Yusrat is a high school student from Bangladesh. She writes about Science & Technology.
If you are a fan of fantasy or science fiction or at least you have watched or read some of them (Hunger Games!) on some point of your life, you are already quite acquainted with the concept of multiple universe. Or even if you are pious then must have heard of the term pretty much often in your life. Other than religion or sci-fi, multiverse is also a popular concept of science. The idea being that within this thing we call time and space, there are other dimensions where reality differs from our own, sometimes slightly, sometimes radically. Interestingly enough, this idea is not restricted to fiction and fantasy or religion. Since we, human, always desired to explore the world beyond our vision, the hypothesis of multiple universe always showed up before eccentric eyes. That’s physicists called Multiverse Theory.
The theory goes like this: that there may be multiple or even an infinite number of universes (including the universe we consistently experience) that together comprise everything that exists: the entirety of space, time, matter, and energy as well as the physical laws and constants that describe them. In this context, multiple universes are often referred to as parallel universes because they exist alongside our own. Well it is bit creepy, I mean the idea. But the idea of multiverse isn’t that new. In 1895, American philosopher and psychologist William James coined the term for the first time. However, the scientific basis of it arose from the study of cosmological phenomena like black holes and problems arising out of the Big Bang theory. For instance, it is believed that a singularity exists within black hole – a point at which all physical laws cease – and where it becomes impossible to predict physical behavior.
Allah the Only Lord of All the “Worlds”, Plural
well, with the plural form of the word "world", it is clear the multiverse exists. It is clearly stated in the Noble Qur’an that Allah is the One and Only Lord of the whole of existence, as it were. There are seven verses in the Quran describing seven heavens. One verse says that each heaven or sky has its own order, possibly meaning laws of nature. After mentioning the seven heavens, another verse says, "and similar earths". Which implies Parallel Universes
One of the oft-repeated descriptions of God Almighty as given in the Qur’an, which Muslims believe is His word, is that He is the “Lord of the worlds.”
Many other quotes from Holy Quran implies that fact of existence of multiple world or universe.
“He is God, the Creator, the Maker who shapes all forms and appearances! His [alone] are the attributes of perfection. All that is in the heavens and on earth extols His limitless glory: for He alone is almighty, truly wise!” (Qur’an 59:24)
“All praise is due to God alone, the Sustainer of all the worlds.” (Qur’an 1:2)
"O company of jinn and mankind, if you are to pass beyond the regions of the heavens and the earth, then pass. You will not pass except by the authority [From Allah]" (Qur'an 55:13)
Mark the word "Worlds" and "Heavens"
Multiverse and Physics
In physics, Multiverse, also known as as an omniverse or meta-universe, is a group of universe that comprise the entirety of space, energy, time, matter and every physical phenomena including all laws of physics. The Multiverse is an extremely controversial idea, but at its core it's a very simple concept. You will see how scientists argue over this simple concept every day! Just as the Earth doesn't occupy a special position in the Universe, nor does the Sun, the Milky Way, or any other location, the Multiverse goes a step farther and claims that there's nothing special about the entire visible Universe. Multiverse Theory gives scientists a wide landscape to play with different physical conceptions. For instance, multiverse theory proves the existence of more than 4 dimensions, that we experience in our daily life. while explaining M-theory, several more dimensions are required. Physicists believe but cannot yet prove that there exist up to 11 dimensions in the multiverse. Yes, the multiverse, where universes are bubbles that sometimes come together or split apart.
Then Multiverse and Multiple Dimension are Same?
Not really. Multiverse refers that there are more than one universe exists out there. each of them has their own law of nature plus the reality can be defer from what you experience in our daily life. Suppose, Gold looks yellow in our world. But in other universe that may look green or red! But you cannot tell the reality you would experience there is wrong because that's the law of nature, true for only that world. Multiverse Theory introduces us extra dimensions. And these extra dimensions are responsible for shifting of reality.
On the other hand, In physics and mathematics, the dimension of a mathematical space is informally defined as the minimum number of coordinates needed to specify any point within it. Thus a line has a dimension of one because only one coordinate is needed to specify a point on it – for example, the point at 5 on a number line. Dimensions are nothing but a mathematical expressions for the space you are walking upon! So even though Multiverse Theory and Dimensions are connected with each other but they are not the same at all: completely two independent concepts.
Brian Greene's nine types
The American theoretical physicist and string theorist Brian Greene has been working in developing M-Theory for years. We always experience 3 dimensions. But to implement M Theory, additional 7 dimensions are required! M Theory suggests Total 10 dimensions space and 1 dimension for time.
Greene discussed these nine types of multiverse.
The quilted multiverse works only in an infinite universe. With an infinite amount of space, every possible event will occur an infinite number of times. However, the speed of light prevents us from being aware of these other identical areas.
The inflationary multiverse is composed of various pockets in which inflation fields collapse and form new universes.
The brane multiverse version postulates that our entire universe exists on a membrane (brane) which floats in a higher dimension or "bulk". In this bulk, there are other membranes with their own universes. These universes can interact with one another, and when they collide, the violence and energy produced is more than enough to give rise to a big bang. The branes float or drift near each other in the bulk, and every few trillion years, attracted by gravity or some other force we do not understand, collide and bang into each other. This repeated contact gives rise to multiple or "cyclic" big bangs. This particular hypothesis falls under the string theory umbrella as it requires extra spatial dimensions.
The cyclic multiverse has multiple branes that have collided, causing Big Bangs. The universes bounce back and pass through time until they are pulled back together and again collide, destroying the old contents and creating them anew.
The landscape multiverse relies on string theory's Calabi–Yau spaces. Quantum fluctuations drop the shapes to a lower energy level, creating a pocket with a set of laws different from that of the surrounding space.
The holographic multiverse is derived from the theory that the surface area of a space can encode the contents of the volume of the region.
The simulated multiverse exists on complex computer systems that simulate entire universes.
The ultimate multiverse contains every mathematically possible universe under different laws of physics.
A Fishbowl and Theories
The easiest way to understand how the universe is to consider it as a large black fishbowl. Let's pour the fishbowl with water and fishes. Now as the bowl is black, will the fishes be able to see how the world looks from inside? The answer is No, they won't be. In fact, With our current technology, we are limited to observations within this universe because the universe is curved and we are inside the fishbowl, unable to see the outside of it (if there is an outside.)
Here are the five most popular scientific theories suggesting we live in a multiverse:
1. Infinite Universes
Scientists can't be sure what the shape of space-time is. But most likely, as far as they can assume, it's flat and stretches out into infinity. But if space-time goes on forever, then it must start repeating at some point, because there are a finite number of ways particles can be arranged in space and time.
So if you look far enough, you would encounter another version of you — in fact, infinite versions of you. Some of these twins will be doing exactly what you're doing right now, while others will have worn a different sweater this morning, and still others will have made different career.
Because the observable universe extends only as far as light has had a chance to get in the 13.7 billion years since the Big Bang (that would be 13.7 billion light-years), the space-time beyond that distance can be considered to be its own separate universe.
So, Space-time may stretch out to infinity!
2. Bubble Universes
In addition to the multiple universes created by infinitely extending space-time, other universes could arise from a theory called "eternal inflation." Inflation is the notion that the universe expanded rapidly after the Big Bang, in effect inflating like a balloon. Eternal inflation actually suggests that some pockets of space stop expanding, while other regions continue to swell up, thus giving rise to many isolated "bubble universes."
our own universe, where inflation has stopped, now allowing stars and galaxies to form, is but a small bubble in a sea of space, some of which is still inflating, that contains many other bubbles like ours. And in some of these bubble universes, the laws of physics and fundamental constants might be different than in ours as number of dimensions might vary, making some universes strange places indeed.
4. Daughter Universes
"And in each universe, there's a copy of you witnessing one or the other outcome, thinking — incorrectly — that your reality is the only reality,"
Columbia University string physicist Brian Greene wrote in "The Hidden Reality."
In fact, Quantum mechanics reigns the tiny World of subatomic particles. Another theory of multiple universe also arise from QM. Quantum mechanics describes the world in terms of probabilities, rather than definite outcomes. And the mathematics of this theory might suggest that all possible outcomes of a situation do occur — in their own separate universes. For example, if you reach a crossroads where you can go right or left, the present universe gives rise to two daughter universes: one in which you go right, and one in which you go left.
Multiverse in Brief
3. Parallel Universes
Another idea that arises from string theory is the idea of "braneworlds" — parallel universes that hover just out of reach of our own. It is may be the most fascinating and most popular among multiverse theories. This theory suggests that each universe is parallel to each other and or even they can overlap.
Imagine there 9 dimensions exist and consider each of them as a sheet of newspaper. This sheets are called membranes or "branes". The idea comes from the possibility of many more dimensions to our world than the three of space and one of time that we know. In addition to our own three-dimensional "brane" of space, other three-dimensional branes may float in a higher-dimensional space. these brane universes aren't necessarily parallel and out of reach. Sometimes, they might slam into each other, causing repeated Big Bangs that reset the universes over and over again!
In additional to these, there is another rather unpopular theory which is known as mathematical universe. Theorists believe that another possible avenue of multiple universes is exploring mathematical universes, which explain that the structure of mathematics may change depending in which universe you reside.
There may be many controversies about the existence of multiple universes but the truth is multiverse theory isn't loathsome at all. It has united the pop culture Enthusiasts and Physics Enthusiasts in a splendid way. I believe multiple universes exist but you may not. Truth can't be denied that is Multiverse theories are actually mind blowing.
© 2019 Yusrat Sadia Nailat