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Professional Report for Acquiring a Second Language in University of Hong Kong (HKU)

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Professional Report for Acquiring a Second Language in University of Hong Kong (HKU)

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Executive Summary

The theoretical argument surrounding the acquisition of the second language is unending. Although there are disagreements in the researchers, past studies had shown that researchers would fall into different ways of thinking, the use-based and the widespread punctuation-based methodologies in second language acquisition. This report investigates the exploration and theories that have inclined to what comprises successful learning method for the procurement of the second language (L2) in the University of Hong Kong setting. The discussion includes natural factors like sorts of information and the length of input and non-ecological elements intrinsic in students. The report starts with assessing the learning theories that cause standard means to deal with language teaching. It proceeds to consider observational investigations of native learning and instructing. Given the immense measure of examination in recent years, the exploration reflected will essentially focus on vital theoretical cases and fundamental analyses. These sections give evidence to the general standards. The report closes with the recommendation of how the study can improve the acquisition of a second language at the University of Hong Kong.

Keywords: second language acquisition, usage-based, universal grammar-based, Classical grammar-based models, frequency, and L2

Table of Contents

Executive Summary. 2

Introduction. 4

Findings. 4

Usage-based against grammar-based debates in the second language (L2) acquisition. 4

The Role of Frequency in Second Language Acquisition. 4

Effects of Frequency in Acquiring Second Language in University of Hong Kong. 5

Explicit and Implicit Instruction. 5

Effects of Frequency on Acquiring Morpheme in L2. 5

Multi-word Frequency and Constructions. 5

Empirical Methods to Assess L2 Comprehension and Production. 5

Gass's Integrated Model of SLA.. 5

Levelt's speech production model 6

L2 learning and L2 production. 6

The Early Input Effect in Second Language Acquisition. 6

Discussion. 6

Language co-activation and the development of new implicit linguistic knowledge in bilinguals. 6

Enhancing students’ feedback literacy through portfolio assessment 7

The impact of collaborative L1 pre-task planning on the content of L2 problem-solving task performances 7

Conclusion and Recommendation. 7

References. 8

Professional Report for Acquiring a Second Language in University of Hong Kong (HKU)


Very few Hong Kong University undergraduate students can read the English paper following different instructions. The located information uncovered that expecting a discussion drove members to make more stops during perusing to handle word implications, read all the more gradually and repeatedly to keep up their fixation and cognizance level and notice more lexical things from the paper. Conversely members would skim the exposition, regularly avoiding irrelevant parts (Benjamin, 2018). Likewise, it was discovered that members who read for a discussion were altogether bound to stop during writing to plan and audit both language and substance, erase uncertain or inadmissible phrasing, and supplement extra data or articulations.

Generative etymologists have confidence in the presence of independent modules for language procurement in the psyche and ensure that the punctuation is not gained from the climate and correspondence yet emerges from a widespread inborn syntax. Intellectual abilities matter since they lead to deduction and learning. Without abilities like recollecting, numeracy, thinking, picking up, thinking, critical thinking, examination making, and dynamic, a student is in danger of falling behind (Benjamin, 2018). Intellectual improvements matter from adolescence to adulthood.

Until now, little consideration has been paid to the appropriateness of assignment-based language instruction (TBLT) into undertakings that involve different language abilities. The current examination investigated what task guidance means for L2 students' intellectual cycles while playing out an incorporated perusing composing task, as reflected in their eye developments, keystroke logs, and animated reviews. The discoveries of this investigation show the significant effect of assignment guidance in transit L2 students measure input and thus produce input-based outcome (Benjamin, 2018). The theoretical, methodological, and educational ramifications of this investigation will be discussed in the structure of TBLT.


Usage-based against grammar-based debates in the second language (L2) acquisition.

As two distinct methodologies in theoretical etymology, use based and overall punctuation based are different speculations in language gaining from other points of view (Bastiaanse, Wieling & Wolthuis, 2015). The previous focusses because of involvement in language learning underlines the presence of an intrinsic syntax and a bunch of rules as a fundamental reason for the development of proper syntactic sentences.

Adjusting to psychological etymology, a utilization-based phonetics is a type of etymological examination that considers linguistic construction yet believes this to be emerging from and collaborating with genuine language use. The two frequencies are type recurrence and token. Token recurrence is how frequently specific words or explicit expressions show up in the info. Type recurrence is characterized as the number of various lexical things applied to a particular example, worldview, or development or alluded to as the recurrence of word types that adjust to a composition. The standard past expression is referenced to have a high frequency since it is relevant to countless action words (Bastiaanse, Wieling & Wolthuis, 2015). There should be sufficient info to learn bountiful enough for the student to extract consistencies from solid models of language use. In light of use-based theory, deficient information and little admittance to bountiful and certain information like L1 are why L2 students cannot accomplish extreme accomplishments.

The Role of Frequency in Second Language Acquisition

The impacts of recurrence on the obtaining of a subsequent language have grabbed the eye of numerous scientists. Many exploration discoveries uncovered that securing is firmly identified with reproduction. A concise prologue to the subject is given by zeroing in on past research discoveries. The investigations are assembled under broad exploration points and discussed where holes happen and what future studies should research. Second language securing contemplates been influenced by numerous different orders. Etymology and Psychology are the two of these controls that have critical commitments to the field. SLA has seen an expanded accentuation on psycholinguistic issues (Bastiaanse, Wieling & Wolthuis, 2015). It is conceivable that yield capacities as a preparing instrument for future information.

Memory capacities need recurrence for the degree of data. Generally speaking, there is almost no proof to help the case that input frequency influences L2 acquisition; however, there is likewise next to no evidence to invalidate it. Maybe the most secure end is that input recurrence fills in as one of the components impacting advancement, frequently in relationship with different factors, for example, L1 move and open need. There is a positive connection between recurrence and the value of words too. Recurrence is not the sole indicator of the helpfulness of a comment, but it is a significant one (Bastiaanse, Wieling & Wolthuis, 2015). To decide the convenience of a word, researchers have created explicit models, which incorporate reach, recurrence, accessibility, advantage, learnability, and inclusion.

Effects of Frequency in Acquiring Second Language in University of Hong Kong

Explicit and Implicit Instruction

The part of recurrence in language procurement can likewise be talked about concerning verifiable and unequivocal guidance. Unequivocal memory is about the circumstances wherein individuals recollect earlier occasions with a cognizant interaction. There is no conscious review of the experience in understood memory, and recollecting happens with a connected upgrade. Express guidance significant as unequivocal recommendation gives supportive negative proof. The negative evidence is the data to a student who advises that the utilization is not proper to their learning language standards. When implied and specific directions are discussed concerning recurrence impacts, ideas ought to be considered.

Effects of Frequency on Acquiring Morpheme in L2

The past investigations on the connection between recurrence and morpheme procurement in L2 discovered proof that there is a critical connection between recurrence and morpheme obtaining request. All the more explicitly input recurrence has an essential job in second students' morpheme securing request. The consequences of the investigation showed that the members' exhibition on morpheme acquiring followed the primary language morpheme procurement request.

Multi-word Frequency and Constructions

Various investigations researched the effect of frequency on word expressions. The analysts additionally explored the impacts of recurrence on phonetics word and infinitive developments and intransitive developments. The replication is tracked down that six experiences brought about fundamentally more responsive just as profitable word information than the two and four experiences (Winitz, 2020). High-recurrence results give more models to L2 students to make speculations than low-recurrence developments, and this identifies the number of L2 student mistakes.

Empirical Methods to Assess L2 Comprehension and Production

In the instructing of second dialects (L2) everywhere globally, delivering the objective language (TL), or yield, has been considered shaping a significant piece of language learning. A particularly positive perspective on yield might be dismissed in counsel, which might be regularly heard in discussions between a language educator and understudies.

Gass's Integrated Model of SLA

In analyzing the psycholinguistic reasoning of the yield theory, it is helpful to have an overall learning model that catches the general cycle of how students infer their L2 linguistic information in SLA. One such model is proposed by Gass (Tan & Shojamanesh, 2019). Among other comparable models of SLA, Gass's model is chosen since it gives a gritty portrayal of every segment stage and portrays the interrelated and dynamic cycles of language procurement. The model proposes steps whereby the student changes contribution over to income: apperceived input, grasped input, admission, mix, and yield.

Gass claims that how students should encompass information is to consider their previous encounters and present lead. This purported apperception fills in as a preparing gadget, with the goal that later examination of the data can be directed. Gass identifies the probability of understanding the info. The information that is apperceived is prepared to infer some intense portrayal, or what is alluded to as a grasped contribution to Gass' model (Tan & Shojamanesh, 2019). Gass contends that understanding addresses a continuum of conceivable outcomes from semantic examinations to point-by-point underlying investigations.

Levelt's speech production model

The discourse creation framework comprises various self-governing segments which are answerable for multiple parts of discourse creation. These segments include the conceptualizer, a component responsible for producing and observing messages; the formulator is responsible for giving syntactic and phonological shapes to messages, benefiting the articulator. The main segment underway framework is the conceptualizer. This part is liable for creating the genuine intention and for encoding it into some reasonable applied arrangement (Tan & Shojamanesh, 2019). Explanatory information incorporates exhaustive information, information about the circumstance.

Levelt recognizes two phases in message arranging: macroplanning and microplanning. Macroplanning comprises recovering data from communicating the sub-objectives into which the, generally speaking, the informative objective has been explained. It includes creating discourse act expectations, as to portray an occasion or express an assessment. The speaker's arranging of a discourse act, his determination of data to be communicated, and his linearization of that data is called macroplanning (Tan & Shojamanesh, 2019). Microplanning separates that data into more modest applied pieces, given the right propositional shape and instructive point of view.

L2 learning and L2 production

Utilizing the Interpreting Training Method (ITM) has leaped forward for syntax instructing and receptive language education. These techniques incorporate speedy reaction work on shadowing, rundown, and sight interpretation. Speedy reaction practice is one of the strategies utilized by proficient translators who need to gain specialized terms in a brief timeframe. In the class, understudies tune in to Japanese words or expressions and compare articulations in English on the spot and the other way around utilizing the medium following tuning in. Shadowing is the rapid verbatim reiteration of the contribution to a similar language. Sight interpretation is an uncommon sort of concurrent deciphering, which is the interpretation of a composed book at sight. A two-year execution demonstrated many advantages, bringing energy, essentialness, changes, communication, and focus into the study hall exercises.

It is discovered that through preliminary utilization of ITM referenced above in senior secondary school English classes. L1 assumes a significant part in figuring out the importance of the content understudies are getting the hang of, raising awareness, arranging the thoughts they will talk about in L2, holding what they have realized, and diminishing learning tension. Learning tension is the terrible inclination that happens when the student is expected to act in a second or unknown dialect. These strategies give understudies numerous chances to accomplish target language creation utilizing pair-work exercises. As of now, scarcely any examinations investigate the complex job that L1 plays in L2 yield in auxiliary schools (Kartal & Sarigul, 2017). Because the way that current writing examining L1 use to work with L2 yield does not address the utilization of ITM, the current paper will explore the adequacy of utilizing ITM through L1 to improve L2 input.

Moving from a synchronic to a diachronic could be noted first that in L2 concentrates, there has been a significant premium in the SL student's semantic climate or information, yet considerably less worry with how that is learned, and the job of yield in the advancement of SL capability has to a great extent been disregarded or denied (Winitz, 2020). As of late, premium in this point has fortified in SL considers, and been upheld by the improvement in brain research of an overall acquiring hypothesis for psychological abilities, including language, which underlines the part of utilization.

The Early Input Effect in Second Language Acquisition

A few scientists accept that getting language contribution at an early age affects the learning cycle. Early language input impacts expanding lexical capability level, and having less phonetic information openness mess learning up. Due to the effect of accepting early information, the intellectual component of youngsters is distinctive in the word learning measure. Students discover the connection among phrases and their use by the utilization of order. An increment in the semantic information positively affects the student’s learning measure to be clarified by not overlooking how we should quantify the recurrence with both foci on structure and capacity. Generative limit requires thinking about human organization and consideration (Winitz, 2020). Educators handle students' affectability to recurrence issues with explicit regard to exploiting this affectability by doing practical exercises.


Language co-activation and the development of new implicit linguistic knowledge in bilinguals

Plentiful psycholinguistic investigations have exhibited that when bilinguals play out an assignment in one language, they cannot try to actuate applicable portrayals in their non-current language, prompting cross-phonetic help or impedance impacts. These studies focus on second to second 'cross-talk' impacts originating from bilinguals' current phonetic information. The learning impacts in the bilingual gathering could, at this point do not be found. The two tests show that the incognito enactment of their non-current L1 Cantonese could work with the advancement of new verifiable phonetic information on the objective structure meaning associations (Winitz, 2020). The discoveries not just broaden flow research on semantic implied learning and its limitations. Academic ramifications will likewise be talked about.

Enhancing students’ feedback literacy through portfolio assessment

Criticism lies at the core of instructing and learning and is an impetus to improving understudy learning. Vital to the viability of complaint is understudy input proficiency, characterized as understudies' arrangement, limit, and the auras expected to figure out input data and use it to improve their learning. In second language composing settings, like China and Hong Kong, one-shot composition, which packs the creative cycle into a solitary draft, is pervasive. The traditional criticism practice, which highlights single-direction instructor coordinated transmission, gives an impression of being the principle approach (Kartal & Sarigul, 2017). Self and companion appraisal, where students assume responsibility for their learning and evaluation, are not usually completed. Hence, the current practices limit openings for understudies to build up their evaluative abilities to utilize input beneficially, which obstructs the improvement of understudy criticism proficiency.

The impact of collaborative L1 pre-task planning on the content of L2 problem-solving task performances

Investigation on pre-task intending to date has primarily focused on task execution. The impacts of making arrangements for a subsequent language L2 execution are dependent upon what students do during arranging time. One significant factor that may decide the quality and value of preparation conduct is whether students utilize their first language L1 or L2. A subjective examination of L1 and L2 organizers' age of thought units during arranging, move, and execution was directed to enhance the quantitative investigation (Benjamin, 2018). The results open up another understanding into language showing instructional method, which is to inundate oneself in the way of life to have a dream of the manners by which the language is being utilized in the way of life. Discoveries demonstrate the L1P condition enjoys critical upper hands over the L2P state regarding thought conceptualization, yet this benefit limitedly affected the subsequent L2 task execution.

Conclusion and Recommendation

To stimulate understudies in learning English, Hong Kong history can be coordinated into English classes to compete with Hong Kong by developing their Hong Kong personalities. This is following the Hong Kong government strategy maintaining the conservation of keeping up public practices while advancing unknown dialect. Multifaceted experience and intercultural correspondence could be cultivated. To perceive how all these interlace, educators should share English language showing expertise to put language practice and language convictions or belief systems into language the executives. These three-sided results open up another understanding into language showing instructional method, which is to inundate oneself in the way of life to have a dream of the manners by which the language is being utilized in the way of life.

Given that understudies did not have a propensity reliably to learn a second language by their drives, it very well may be troublesome if understudies could barely comprehend English in class. The educator ought to give a few prompts in some straightforward and clear directions. For example, think about what the word implies by the actual setting or taking a gander at the speaker's motion. Characteristic obtaining of language is all by speculating and recollecting.


Bastiaanse R., Wieling M., & Wolthuis N. (2015, September 22). (PDF) The role of frequency in the retrieval of nouns and verbs in aphasia. Retrieved from https://www.researchgate.net/publication/282008195_The_role_of_frequency_in_the_retrieval_of_nouns_and_verbs_in_aphasia

Benjamin J. (2018). Usage-based approaches to second language acquisition. Retrieved from https://www.researchgate.net/publication/322779469_Usage-based_approaches_to_second_language_acquisition

Kartal, G., & Sarigul, E. (2017). Frequency effects in second language acquisition: An annotated survey. Journal of Education and Training Studies, 5(6), 1. doi:10.11114/jets.v5i6.2327

Tan, K. H., & Shojamanesh V. (2019, October 14). Usage-based and universal grammar-based approaches to second language acquisition. Retrieved from https://www.intechopen.com/online-first/usage-based-and-universal-grammar-based-approaches-to-second-language-acquisition

Winitz, H. (2020). Evaluation of the comprehension approach and related considerations in acquiring a second language. Comprehension Strategies in the Acquiring of a Second Language, 341-367. doi:10.1007/978-3-030-52998-7_13

Xia, C. M. (2019). Acquiring metaphorical expressions in a second language. doi:10.5040/9781350071827

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