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Perseverance Rover: First 100 Days on Mars

I'm very much interested in Astronomy & Space exploration programs and a researcher on space missions.This article is part of my research.

seven minutes of terror Phase

seven minutes of terror Phase

Image of Mars Oxygen In-Situ Resource Utilisation Experiment (MOXIE) in JPL

Image of Mars Oxygen In-Situ Resource Utilisation Experiment (MOXIE) in JPL

Image of Ingenuity touchdown from rover

Image of Ingenuity touchdown from rover

First 100 day's on Mars: Perseverance rover

In February of this year, The SUV-sized Perseverance and its little helicopter buddy Ingenuity landed together inside Mars' Jezero Crater on Feb. 18, which was overlooking a critical phase of a multi-million-dollar mission that was hurtling towards the surface on another planet autonomously. When the communication came back the touchdown had been successful and humans had landed an SUV sized rover 339.49 million km away from Earth and Perseverance had reached its destination Mars 'The red Planet'.

Since that eventful day, engineers and scientists at Nasa and the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) have had a busy time. From maintaining the rover to moving it on the Jazero crater to rolling out a helicopter from underneath its belly, the trundling rover has been one of the most talked-about missions globally.

Now 100 days later, we look at all that the rover has done since it touched down on the Martian surface after surviving a heated entry into the atmosphere and landing via the sky crane, the videos of which have gone viral across the world.

Seven Minutes of Terror:

The most critical phase is entering into the martin atmosphere it is called as Seven minutes of terror. The rover landed at Mars' Jezero crater nearly seven months after its take-off from Earth, it is going to be the fifth Nasa rover ever to touch down on Mars after Sojourner twin rovers Spirit and Opportunity and Curiosity. Dubbed as the most advanced astrobiology lab ever flown to another world.

Perseverance touchdown inside a vast, rocky basin called Jezero Crater using the navigational cameras that spotted a perfect spot for the aerial crane to drop it. Upon landing, the rover beamed back a black and white image of the uninhabitable world it had just reached, where it will spend the coming years scouring for signs of ancient microbial life.

Why Jezero Carter?

The Jazero crater terrain is deeply etched by long-vanished flows of liquid water tantalising to scientists but especially treacherous as a landing site. It's full of the stuff that scientists want to see but stuff that I don't want to land on, Scientists believe it to be a site of an ancient lake and it is the place where there is more chances of finding ancient microbial life.

Two weeks after it landed on the planet, the rover took a short drive on the red planet's massive crater over a total of 6.5 meters putting on its odometer during a half-hour test spin on Mars. The rover rolled 4 meters forward, turned to its left and then drove backwards another 2.5 meters.

First time Capturing audio while Driving on another world:

Apart from being an astrobiology lab, the rover has been equipped with some of the most high-end instruments to make it as close to a living embodiment. One of those pieces of equipment is a mic that captured the audio of the rover moving on another world. In the audio clip released by the US space agency in March, bangs, pings, and rattles of the six-wheeled rover could be heard clearly. Two versions of the audio clip of the same drive were released by NASA. Perseverance documented Ingenuity's first five flights extensively, capturing video and audio of the history-making hops.

Parking Ingenuity on Helipad for first power flight on another world:

One of the high points of the mission so far has been the excitement around the Ingenuity, a small quadcopter. It is now the first aircraft to take flight on another planet adding an aerial dimension to interplanetary exploration. The aircraft was tucked in the belly of the rover to protect it from the immense heat of the Martian entry.

Ingenuity, which had been feeding off the Perseverance's power system, was dropped on the ground in 1st week of April after which the rover drove clear of the airfield as the little machine soared into thin Martian air to record its name in history books. The aircraft has conducted six flights so far since it was dropped on the floor of the crater.

Making oxygen from Martian atmosphere:

In another first for Perseverance, the rover converted some of the Red Planet’s thin, carbon dioxide-rich atmosphere into oxygen using a toaster-sized experimental instrument called the Mars Oxygen In-Situ Resource Utilisation Experiment (MOXIE). Isolating and storing oxygen on Mars could help power rockets that could lift astronauts off the planet’s surface. This is a critical first step at converting carbon dioxide to oxygen on Mars.

MOXIE has more work to do in the future. While the rover has already created a buzz across the world for its exceptional achievements, scientists hope to make new discoveries using the six-wheeled machine that is now Earth's latest venture on another planet.

NASA's Mars helicopter Ingenuity set for 7th Red Planet flight on mars on Sunday:

Ingenuity also flew to an un scouted airfield on its sixth flight, which occurred on May 22 and did not went smoothly. The solar-powered rotorcraft suffered a glitch that briefly interrupted the flow of photos from its navigation camera to its onboard computer. But Ingenuity managed to power through the anomaly, landing safely close to its designated touchdown spot.

Ingenuity was prepared to do the original mission with five flights, which got successively more complex and ambitious. NASA then granted a mission extension for the helicopter, which focuses on showcasing the scouting potential of Martian rotorcraft. Today's flight will be the second one in this new campaign.

Ingenuity Mars Helicopter made 106 meters jump during 7th flight:

On June 7,2021 NASA's ingenuity helicopter completed 7th flight on mars flying to 106 mts south. During this flight Ingenuity flew for 62.8 seconds and travelled ~106 mts south to a new landing area. 7th flight went completely well without any anomalies. But if the navigation system relied on the IMU alone, it would not be very accurate in the ling run. error would eventually lose its way. To maintain better accuracy over time, the IMU-based estimates are nominally corrected in a regular basis and this is where ingenuity's navigation camera comes in. For the majority of the time airborne, the downward-looking nav-cams takes 30 pictures a second of the Martian surface and immediately feeds them into the helicopter's navigation system. The navigation algorithm uses the difference between the predicted and actual locations of these features to correct its estimates of position, velocity and attitude.


Umesh Chandra Bhatt from Kharghar, Navi Mumbai, India on June 06, 2021:

Well compiled.

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