Amara is a teacher and a writer.. She believes in holistic wellness and home remedies..
Introduction to Plato
Plato (427-347 B.C.), was born of aristocratic Athenian parents. Plato abandoned Athens to travel and learn, but he carried with him the basic tenets of thoughts of his mentor Socrates, "Virtue is knowledge".
Plato's wanderings took him far from his native city Athens. In the Greek cities of southern Italy, he got familiar with the doctrines of mystic Pythagorean society. A society which stressed on the class structure, and the mathematics, that were later occupied an important position in the curriculum of Plato's Athenian academy.
He was impressed by the caste system of the conservative Egyptian society. In Syracuse, by lecturing about the monarch and proper methods of rulership, Plato incurred the anger of Dionysius I. Dionysius enslaved Plato, but soon he was released, then he returned to Athens to found the academy, that was to be his forum until his death
Plato's academy was the first of the great schools of philosophy, and in it Plato conducted an educational center for the training of statesmen. Through his students Plato was to has an impact upon the political systems of Athens and the other city-states. Plato wrote and taught in his academy. Enough remains, of his written works to outline and assess the fundamentals of his thoughts; in them we can find the origin of European political thoughts
Plato's concept of an Ideal State
At Plato's time many Athenians considered their large towns, and their city states, to be perfect i.e., ideal in regards to cultural and military achievements. However, the famous philosopher Plato considered it to be otherwise.
He was skeptical of a society that gave no specific place to those with an expertise in politics, Plato was well learned in the seediness of Athens; its arrogant nature, military and political social errors, and even its contempt towards its own citizens. Plato saw through Athenian states facade, and got inspired to formulate the ideals of his perfect state; "Plato's Ideal State".
Three waves of the Ideal State
The blueprints for the Plato's new society were designed to be established in three waves. Three waves to eliminate corruption, and bring in new principals and ideals. The three waves are as following
- A new ruling class of Guardians, established with only Philosopher-Kings.
- Guardians of the state, being a mixture of men and women.
- Guardians would live communally, without any private property of their own.
The first wave consists of new ruling class of Guardians, which to be established with only Philosopher Kings.
He defined philosopher as an individual who has a great affinity to knowledge. He believed that knowledge was the key to successful ruler. According to him; either philosophers should become kings or kings should become philosophers.
Plato's desire for this first wave was due to Athens disliking to people of high stature, and they considered Plato's kind as rogues, useless individuals who thought themselves better than the rest of society.
Plato's second wave was consisted of the Guardians being a mixture of men and women. This idea was very rational for Plato's time, because women were not involved politically in that era.
Women were not active politically until relatively modern times, it means that Plato was quite a knowledgeable philosopher, not just by ancient Greek standards, but also by modern day standards.
His third was that the Guardians would live communally, without owning any private property of their own. They would not even own any wealth. They would share their things, and in this way Athenians would lose their need to be jealous of another because of the class rankings. Envy would become non-existing because their would not be a concern with the possession of wealth. As everyone will be having same items, there would not be disagreements over who owns what.
What is an Ideal State according to Plato?
According to Plato a state is; "When a group of people get together and settle in one place, and who has various different requirements" .
This interpretation of how a society should be, can be seen as the base of all of Plato's idea of "Ideal State".
Everyone in the society has different requirements and needs different things, and the best way to achieve these different requirements is to work together, i.e., with having a mutual exchange system. The most important needs of the society were food, clothing, and shelter, and the best way to attain these needs would be, for individuals to attend certain tasks, like someone would be a builder, other would be a farmer or a weaver. Everyone should be having tasks according to one's abilities. A farmer should be growing food not only not himself, but also his family and whole community, and so on.
In his book Republic, Plato explains how he thinks life in his ideal state would be like, through the guise of character 'Socrates',
"They and their children will feast, drinking of wine which they have made, wearing garlands on their heads, and having the praises of the gods on their lips, living in a sweat society, and having a care that their families do not exceed their means; for they will have an eye to poverty or war. Of course they will have a relish salt, and olives, and cheese, and onion, and cabbages, or other country herbs, which are fit for boiling; and we shall give them a dessert of figs, and pulse, and beans, and myrtle-berries, and beech nuts, which they will roast at the fire, drinking in moderation. And with such a diet they may be expected to live in peace to good old age, and bequeath a similar life to their children after them". (Plato; Republic)
Flaws of the theory
We can't say whether or not those three waves of Plato's Ideal State, would be able to instate such a lifestyle which would effect, positively, even the most common of common farmers.
- A biggest fault of Ideal State theory is that the political structure that Plato wanted for state was never disclosed.
- Even with the philosopher kings, there isn't any law mentioned, this gives way to the crazy notion that there would not be any need of laws as the citizens would be so happy and blissful that they would have no need or want to commit any criminal act.
- It is pure wishful thinking from Plato that made him ignore all these fundamental elements from his ideal state.
- Three classes would be needed in his state; At the top, the rulers: they would be intellectuals who could think rationally. The middle class: who would be auxiliaries, who would be courageous and spirited military, and would be obedient to ruler. And the third class would be money-makers: farmers and tradesmen etc. They are not "working class" as they are allowed to earn money and own property.
- Plato warns that there is a need to take measures to stop excessive wealth or poverty, bounding the money makers to their class forever, just like everyone else to their class. Once born in a certain class, you stay there forever.
- It is also interesting that there is not a fourth class mentioned in his ideal state, " the working class", a class for slaves, as they are the ultimate working class. That doesn't mean that there were not any slaves in his ideal state, on the contrary, they were still very popular, but they were not considered to possess any human rights.
Misbah from The Planet Earth on April 06, 2021:
What a wonderful gesture, Amara
Amara (author) on April 06, 2021:
Thanks for stopping by and commenting Misbah my dearest.. I think I got a sister on HubPages, and a very supportive one.. ha ha.. Thanks for liking it, much appreciated.. Always stay blessed..
Misbah from The Planet Earth on April 06, 2021:
A very informative and well researched article, Amara. Thanks for sharing it dear sister. Much appreciated
Amara (author) on April 06, 2021:
Very true Manatita, thanks for your appreciation my beloved fellow.. It means a lot.. Salam..
manatita44 from london on April 06, 2021:
An interesting and thought-provoking piece. You will know that for the mystic, especially the Eastern mystic, philosophy and Spirituality are bonded together. In the West, it's reduced to a social science. Without looking inwards ... to the Heart, Truth will stay, like science, in the realms of the human mind ... his Academia.
A very noble effort, though. Om Shanti!