning that you’ve done with your team, and apply it to what they’re learning now. Also, ask your team if they have any previous experiences with the topic, or if they have experienced the problems that the training is trying to resolve. Then make connections between what they are learning and their previous learning.

Level 4: Presenting the Stimulus (Selective Perception)

Present the new information to the group in an effective manner. Apply: Organize your information in a logical and easy-to-understand manner. Try to use a variety of different media and styles (such as visual cues, verbal instruction, and active learning) to suit people with different learning styles.

Level 5: Providing Learning Guidance (Semantic Encoding)

To help your team learn and retain the information, provide alternative approaches that illustrate the information that you’re trying to convey. Apply: Help your team learn more effectively by including examples, case studies, graphics, storytelling, or analogies.

Level 6: Eliciting Performance (Responding)

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At this stage, you need to ensure that your people can demonstrate their knowledge of what you’ve taught them. The way that they show this depends on what they’re learning. Apply: If you’ve taught a new process or skill, ask your people to demonstrate how to use it (role-playing exercises can be useful for this). If you’ve taught new information, ask questions so that they can show their knowledge.

Level 7: Providing Feedback (Reinforcement)

After your team demonstrates their knowledge, provide feedback and reinforce any points as necessary. Apply: Imagine that you’ve taught your team a new technique for handling difficult customers. After several role-playing scenarios, you notice that a few team members aren’t assertive enough to calm the customer in this fictional “tense situation.” Your feedback and tips point out their mistakes so that they can correct them.

Level 8: Assessing Performance (Retrieval)

Your team should be able to complete a test, or another measurement tool, to show that they’ve learned the material or skill effectively. Team members should complete this test independently, without any help or coaching from you.

Level 9: Enhancing Retention and Transfer (Generalization)

In this last stage, your team members show that they’ve retained information by transferring their new knowledge or skill to situations that are different from the ones you’ve trained them on.

Problems Faced by Businesses


All human beings, but it seems business leaders in particular, find great discomfort in uncertainty. Uncertainty in the global economy, uncertainty in the credit markets, uncertainty in how new regulations will affect business, uncertainty about what competitors are doing, and uncertainty about how new technology will affect the business — these are just the start of a never-ending list. The bottom line is that uncertainty leads to a short-term focus.


Understanding foreign cultures is essential to everything from the ability to penetrate new markets with existing products and services, to designing new products and services for new customers, to recognizing emergent, disruptive competitors that only months earlier weren’t even known. The problem to be solved is to better understand international markets and cultures through better information gathering and analysis.

3. Innovation

Innovation is key if you are to survive and grow in a competitive business environment such as today. Research has shown that big companies (global 1000) are struggling with innovation and a better innovation process is at the top of the agenda for most CEOs.

4. Government Policy & Regulation

A changing regulatory environment is always of concern in certain industries, but uncertain energy, environmental and financial policy is complicating the decision making for nearly all companies today

5. Technology

The pace of technological improvement is running at an exponentially increasing rate. Technology is reshaping the way business is conducted today.

6. Diversity

Diversity brings many challenges, as it makes it far more likely that people do not agree, and the lack of agreement makes running a business very difficult. At the same time, the lack of diversity within many large company leadership teams leads to a narrow view of an ever-changing and diverse world — contributing to groupthink

7. Complexity

There’s no doubt that life and business have gotten more complex, even as certain tasks and activities have become easier due to information technology. The pace of change is quickening. The global economy is becoming still more connected, creating a much larger and more diverse population of customers and suppliers.

8. Information overload

A March 2010 estimate put global Internet traffic at 21 exabytes — 21 million terabytes. By 2016, global traffic will reach 1.3 zettabytes, according to a report released in May 2012. Every day, 2.5 quintillion bytes of data are created. The ability of companies, much fewer individuals, to consume and make sense of the information that is available (and necessary) to make good decisions is becoming a nearly impossible challenge

9. Supply Chains

Because of uncertainty in demand and the need to stay lean, companies are carrying smaller inventories than ever. At the same time, uncertainty in supply, driven by wildly changing commodity prices, an apparent increase in weather-related disruptions, and increasing competition for raw materials makes supply chain planning more challenging than ever.

10. Strategic Thinking & Problem Solving

The lack of sophisticated approaches to information acquisition, analysis and the development of unique insight leaves many companies at a disadvantage; they lack a long-term strategic imperative and instead jump from one strategy to the next on a year-to-year basis

Seven Learning Styles

1. Visual (Spatial)

Visual learning is a style in which a learner utilizes graphs, charts, maps and diagrams.

2. Aural (Auditory-Musical)

Auditory learning is a learning style in which a person learns through listening. An auditory learner depends on hearing and speaking as a main way of learning.

3. Verbal (Linguistic)

The verbal learning style involves both the written and spoken word. If you use this style, you find it easy to express yourself, both in writing and verbally. You love reading and writing. You like playing on the meaning or sound of words, such as in tongue twisters, rhymes, limericks and the like.

4. Physical (Kinesthetic)

Physical learning is also referred to as “Kinesthetic Learning” OR tactical learning. This is a learning style in which learning takes place by the students carrying out physical activities rather than listening to a lecture or watching demonstrations.

5. Logical (Mathematical)

When one likes using the brain for logical and mathematical reasoning, that person is a logical learner. They easily recognise patterns and can connect seemingly meaningless concepts easily. Logical learners often lean towards classifying and grouping information to help them further understand it.

6. Social (Interpersonal)

In this style, you prefer learning in groups or classes. Or you like to spend much oneon-one time with a teacher or an instructor. You heighten your learning by bouncing your thoughts off other people and listening to how they respond

7. Solitary (Intrapersonal)

Here you spend time on self-analysis and often reflect on the past events and the way you approached them. You take time to ponder and assess your own accomplishments or challenges.

© 2022 sasindu milshan

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