Skip to main content

Origin of the Universe

James A. Watkins is an entrepreneur, musician, and a writer with four non-fiction books and hundreds of magazine articles read by millions.


Origin of the Universe

The origin of the universe is our topic for today. How did the universe begin? How was the universe formed? How was the universe created? The creation of the earth? The creation of man?

To comprehend these topics, to answer these questions; will help us understand the purpose of life, the meaning of life. Is not the most important question: What is the meaning of life?

The word "Genesis" means the coming into being; the origin; the beginning; the creation. The Book of Genesis in the Holy Bible was written by Moses about 1666 B.C. (Before Christ). It begins with the Genesis Creation story, which explains the origin of the universe, the creation of the earth, and the creation of man.

The Genesis Creation story is widely accepted worldwide among billions of orthodox Christians, Muslims, and Jews today. They believe that God revealed to Moses—for our benefit—the origin of the universe.

Doubt has been cast upon the Genesis Creation story in the past 100 years or so by the ideas of Charles Darwin and the followers of Darwinism.

Genesis Creation

In the Genesis Creation story of the Holy Bible, it says that God created the universe, and everything in it. God created the earth and the heavens; the sun, the moon, and the stars.

God focused His energies upon the earth. On earth God created water, land, plants, seasons, and then all of the living creatures on land and in the sea.

Finally, God created human beings, in His own Image, male and female—the crown of His Creation. God formed man from the dust of the earth, breathed the breath of life into his nostrils, and man became a living soul.

God blessed man with the ability to mate and create new life—to reproduce himself. God instructed man to be fruitful and multiply. God gave man dominion over the earth.

God made human beings that they would have a relationship with Him, and relationships with each other. He made man a social being. God provides instructions as to how a man should live, but also gives man the free will to do as he pleases—during his lifespan on the earth.



Atheist View of the Origin of the Universe

There may have always been persons who did not believe in God. But it was the ideas of Charles Darwin that finally gave them an alternative cosmology to which they could confess. Cosmology means the nature and origin of the universe, and man's place in it. Darwin gave atheists a new man-made explanation of the existence and nature of reality—Creation without a Creator.

In this world view, the earth—teeming with over two million species of living organisms—is nothing more than a random, cosmic accident. There is no God. Life came from nonlife all by itself somehow. All species of life evolved from a common ancestor. Human beings are descended from apes; they are nothing more than mere animals; they have no ultimate meaning or purpose to their lives.



The Big Bang

Prior to the 1960s, atheist scientists, such as Carl Sagan, taught that the universe had no beginning; it is simply always was and always will be. This theory was beloved by atheists because it refuted the Genesis Creation story—that there was an origin to the universe.

Lo and behold, the Big Bang was discovered—which proves that the universe had a definite beginning. And that the universe will end.

Since the universe is expanding, the theory is, it was once just a little dot that suddenly exploded—and there is the origin of the universe.

The Big Bang idea was fought against for forty years by atheist scientists because it obviously confirms that the universe was created from virtually nothing at a single point in what we call time and space. Now, it is conceded by atheist scientists that the universe had a beginning—but it must have began all by itself.

Scroll to Continue


Origin of the Cosmos

"Now we see how the astronomical evidence supports the biblical view of the origin of the world....the essential elements in the astronomical and biblical accounts of Genesis are the same. Consider the enormousness of the problem: Science has proved that the universe exploded into being at a certain moment. It asks: 'What cause produced this effect? Who or what put the matter or energy into the universe?' And science cannot answer these questions.

"For the scientist who has lived by his faith in the power of reason, the story ends like a bad dream. He has scaled the mountain of ignorance; he is about to conquer the highest peak; as he pulls himself over the final rock, he is greeted by a band of theologians who have been sitting there for centuries."

"There is a strange ring of feeling and emotion in these reactions of scientists to evidence that the universe had a sudden beginning. They come from the heart whereas you would expect the judgments to come from the brain. Why? I think part of the answer is that scientists cannot bear the thought of a natural phenomenon which cannot be explained, even with unlimited time and money. There is a kind of religion in science, it is the religion of a person who believes there is order and harmony in the universe, and that every effect must have its cause, but there is no first cause...

"This religious faith of the scientist is violated by the discovery that the world had a beginning under conditions in which the known laws of physics are not valid, and as a product of forces or circumstances we cannot discover. When that happens, the scientist has lost control..."






Rare Earth Hypothesis

Atheism requires a belief that the Earth is a typical rocky planet in a typical planetary system, located in an unexceptional region of a common galaxy. Hence it is probable that the universe teems with complex life. But does science bear this out?

Our telescopes have searched 78,000,000,000,000,000,000,000 miles into the heavens in all directions, and yet we have found absolutely no other sign of life anywhere except on Earth. For complex life to exist, a rare habitat must first exist. The universe we see around Earth appears utterly hostile to life.

The entire universe is governed by laws. The laws of physics are balanced perfectly on a razor's edge for life to occur on Earth. There are thirty parameters for complex life to exist on Earth, and the space we inhabit meets them all.

To support complex life, the Earth must be precisely in the position it is, in our galaxy. The earth must be no closer nor farther than it is from the sun, which cannot be just any sun, mind you—only our particular sun will do. And only our particular moon will do too.

The Earth is the perfect size. If it was a bit smaller, we would not have the atmosphere and electromagnetic field necessary for life. If it was a bit larger, there would be too much air pressure, and land would likely disappear under water.

Complex life on earth requires a certain electromagnetism, temperature, and atmosphere. Oddly enough, Earth is perfect for living things. Atheists would say this is purely accidental.

The mathematical odds of complex life appearing on earth all by itself have been estimated at 1/1000th of one trillion trillion. I would say it requires a lot of faith to believe life is an accident. Faith in what? Faith in Charles Darwin—Darwinism.

If the power of gravity was weaker by one part in a trillion trillion trillion, we would have no planets or galaxies in the universe. If it were stronger by one part in a trillion trillion trillion, the universe would collapse.

For some reason, the Earth is in the perfect position for us to observe the heavens. No place else we have found in the universe has such a clear and unobstructed view of the universe itself.


1 The heavens declare the glory of God;
the skies proclaim the work of his hands.
2 Day after day they pour forth speech;
night after night they reveal knowledge.

We find God in science. The universe was designed for discovery—as were our minds—by a transcendent reality beyond space and time. God the Creator of all that has been, is, and will be.








James A Watkins (author) from Chicago on September 20, 2020:

T ~ Indeed it does. :D

T on September 13, 2020:

“Being called a” friend of yours “is a badge of honor for me!”

Sound familiar? :-)

James A Watkins (author) from Chicago on September 13, 2020:

T ~ Well, I appreciate you coming by to check out this article of mine. It is always a pleasure to hear from you, my friend.

T on September 12, 2020:

Well we don’t ‘need’ to watch it but someone like Randy, who says he gets his judicial knowledge from his wife who is a retired Judge, would do well to see how a homicide detective uses his expertise to prove the case for God. That is if he could put down his doobie long enough to watch it.

James A Watkins (author) from Chicago on September 12, 2020:

T ~ It links to a page where it presents an offer to download a 2-hour video. Thank you.

James A Watkins (author) from Chicago on September 11, 2020:

T ~ I am sorry but the link you kindly provided is dead.

James A Watkins (author) from Chicago on May 31, 2020:

MR Black ~ I cannot express how much your encouraging words have buoyed my spirit. Thank you for reading my work and expressing your approval and enthusiasm for it. I love the way you put this: "modern advocates of modern paganism in the guise of freedom to practice their 'free life-style', to engage in paganistic behaviour." Brilliant. Godspeed.


MR Black from UK, Europe on May 31, 2020:

Yours is a refreshing voice in an arena where the 'ism' i.e., atheism, evolutionism, humanism' etc. are stealing the limelight. How good to hear someone who understands the times, see the terminology and modern concepts being employed by modern advocates of modern paganism in the guise of freedom to practice their 'free life-style', to engage in paganistic behaviour. Great work.

James A Watkins (author) from Chicago on May 31, 2020:

Randy Godwin ~ Atheists love to represent their godless worldview as something new, and themselves as progressive people leaving the old—belief in Jesus—behind. But Atheism is older than Christianity. Three hundred years Before Christ (B.C.), Epicurus laid out an entire atheistic philosophy that is not much different from than that espoused by Facebook Atheists today: There is no God; there is no afterlife; moral codes are mere human constructions; there is no reason not to make the pursuit of pleasure your life’s purpose. Atheism is ancient. Listen to the words of St. Basil, written in the fourth century, “Some, deceived by the atheism they bear within them, imagined the universe deprived of a guide and order, at the mercy of chance.”

Before Christ, the Romans routinely practiced and approved of homosexual behaviors, pedophilia, bestiality, fornication, adultery, divorce, abortion, infanticide, and suicide. It was Christianity that was new after A.D. (the Year of our Lord) 33. And it changed the world by placing moral prohibitions on these ancient customs. So today’s Facebook Atheists are yearning to return to something quite old among the human race. They are backward thinking—not forward thinking.

Randy Godwin from Southern Georgia on May 30, 2020:

Still no proof of there being only one god, James. I don't believe one exists and you have nothing to prove one does, much less proving there is only one.

It does make it easy to explain things we don't understand to attribute them to some god or another, but this is what ancient man did with lightning and thunder along with other natural phenomena.

As far as the origin of universe is concerned, try studying matter and antimatter as the cause of the Big Bang. Science can explain what your god cannot.

James A Watkins (author) from Chicago on May 30, 2020:

Jack Lee ~ Thank you for taking the time to read my work here. I am glad we are in agreeance about the parameters required for life to exist. I appreciate your thoughtful insights.

Jack Lee from Yorktown NY on May 29, 2020:

you are correct about the 30 or so parameters in order for life to exist. Even the existence of the moon in its size and rotation is necessary to stabilize our earth's own rotation for the 4 seasons to occur.

James A Watkins (author) from Chicago on February 13, 2020:

T ~ Well, my friend, you are too kind. Thank you for the encouraging word.

The Logician from then to now on on February 12, 2020:

James I have resigned myself to the fact that if I were to think I disagree with anything you say I would need to re-evaluate my opinion immediately. I have learned so much from your articles and comments and am deeply grateful for them.

But Genius? I humbly choose to think of that possibility (applied to me) as merely the blessing of un arrested brain development. :-)

James A Watkins (author) from Chicago on February 12, 2020:

T ~ As I am sure you aware, I agree with you virtually all the time. That can only be because you are also a genius. ;)

James A Watkins (author) from Chicago on February 12, 2020:

T ~ Thank you for sharing with us that spectacularly deep explication by Aron Moss. I’m digging it.

James A Watkins (author) from Chicago on February 12, 2020:

Randy Godwin ~ How do you suppose this Cosmos got here without God? Where did Life come from? Whence came Consciousness, and self-consciousness?

James A Watkins (author) from Chicago on February 12, 2020:

T ~ Thank you for saying so. I appreciate your gracious commendation.

The Logician from then to now on on February 10, 2020:

He raises a straw man every time. Here, it is that your assertions are nothing but opinions which can be no better than his! no better than his solely based on what? the idea that there are no absolutes, just opinions of which none are better than his?This is serious mental defect.

He says: “ I place your god in the genre as the Easter Bunny and Santa Claus.”

And because that’s his opinion nothing else matters? What he fantasizes has nothing to do with reality, he is incapable of perceiving anything beyond his deranged whimsical thoughts!

The Logician from then to now on on February 10, 2020:

James you will never be able to put in language that he can understand the answer to his question because his brain is incapable of effective cognitive function. This becomes more and more clear every time he asks a question and you answer it. Then he asks another question that clearly demonstrates he was incapable of understanding your last answer. But hey, let’s give this a try.

“The definition of G‑d is: “a Being without definition.” G‑d cannot be defined, because if I define Him then I limit Him. And something limited is not G‑d. By defining something, I give it borders. If, for example, I define an apple as a sweet round fruit that is green or red, then when I find a long purple fruit, I know that it can’t be an apple. An apple is limited to being round and red or green. That is its definition. G‑d can’t be defined, because by defining Him you are saying that there’s something He can’t be; but this could not be true, because G‑d is unlimited.

That’s why there can be only one G‑d. Because if you don’t have a definition, then there is nothing outside of you. There can be no “other.”

An example: two neighboring countries can be called two countries only when there is a border between them. But if a country has no borders, if there is no defined place where it ends and another country begins, how can you say that there are two countries?

G‑d has no borders, so how can there be more than one god? Where would one god end and one begin, if there is no dividing line between them?

The act of creation is the act of making borders and drawing definitions: this is an apple and not a banana, this is land and this is sea. Creation has definitions. The Creator doesn’t have a definition. That’s what makes Him G‑d. And that’s why there can be only one.“

By Aron Moss


Randy Godwin from Southern Georgia on February 10, 2020:

I suppose you can prove there's only one god, James? You don't have proof your god is any more real than the other ancient gods. Simply your opinion which is no better than mine. I place your god in the genre as the Easter Bunny and Santa Claus.

Look forward to your proof. I hope you don't try to use the old novel to back your claim.

The Logician from then to now on on February 10, 2020:

Well I like the way you answered.

Always the best!

James A Watkins (author) from Chicago on February 10, 2020:

T ~ Your comments are absolutely brilliant. I especially love this that you wrote: "Science is the intellectual and practical activity encompassing the systematic study of the structure and behaviour of the physical and natural world through observation and experiment. It is a systematic study, not a proof of anything."

James A Watkins (author) from Chicago on February 10, 2020:

There is only one God. Men have for millennia made demons and other men into gods. But they have no creative power. There is only One Creator.

James A Watkins (author) from Chicago on February 10, 2020:

Randy Godwin ~ The religions of the world and their founders are often grouped together but they show very little common character. Pagan mythology and folklore about goblins in the woods, elves, leprechauns, fairies of the forests, trolls, and nymphs—from Valhalla to Mt Olympus we have stories we sympathize with as men or we wouldn’t be human. But these myths were never a religion in the sense that the Christian Faith is a religion. Odin and Thor and Freya are on par with Jack and the Beanstalk not Jesus of Nazareth.

The pagan feels the presence of powers about which he guesses and invents. Paganism is an attempt to reach the divine reality through the imagination. Mythology differs from religion as a landscape painting differs from a real landscape. The painting may look very much like a landscape. The chief difference is that a picture is not a landscape.

A lot of folks do not realize that the subject in college and high school known as the study of “Comparative Religions” was dreamed up by people who were anti-Christian. They saw that in the 1950s 99% of all Americans believed in Jesus and their idea of how to defeat Christ was to make it seem to the young that Jesus was just one of many “seers” or “great moral teachers.” The overarching idea was to bring Jesus down to the level of Buddha, Moses, Confucius, or Mohammed—and eventually make him equal to L. Ron Hubbard, Apollo, Baal, or the local witch.

The big difference between the Christian Faith and all other religions is that the others are based on the teachings of a person such as Mohammed or Buddha; Christianity is founded on what is taught about the person of Christ. The Christian Faith is not about believing in His teachings; it is about believing in what is taught about Him. The Creeds of the Christians do not mention the teachings of Jesus but instead articulate who He is.

It is not true that all religions are different paths to the same place. The founders of other religions were not rivals vying for the crown Jesus wears. Mohammed, Moses, Buddha, and Confucius never made the claims Jesus made. In no other religion besides the Christian Faith is a man presented as God Incarnate. Jews do not think Moses to be Jehovah; Muslims do not think Mohammed is Allah.

Only in the Christian Faith is the very Name of its founder said to possess supernatural power.

The Logician from then to now on on February 09, 2020:

Lol, James can he be more predictable?

“Since there are numerous gods in our history“

He starts with a straw man (as always) to base his comment on! There is and has only ever been one God. Then this;

“Science cannot prove they do not exist--“

Science can’t prove anything in and of itself. Many “scientific proofs” have been found to be wrong.

Science is the intellectual and practical activity encompassing the systematic study of the structure and behaviour of the physical and natural world through observation and experiment. It is a systematic study, not a proof of anything.

The pot smuggler once again displays his total inability to reason soundly and predictably what will come next out of his mouth will be name calling, condescending ridicule or Demeaning rhetoric because he can’t come up with a talking point to rebuke your answer to his ruse James.

Randy Godwin from Southern Georgia on February 09, 2020:

Since there are numerous gods in our history--and Science cannot prove they do not exist--which of them were responsible for creating the universe James? Or was it a group effort of say, Thor, Odin, and Quetzalcoatl?

James A Watkins (author) from Chicago on February 09, 2020:

PT ~ Real science cannot say that God did not create the Universe. And it cannot say that Man was not specially designed by God as the crown of His Creation either. Science agrees with Genesis that man had a beginning at some point, and so did the Universe. Science has lately come round to the truth that the fundamental information that makes for all living things cannot be reduced to energy or matter. And the mainleist thing in the Universe is information, which never comes from anywhere but a source of intelligence.

Andrew Parker, Research Director at the Natural History Museum in London, an evolutionary biologist who does not profess to believe in God, was stimulated to look at Genesis 1 after a number of people had written to him, suggesting that his research on the origin of the eye seemed to echo the statement, “Let there be light.” He was very surprised by what he found: “Without expecting to find anything, I discovered a whole series of parallels between the creation story on the Bible’s first page and the modern, scientific account of life’s history. This at least made me think. The congruence was almost exact. The more detail is examined, the more convincing and remarkable I believe the parallels become. … Could it be that the creation account on page one of Genesis was written as it is because that is how the sequence of events really happened? Here, then, is the Genesis Enigma: The opening page of Genesis is scientifically accurate but was written long before science was known. How did the writer of this page come to write this creation account? I must admit, rather nervously as a scientist averse to entertaining such an idea, that the evidence that the writer of the opening page of the Bible was divinely inspired is strong. I have never before encountered such powerful impartial evidence that the Bible is the product of divine inspiration.”

The truth is that planet Earth is extraordinarily unique. It was created for a purpose: to be inhabited by human beings. It ought to be evident that Earth was uniquely designed as our home. Look at how fine-tuned the Universe is to support life on Earth. You are more important than the Universe in which you find yourself.

Scientists used to claim that the Universe had always been here and would always be here—thus proving Genesis wrong, being their motive for making this claim. When other scientists determined the Universe, in fact, had a beginning and will one day end, that evidence was fought against for decades by the scientists entrenched in positions of power because they were afraid to admit anything that might make Genesis look to be true.

Allow me to quote Bill Bryson: “And so, from nothing, our universe begins. In a single blinding pulse, a moment of glory much too swift and expansive for any form of words, the singularity assumes heavenly dimensions, space beyond conception. In the first lively second (a second that many cosmologists will devote careers to shaving into ever-finer wafers) are produced gravity and the other forces that govern physics. In less than a minute the universe is a million billion miles across and growing fast. There is a lot of heat now, ten billion degrees of it, enough to begin the nuclear reactions that create the lighter elements—principally hydrogen and helium, with a dash (about one atom in a hundred million) of lithium. In three minutes, 98 percent of all the matter there is or will ever be has been produced. We have a universe. It is a place of the most wondrous and gratifying possibility, and beautiful, too. And it was all done in about the time it takes to make a sandwich.”

James A Watkins (author) from Chicago on February 09, 2020:

PT ~ Even atheists agree that the Universe and everything in it can be traced back to an ultimate creation event - that the Universe and all its space-time dimensions had a beginning. That IS evidence for a Creator God; some refuse to see it. They have no other explanation.

The Bible, thousands of years ago, taught us that the Creation continues to expand; that it operates by fixed laws; that one of those laws is a pervasive 'Law of Entropy' or decay; that life appears as a procession from simple to more complex, culminating in the Creation of Adam; that life appears in a progression from merely being alive to 'soulish' (having intellect, will, and relational capacity) to spiritual (creative, cultural, morally aware, worshipful). Men wrote it down millennia before modern science emerged, which is evidence that they had received revealed wisdom from God.

The Creation, according to the Holy Bible, began when God created all matter, energy, space and time—the Universe—instantly and subject to physical laws. He made the Cosmos as our home. Science says that the Big Bang was an enormously powerful yet perfectly fine-tuned burst of Creation, in which time, space, matter, and energy all came into existence in an instant, along with the physical laws that govern them, from a source beyond our universe. In other words, the Bible and Science agree. The Bible gave us this knowledge thousands of years ago—scientists largely disputed the idea until relatively recently. Score one for the Bible.

James A Watkins (author) from Chicago on February 09, 2020:

PT ~ You are welcome. Thank you for the further engagement. I enjoyed your Huffington Post article. I appreciate the link you kindly provided.

Your article notes mostly what I already said, that the Genesis account is remarkably accurate even though it was written over 3,500 years ago. However, the article says, “Genesis’ third day is out of sequence. Plants, grass, and fruit bearing trees, did not appear until after sea creatures.”

That is not a known fact. That is mere speculation. Many things in the Bible have been declared “Wrong!” only to be proved “Right!” later.

The writer claims that in “A review of how the 12 elements of the biblical creation story compare to science. … One is scientifically wrong: the creation of man.” Again, I say he is wrong. There is no proof that man ever evolved. There is no proof that man was not created just as God said he was.

Your man observes, “When Genesis was written about 4000 years ago, humans were almost universally illiterate. … nevertheless, the writers of the Bible somehow figured out that creation occurred first with the universe, then the Earth, then light, then water, then land rising out of the water to separate land and sea, all in the proper order according to contemporary science. Then, most amazingly of all, these ancient Hebrew scholars and Old Testament writers figured out, in accordance with modern science, that the origins of life started in the water. Scientific information on the subject was not developed until over 3500 years later.”

He rightly adds: “So the creation of Earth and life is as God reported it. If a few things in Genesis are out of order, maybe science will later discover that Genesis was right. … The beginnings of earth and life as reported by Genesis correspond very closely with current scientific knowledge.”

PT on February 06, 2020:


My comment was not about God it was about the mechanics of the universe. And if God did it, the question to be answered is how?

Considered the belief that the Universe was created 13.5 Billion years ago, but our solar system is believed to be only 4.5 Billion years old.

The time between 1666 BC and "508, Copernicus developed his own celestial model of a heliocentric planetary system. Around 1514, he shared his findings in the Commentariolus. "

James, I have read Genesis many times and I still don't see what you see in it. I regard you as an authority on Religion as I have mentioned previously.

You mention Genesis being in step with scientific knowledge about the universe. Can you help me with some examples of how science and Genesis give the same results?

When I read Genesis, I read the words and how they connect into a story. I take them at face value, but if they are read with only the idea that these are words from God then that will be the take away from Genesis whether they make sense or not.

So before we discuss it, tell me your view on the value of Genesis. Does it come from verifiable truth, or just a message from God?



It looks like your CC has come to a stop?

James A Watkins (author) from Chicago on February 06, 2020:

"God created man in His image, and He wants us to recognize and know His design for the universe: The chief aim of all investigations of the external world should be to discover the rational order and harmony which has been imposed on it by God." - Johann Kepler

The Scientific Revolution only happened in Christendom, a society immersed in the Christian worldview, which is that a creative, rational intelligence is behind the Cosmos and its natural laws. Only Christianity had taught man that God's world is orderly and designed for discovery by His human image-bearers. Only in the Christian view did Creation have a definite beginning; experience unique stages of development, and is moving towards a purposeful end.

In medieval universities science was first institutionalized, taught generation after generation. A large number of Catholic priests made significant discoveries over the centuries, including especially Georges Lemaitre, the proposer of the Big Bang Theory.

The foundation of science rests on truths that cannot be discovered scientifically. The scientific enterprise cannot stand alone in providing comprehensive answers to life's ultimate questions. It takes a certain kind of world for science to even be possible, and it was only the Christian Worldview that enabled science to emerge and flourish.

Science does not have all the answers. Scientists believe in energy and consciousness, but they do not know what they are. Genesis tells us who we are and from whence we came. The more science has examined the world, the more it agrees that the Genesis account is the accurate sequence of events. In other words, what Genesis says happened is true even though it was written 3400 years ago by a man who was no scientist, but a conduit through whom God speaks to us.

Life never emerges from non-life. Science cannot explain the existence of life. Science says that the Universe came into being from nothing in less than one minute. And all of a sudden, here is a million billion miles of space, with ten billion degrees of heat in it. And within three minutes all matter that will ever be has been created. Science has no idea how that happened. Moses knew.

Worshipers of Science love to claim that they follow facts while Christians have blind faith in fairy tales. But the Bible teaches that true faith is built on reason and evidence. The Bible, in both Testaments, shows us that it is essential to test any truth claim. The scientific method, in fact, has its origins in Scripture.

Belief in God and Jesus is rational, not blind faith. It is based entirely on evidence. Science cannot explain everything. The opposite of knowledge is not faith but ignorance. The opposite of faith is not knowledge but unbelief. Spiritual growth involves increasing our understanding of God and Jesus, and of the Cosmos in which we find ourselves.

Science and faith are not opposed. Science cannot exist without faith, without trust in the comprehensibility of the Universe; trust in the laws of reason, logic, and mathematics. Faith simply means 'confident belief in the truth, value, or trustworthiness of a person, idea or thing.'

James A Watkins (author) from Chicago on February 06, 2020:

PT ~ Thank you very much for coming over to read my Hub. This is one of my personal favorites of those I have written. I appreciate your thoughtful insights and interesting questions. I will quote from my first book, if you don’t mind.

In Genesis, we meet God. Without a doubt, He is presented to us as a living Person, who speaks and acts. God has always been. There has never been a time when He was not. He lives outside of time, which was created for us. God is transcendent. That means He is beyond and above all He has made, which is everything except Himself. God is independent of this universe, but all of it is dependent upon Him. We should worship Him, for He is worthy of our adoration.

Now, back in the beginning of time, everyone knew the origin of man and the world. But over many centuries, myth was piled on myth—fictions invented by men who claimed to have ‘special insight.’ The Book of Genesis was revealed to Moses to set the record straight; to clear away the fog of pagan falsity. Everything that exists is the Creation of the One and Only True God. And He set human beings apart and above the rest of His Creation.

Moses wrote the first five books in the Bible, as God revealed to him what HE wanted humankind to know. These books are called the Torah, a word which means ‘instructions from God to man.’

“In the beginning, God created the heavens and the earth.” Thus begins the most read book in human history. God created this pale blue dot on which we live, by speaking it into existence.

“God created man in his own image.” God made humans—and only humans—to be like Him. This gives us an innate dignity and value. God formed Adam’s body from the earth and breathed his soul—his living being—into him. The only creatures that are able to carry on a conversation with God are human beings. Like our Creator, we have personalities, rational minds, creative abilities, and moral principles. But we also have the free will to reject Him.

God brought the animals and birds He had made to Adam to see what he would name them. Naming things is called taxonomy and it is at the heart of science. The Scientific Revolution only happened in Christian lands because the Bible taught that God created the universe and the laws of nature in an orderly fashion, and gave mankind rational minds capable of investigating the world in which he was placed, in order that man might learn about God by studying His infinite creative intelligence—His handiwork: the universe and its creatures.

The Bible tells us the truth about the nature and origin of reality—which includes the creation of space and time. Our seven day week commemorates the Creator, who exists in time and space as well as outside it. Unlike days, months and years, the week does not correlate with any solar or lunar patterns. It is divinely ordained.

The Earth is the center of the Universe—not physically, but in every way that matters. It is teeming with an unbelievable array of life suspended in an endless black void of space utterly hostile to life. No doubt man shares much chemistry with the world of nature. He had to be able to breathe air and absorb nutrients. But the striking thing about man is not how similar he is to animals, but how amazingly different from animals we are. The first lesson God taught Adam is that he is fundamentally different from all other living things.

Human beings did not ‘evolve’ from lower life forms. God created us as we are. When you read the oldest Bible stories, thousands of years old, the hearts and minds of the people are easily recognizable. They are just like us. We haven’t evolved. In fact, recent studies show that the human race is devolving; the average individual growing less intelligent as time unfolds, in spite of our obvious advances in technology.

Man is the crown of creation. Man is the point at which the spirit world touches the world of the senses. Man is bound to matter in this life, and this puts him in constant peril of succumbing to the purely animal life of the senses and the passions.

Genesis, which means ‘origins,’ is a narrative of real events from the moment God created our cosmos. God told Moses what happened, and Moses faithfully wrote it down for us. Genesis is narrated by One who knows what people are thinking, and sees what they are doing, even when you are alone.

PT on February 04, 2020:


I must preface my comment here by saying that I have trouble watching movies or TV shows that while creating a sense of realism compromise it to make their story.

For example, don't build up a character as being super agent, or super cop, or super vigilante then having that character make a dumb decision.

This usually happens somewhere in the story when the character is caught by the bad guys who don't kill him on sight, but capture him. Then at a subsequent time, he or course gets free and finishes the movie accomplishing his goal.

Or building the sharpshooter that can hit anything he sees, and then have a gunfight in a closed area like a big room and have him miss his shot.

Yes, I know that makes the story, but I unlike the majority can't dispense from reality in the light of entertainment. It is different if the character or the plot is not serious.

This leads up to my comment.

First, I don't like being labelled period, especially in religion or politics. I make my own decisions and opinions. I am not a mainstream follow the crowd.

Please separate my thought process from what you may think our my beliefs.

As for genesis and the big bang theory, I have trouble taking either one of them as the factual or evidentiary truth.

Albert Einstein tried his entire life to develop a Grand Unified Theory. We the people of the Earth have learned a lot from religion and science, but it has shown us how much we don't know.

It is like that old phrase, it is not what doctors know but what they don't know that kills us.

Even in our own solar system, we don't know what is space. And because we think of the universe as being homogenous, if we figure out our solar system, then we have the answer for the universe.

The Book of Genesis written as you say by Moses in 1666BC is very ambiguous, vague and it most likely contains all the knowledge of even the most brilliant people. Yet, we have the quandary of the simplest knowledge of today.

"The Copernican model displaced the geocentric model of Ptolemythat had prevailed for centuries, which had placed Earth at the center of the Universe"

Notice that I have left out the controversy of Copernicus and the Church. The point here is that consensus doesn't make truths, it just makes beliefs.

The Big Bang Theory from 1916 replaced the cosmic egg theory, and today there are scores of theories trying to replace the big bang theory.

Theory is the key to this discussion. Theory is a belief of truth, but it is not itself a truth.

The arguments concerning BBT which is God less and Genesis which is all about God don't have be opposite.

We can believe that God created the Universe, and all these scientic theories of the universe can try and find out how God did it.

But, I think you will agree that Genesis doesn't explain how, it just describes the results of the process.

Here is a question that is interesting.

The BBT states that are part of the Universe didn't exist for 9 Billion years, and it is 4 and a half Billion years old itself.

Of course, these are scientific assumptions based on the BBT and the explosive force of the bang and the maximum speed of light.

These are still assumptions, and there are questions when scientists think that the bodies in the universe are still moving away, as they figured they should instead be contracting.

There are many theories since 1916 that are being explored to augment or improve on the BBT.

The question is how does the information in Genesis stand up to even these theories, as far as the details of the creation?

This comment is not about the existence of God but about the mechanics of the Universe.

James A Watkins (author) from Chicago on February 12, 2019:

T (and Elijah) ~ I recently published a book that might interest both of you:

James A Watkins (author) from Chicago on February 12, 2019:

T ~ Thank you for taking the time to read my articles. I appreciate the link to that video. I agree with you 100% that "churches and pastors don't spend enough time elaborating on Satan and just who he is and his significance in this fallen world."You ask "why you haven't broached the subject of Satan in a Hub Page." Well, I have! Here is the link:

James A Watkins (author) from Chicago on February 12, 2019:

Thank you for chiming in Elijah A Alexander Jr.

James A Watkins (author) from Chicago on February 12, 2019:

Susie Mann ~ In my second section I did say, "God created the earth and the heavens; the sun, the moon, and the stars." So I said 'heavens' in the plural. However, there is nowhere in the Bible where it states that Heaven is a "Dimension of inner dimensions," as you claim. The Heavens are above us, or all around us, not in us.

Your statement "Last year Scientists have found billions of Universes, so we are not alone" is absolutely false. Scientists have not found any universe except the one we are in. Science fiction speculates about multiverses but that is not Science.

You might be right that "Our Earth is billions of years old" but no one KNOWS that. They take it on faith.

I totally agree with you that a conscious, intelligent, personal, intentional Being existed before light existed. Thank you for your comments.

The Logician from then to now on on October 16, 2018:

That should be well presented not we'll presented. I hate auto correct, I turned it off but it is still doing it!

I guess my fingers are just too big, where can I get a pair of Trump hands?

The Logician from then to now on on October 16, 2018:

And we'll presented it is. I'm adding it to my HP on atheists, abortion and the gay agenda.

Elijah A Alexander Jr from Washington DC on October 16, 2018:

T, thanks for that link, I have not meditated on "Satan" to realize the facts presented in it.

Elijah NatureBoy

The Logician from then to now on on October 15, 2018:

I really enjoy reading your hub pages, James. You write on such diverse subjects but to me most compelling of all are your hub pages on aspects of Christianity and "religion" in which I cannot find anything with which to take issue.

I saw this video the other day and it made me wonder why you haven't broached the subject of Satan in a Hub Page. My guess is your take would mirror this:

I think churches and pastors don't spend enough time elaborating on Satan and just who he is and his significance in this fallen world.

Elijah A Alexander Jr from Washington, DC USA on September 01, 2018:

Susie, Read my post, I based it on the Bible but not as it is generally interpreted. You will also find I called the universe "Zeroverse" since the Phoenix metaphor I used for it has a time it becomes ashes and out of them rises again. Some of my hubs explain a continuity of this earth and human-made world upon it.

Susie Mann on August 31, 2018:

So much. To start with if you are quoting the Bible, God created the Heavens and the Earth.. Heavens being plural. Heaven is a Dimension of inner dimensions. Last year Scientists have found billions of Universes, so we are not alone. Our Earth is billions of years old.

Mankind has been over a hundred thousand years . In your first or so paragraph, James, you left our one very important thing, GOD CREATED LIGHT. The Jews believe there was Darkness before God Created Light. A very advanced form of Quantum Physics can explain this thr

ough atoms etc.. But Consciousness had to exist before Light appeared. Where did this Consciousness come from??? Answer that question and everything else comes into play of how ALL was


James A Watkins (author) from Chicago on August 31, 2018:

Elijah A Alexander Jr. ~ I sincerely appreciate your comments. Thank you for taking the time to read my article.

Elijah A Alexander Jr from Washington DC on July 30, 2018:


My vision is it has never had a beginning like a day never had a time it wasn't, although there was a time (per Rev. 21:23) when there was no sun and Genesis (1:14) reveals it being reignited. The Phoenix is the metaphor I use for explaining it.

The story suggests the Phoenix live for 500 years [of what cycle I know not] then, like sunset to dark, it burns itself into ashes where just before it's rebirth the ashes [not in the narrative] are made into an egg by another life-force that hatches into the Sunbird at the transition. At the point of the next life-force taking over the previous one leaves. "And The Beat Goes On," throughout the total Zeroverse [I call it because of the Phoenix half is positive and the ashes half is negative with zero makes it the whole verse and not only half of it].

That's what I see, James.

James A Watkins (author) from Chicago on July 29, 2018:

Elijah A Alexander Jr ~ I very much appreciate you taking the time to read my article and offer your commentary on it. Thank you for sharing your thoughtful, insightful ideas. So . . . you believe the universe itself is infinite? As in, the universe has always been here and will always be here? Was it created or did it create itself? Are you a Pantheist or Atheist?

James A Watkins (author) from Chicago on July 29, 2018:

Walmir ~ Thank you! Thank you very much.

Elijah A Alexander Jr from Washington DC on September 25, 2017:


I am an ex Christian who followed the teachings and example of the one called Jesus the Christ. His teachings included he had "no place to lay [his] head ... follow me" (Mat. 8:20-22), judge nothing (Mat. 7:1-2), forsake everything man depends on (Mat. 19:29), go into all the world observing all things (Mat 28:19-20) and become born again (John 3:2-8) that includes all of the above.

I was spiritually born August 6, 1976 and became the wandering seekers of truth. In doing so I even forsook the concept of god (Isaiah 7:14-16) and good and evil while considering my being made in the image and likeness of god (Gen. 1:26-28). I recognized my body to be the "image" and the definition of man, "mind able to comprehend all things", as the likeness. In using that as the likeness I wondered how am I suppose to comprehend all things if I there are things I am not to do because to understand one has to "objectively observe, participate to discover various outcomes, reason with the outcomes and learn how to communicate the findings to others" as education is defined.

That education caused me to look at many prohibited things and found purposes which I have written in a hub just posted today entitled "The Bible's Message" which will show us existence has never began and will never end. Since man see lineally we require a beginning but our comprehension without judging shows us everything happens continually in what our lineal view sees as a cycle but everything that is has always been and will never cease being.


Elijah aka Natureboy

Walmir on August 25, 2013:

That's a sharp way of thikning about it.

James A Watkins (author) from Chicago on November 16, 2012:

Paul Baker— Thank you very much for taking the time to read my work. I appreciate your fine comments and questions. You asked:


Not exactly. Aristotle said so and most churchmen believed him until he was proven wrong. I find that much of the skepticism regarding God as the Creator of the Universe is the result of misunderstanding what science has discovered about the cosmos in which we exist. The Copernican Principle is a mistaken conclusion drawn from the Copernican Revolution. The Earth is the center of God's Universe regardless of the fact that it is not the center cosmologically. To understand this, we must first come to grips with the difference between Earth and any other place in our Universe.

You can read my full explanation in this very short little Hub:

Galileo was a devout Catholic. He stated that "Both the Holy Scriptures and nature proceed from the Divine Word." Pope Urban VIII was pleased with him, admired him, and welcomed his discoveries. Urban publicly praised Galileo and gave him many fine gifts.

You can read about this controversy in this brief article:

As for the men who launched the Scientific Revolution, they were all devout Christian men. You may read about them here:

PAUL BAKER WINSFORD UK on November 12, 2012:


James A Watkins (author) from Chicago on May 13, 2011:

gem33— Thank you!! Thank you very much! :D

gem33 on May 12, 2011:

awesome. you have my attention

James A Watkins (author) from Chicago on February 10, 2011:

Jeremy— No culture's history claims to go back further than about 5,000 years. All over the world this is so. Yet, over the past 200 years there has been a growing push by "advanced modern man" to completely forget what's left of our true ancient history of only thousands of years in total, to be replaced by the mythical "millions" of supposed years, that we are cosmic accidents and for us to stand together against our Maker. "Aliens" (i.e. fallen angels; the familiar spirits or false gods of old in new disguises) will soon be able to step in to complete the coming anti-history falsehood. Please don't fall for the spiritual deception of evolution and all of the things that belief in evolution then leads to.

I disagree with every point you made. But I defend your right to make them. Thank you for visiting my Hub and for your remarks. Every word in my Hub is the Truth. You wishing it wasn't so will never make it not so.

Jeremy on February 06, 2011:

Wow, the sheer amount of ignorance here is astounding!

Lets start with Stephen Hawkins Wave Function of the University theory. This theory has shown time and again that our universe has a 95% probability of coming into existence from nothing and forming exactly, or a very close approximation, to our universe today. It does not need any substances to exist prior to the Big Bang event. Interesting question for you now. If a God did it, wouldn't the equation work out to 100%?

Next the "everything is perfect for life."

If our gravity was more or less we would be stockier or wispier respectively. Our planet can actually move up to a million miles in either direction and still sustain life.

Life could also evolve around larger or smaller stars depending on where the "Goldilocks" zone is on that star.

I've seen some lies about atheists here as well. I have my reasons for not believing in a god, and none of them have to do with not wanting to live "right." Well unless, that is, living right has to do with molesting choir boys, then you are correct. Aren't generalizations and stereotypes fun?

Darwin never wrote ANYTHING on cosmology. He never said what started life on this planet. Evolution does not say we came from apes. Evolution does not deal with how life got started. At least be honest when you attack. Any point you might have made is instantly washed out by either ignorance or dishonesty. It should also be noted that Charles Darwin believed in the Christian God. Uh oh.

The probability of life is not 1/1000. There is a 92% probability that life will form in our universe.

I'm sure my ranting wont stop the defamation of character attacks or the slander. I very seriously doubt one person in this hub has every honestly read up on the evidence supporting evolution or the big bang theory. As they say, ignorance is bliss, I suppose.

James A Watkins (author) from Chicago on December 13, 2010:

tlpoague— That's OK. I am glad you came by when you did. I am glad we are in agreeance. Thank you for your laudatory remarks. And you are welcome. I am behind on my reading too. :-)

Tammy on December 12, 2010:

I am falling behind on reading some of your hubs, but just wanted to say... Great article! You cover so many interesting and informative topics. Thanks! I believe that God is the creator and foundation of our life. Great job once again!

James A Watkins (author) from Chicago on December 11, 2010:

twentyfive— Thank you for the compliment, and the "Thumbs Up." I am well pleased that you found this interesting. It is one of my personal favorites.

twentyfive on December 10, 2010:

Great article. This is a topic that's always so interesting. Thumbs up :)

James A Watkins (author) from Chicago on November 30, 2010:

no body— Thank you for taking the time to read my Hub. I always appreciate your presence on HubPages. I agree with your comments, especially this:

"Atheists are extremely religious. It actually all comes down to this for them: if God exists then I must behave accordingly. I don't want to live accordingly so I choose not to believe no matter what evidence exists. I choose my own religion that does not include God."

James A Watkins (author) from Chicago on November 29, 2010:

Neil Sperling— The pleasure is all mine. :D

James A Watkins (author) from Chicago on November 29, 2010:

Gary London— Welcome, stranger, to HubPages. Thank you for taking the time to read my article. I appreciate your thoughtful comments, too. I think the Big Bang gave some Darwinists nightmares so the multiple universe idea was dreamed up to settle their nerves. :D

Robert E Smith from Rochester, New York on November 29, 2010:

I love how the Lord makes Himself as plain as day to anyone that really looks up. Any Religionist can obstinately look down or close his eyes and mind but anyone that is fair and honest in the inspection of the universe sees God everywhere. It takes more faith to do that then to believe in God. Atheists are extremely religious. It actually all comes down to this for them: if God exists then I must behave accordingly. I don't want to live accordingly so I choose not to believe no matter what evidence exists. I choose my own religion that does not include God.

James A Watkins (author) from Chicago on November 29, 2010:

Glenn Raymond— You are quite welcome. Thank you for the laudations. I sincerely appreciate your affirmation and encouragement.

James A Watkins (author) from Chicago on November 28, 2010:

Sarah Mclean— Thank you very much for your accolades! I'll be coming over to check out your Hubs soon. Welcome to the Hub Pages Community! :-)

James A Watkins (author) from Chicago on November 28, 2010:

skye2day— You are welcome. Thank you for your beautiful comments and gracious compliments. I appreciate the love and "hugs galore." As you know, I agree with your words. Especially this:

"The truth will be revealed to all one day."

Yes. That it shall. And what a terrible day that will be for the rebellious.

Neil Sperling from Port Dover Ontario Canada on November 27, 2010:

My Pleasure

Gary London on November 27, 2010:

Of course, scientists have just stated they think the Big Bang was actually the last bang, as it was preceeded by a load of other bangs. Ergo, God was blowing up a lot of ***t before he got round to making all of this. Thinks, were actually is *this* anyway?

James A Watkins (author) from Chicago on November 27, 2010:

kappellonyc— The Bible doesn't say how old the earth is. To equate the Bible with Greek myths deprecates the beliefs of billions of human beings. But it is surely within your rights to do so. While it is within your rights to do so, my point is that your worldview should not be shoved down the throats of every child in America against the wishes of their parents.

Thank you for visiting. And for your excellent comments. It is good to hear your point of view.

James A Watkins (author) from Chicago on November 26, 2010:

Neil Sperling— I love these brilliant comments you have made here. I agree with your concepts. Thank you for making them. I greatly appreciate this visit and your words.

Glenn Raymond from Bailey, Colorado on November 26, 2010:

You have done an excellent job on this hub. You researched it and presented it very well. A subject like this must be handled from many perspectives in order to grab readers from each belief and you have done this wonderfully. Thank you for publishing such an impressive piece.

Sarah Mclean on November 25, 2010:

You really one great writer! I can't wait to read more of your hubs. I was amazed by this hub.

skye2day from Rocky Mountains on November 25, 2010:

Amazing writng James. Your research always amazes me. Science has not proved evolution or any other reason for creation. It will never be proven because the truth is the truth. God was is and always will be. Science is fascinating but for anyone to take on existence as a theory is too smart for their own soul. One day every knee will bow and know, He is Lord, King of Kings and creator of all. Praise God. Science has Blessed us with much but no bang theory or other theory stands.

You got some slack on this hub and you held up to truth in Christ. Rock on brother. The truth will be revealed to all one day. Thank You for sharing wisdom and the love of Jesus Christ. Love you Brother. Hugs Galore. I pray eyes are opened to Christ the aurthor and finisher of our faith.

kappellonyc from new york on November 24, 2010:

Science gives us a pretty good dating for the creation of the universe, which as I understand it does not match the bible in terms of how old the earth is. As one who has spent a number of years, 30 in discovery, meditation and such, only one thing made any sense to me, Deism and Evolution. My gut strongly in meditation says deism and evolution, and the bible understood as a cultural reference of the times, as the Greek myths etc...

Neil Sperling from Port Dover Ontario Canada on November 24, 2010:

Darkness pervaded all before light came for darkness is the absence of light. As light (knowledge) was added to light (as in light from a bulb or the stars and sun) all ignorance and darkness disappear and the glories of the universe came into being and consciousness was able to see the creation that always was.

Either by creationism, the big bang, evolution or what ever.... without conscious knowledge of the existence things there is nothing. As with sound vibrations.... without an eardrum and consciousness there is no sound, only vibrations.

The question as I see it should be "when did consciousness begin?"

James A Watkins (author) from Chicago on November 24, 2010:

SirDent— Thank you for that link, brother. I will surely come over to read your new Hub soon.

SirDent on November 23, 2010:

Just to let you know, I published the hub I spoke of earlier. The link is

Enjoy it if you can.

James A Watkins (author) from Chicago on November 23, 2010:

Kristeen— Thank you! Thank you very much!! :-)

James A Watkins (author) from Chicago on November 23, 2010:

RTalloni— I don't believe in aliens from outer space either. I believe there are illegal aliens in America. :-)

Thank you for reading my work. I appreciate your warm words.

James A Watkins (author) from Chicago on November 22, 2010:

RTalloni— Your husband is a wise man and a good man. I agree with all he said. Thank you for conveying that to me. It sounds like y'all had an interesting conversation during that long drive.

I'll respond to your message later today. I've got to run out for a spell.

James A Watkins (author) from Chicago on November 22, 2010:

Tamarajo— Thank you for your gracious compliments. I like what you wrote, especially this:

"Blessed be the ones who have believed without seeing."


I am well pleased that you enjoyed this piece, and I appreciate you saying so.

James A Watkins (author) from Chicago on November 22, 2010:

Polly— Love blooms on the HubPages!?

James A Watkins (author) from Chicago on November 22, 2010:

Toronto Realtor— Yes, I agree with you that this is THE question of life and needs to be carefully ruminated over. Thank you for visiting my Hub and leaving your words.

Christine from Michigan on November 22, 2010:

Wonderful hub James. It gives all glory to God!

RTalloni on November 21, 2010:

Tamarajo reminded me of Proverbs 4...that the path of the righteous shines brighter and brighter...

I guess I'll have to take a look at the marriage hub now, but I'm still going to watch the this one. Maybe my dh and I will bet on it. :) I think I'll check on the aliens hub too...dh says there aren't any. ;-)

RTalloni on November 21, 2010:

My husband, as we are making a long drive this weekend and I am checking on comments to this hub, says, "Even if we had all the information about the origin of the world, and even if that knowledge gave us all the answers to the resulting questions, mankind would still be in the same condition with the same ultimate need and God would be our same Creator that He has always been."

The rest of the conversation is about mankind's need for a Redeemer, God's provision in Christ, God's infinity compared to our finite selves... Maybe one day my dh will join HP conversations himself. Anyway, I'm going to leave another comment for myself since this one is his. :)

Tamarajo on November 21, 2010:

Beautiful James!! I love how scientific discoveries are now affirming and confirming what the ancients knew all along.

It will all be revealed one day. Blessed be the ones who have believed without seeing. Sometimes I think once we believe it is then that He lets us see how it works.

Well presented as always. Loved it!

James A Watkins (author) from Chicago on November 21, 2010:

Austinstar— You are most welcome, my dear. Thank you for your kind and gracious comments.

Don't you worry a bit about "inciting" anyone. How can we ever learn about each other if we refuse to "hear" each other. I hear you. And I am grateful that you hear me. God Bless You!

James A Watkins (author) from Chicago on November 21, 2010:

paulgc— You are most welcome. Thank you for taking the time to read my Hub and respond. You wrote:

"over the centuries man has contradicted each other every time a new and more plausable theory arose."


I certainly appreciate your idea of first learning to live among and exhibit love to your fellow human beings. Surely, this is of paramount importance. It is good of you to come on here and point this out.

James A Watkins (author) from Chicago on November 21, 2010:

onegoodwoman— You are welcome. My, you are surely worthy of your name—onegoodwoman. I greatly appreciate your accolades, your kind compliments. Thank you for your gracious comments.

James A Watkins (author) from Chicago on November 21, 2010:

onegoodwoman— Wow! What profundity! I am absorbed into your simple yet complex concepts. Fantastic! Thank you so much for sharing your incredible ideas with us. I agree with you.

Pollyannalana from US on November 21, 2010:

Austinstar, what name did I call you? I went back and see nothing I called you, I simply said I love you.

James A Watkins (author) from Chicago on November 21, 2010:

secularist10— You are a person of fine intellect, to be sure. I always welcome your comments. I appreciate your grace and courtesy. Thank you for joining in on the discussion.

James A Watkins (author) from Chicago on November 21, 2010:

Paraglider— I must admit that you know far more about gravity than do I. I read about the trillion trillion trillionth argument in a book. Perhaps it is not correct. Thank you for the reproof.

James A Watkins (author) from Chicago on November 21, 2010:

Polly— Thank you for coming back this your excellent rejoinder. It is one thing to not believe. It is entirely another to convince the innocent not to believe.

James A Watkins (author) from Chicago on November 21, 2010:

Kaie Arwen— You are welcome, my dear Kaie. Yes, the followup Hub about Evolution was published a few minutes ago. I do know that you like fantasy. But I never knew you longed to be a fairy.

It is indeed all about TRUTH. You hit the nail on the head, as you always do. It is a pleasure to see you. Thank you for your graciousness. I appreciate your laudations above all others. :D

James A Watkins (author) from Chicago on November 21, 2010:

Coming of Age— No worries. Just keep on keeping on. :-)

James A Watkins (author) from Chicago on November 21, 2010:

Jason R. Manning— Witty! Thank you for providing some levity. We must be able to laugh at ourselves. As you say, it cuts the tension.

James A Watkins (author) from Chicago on November 21, 2010:

Coming of Age— Well, you certainly came back strong. Nice riposte. Thank you for engaging in the conversation here. It is quite lively! :D

Related Articles