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Evolution Of Telescopes


Deep Desire Of Humanbeing To Know about Celestial Bodies

With the help of telescope,they could see distant objects very comfortably and conveniently. Our scientists used to take the help of hollow pipes made from bambo and other things to see distant objects because at that time there was very little development of technology and as soon as this development progressed and humans have developed many types of instruments in each field. Since then scientific progress has been successful in making such instruments well.
Since time immemorial, people have been in the habits of finding out more knowledge about the far objects and to know what they are actually and why they are so far from us and why they are in existence? All the intellectual people around the world who were very interested in seeing the celestial bodies tried to make themselves intellectually improved so that they could get some special knowledge of the celestial bodies. Therefore, to improve their knowledge and intellectual ability, they started making such types of instruments. In the beginning these instruments were ordinary and could not help to see distant objects clearly. Yet those people without the help of advanced instruments collected many types of information about the celestial bodies, their motion , their sizes and their distance from our earth.

There Was A Need Of A Device To Observe Celestial Bodies

People were unable to clearly see the countless objects in the sky. To see the celestial objects clearly, the astronomer made a device called a Telescope. With the invention of telescope, people started seeing not only celestial objects but also all distant objects. After the invention of lenses, this was easily made. The modern telescope was first made in the Netherlands in 1608 AD. Concave and convex lenses were used to make it.The modern telescope was first illustrated by Giovan Bautista and Galileo designed a telescope of high quality and high magnification power, which was a refracting telescope. Later, Galileo made many improvements in his telescopes and increased its efficiency up to nine times, due to which the planet Venice could be seen easily. It was revealed from Galileo's telescope itself that the planets in our solar system revolve around the Sun's orbit. And a lot of information was obtained about the galaxy. This telescope had a concave reflex lens and a convex objective lens. The substances of lens often contained impurities.

When we look at the planets with the Galilean telescope, the rings of rainbow are visible around the planet and on the outer edges. To solve this problem, Johannes Kepler invented a new and best telescope. This telescope used a concave lens instead of a concave lens unlike the Galilean telescope. In this telescope, a thin tube has laces at both ends. Both ends of these telescopes are closed with a lid.

Duch Astronomer Christian Hyginus, influenced by Gallelio, built a very powerful telescope in 1655. It was a telescope without a tube. With the help of this, Saturn's moon 'Satny Luna' which is now called Titan was studied. The planets and Solar System were studies by this Telescope. In 1668, Sir Isaac Newton designed the first reflective telescope, in which the mirror was used. The problem of chromatic aberration was solved with this telescope. In 1789, William Herschel made the first reflecting telescope, which was similar to Newton's telescope. In 1845 AD, William Porsons made a telescope which was made of mirrors of a special type of alloy. The name of this telescope was "Pasrsistown Leviathan", which was 15 meters long. with the aid of The nebulae used to be studied.It was occluded for some time in 1908 and again reconstructed in 1990.


Reflective, Refractive And Hybrid Telescopes

Reflective Telescope is used to observe the distant objects based on the principal of reflection, that mean the image formed of an object is formed due to reflection of light. By this optical device, the images of distant objects are bright. In this telescope a concave mirror of larger diameter is used in place of the objective lens so that the maximum amount of light coming from the distant object can be collected at a point. Thus it is called reflector or reflecting telescope.In this type of telescope a concave mirror of greater focal length and larger aperture is used so that large quantities of light coming from distant object can be collected at a point and the image may be clear. The mirror is fixed at one end of a small tube, a plane mirror is kept in the tube some distance in front of the focus of the mirror. This plane mirror is alwaysy placed making an angle of 45° with the principal axis. A convex lens of shorter focal length and shorter than it is fitted in a thinner tube near the wider tube. Which acts as an eyepiece.Because concave mirror is used in this telescope so the image of the object in this is brighter than in the refracting telescopes and the objective is of large aperture and the eye lens is of small aperture.

Convex lenses are used in refracting telescopes. The first lens called objective lens is on the aperture side and the light coming from the object passes through this lens. There is a second lens called apsis, placed behind the focal lens. The sin of the aperture remains on the far side of the object, which is always increased from the apis because a greater amount of light coming from the object can enter the telescope. a few cm small spotting telescopes have an additional lens to make the image look straight. When objects are viewed with a refracting telescope, their image can be colored. The appearance of such colored images is called scattering of light. The distortion of aberration is that of lenses to correct the two-way focuspad for different light colors. The quality due to varying this distance has to be improved. Combination of multiple components to produce good lense Due to which the telescope becomes expensive. Such telescopes are used to examine the visible light region of the electromagnetic spectrum. With the help of this, the Moon, Jupiter, Mars and other types of double stars are seen. This can obstruct the atmosphere to see objects. Therefore, it is planted at high places.

Such telescopes which are made using both refractor and reflector principles are called compound or catadioptic telescopes or hybrid telescopes. It was made by German astronomer Bernard Rimmt. Today's popular hybrid telescopes have two mirrors, a primary one and a secondary mirror. Good quality lenses are also used.

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Modern Telescopes

Till now the telescopes were used only by keeping them on the earth. The study of celestial bodies was obstructed due to dust, smoke, air and water vapor around the earth. Therefore, scientists thought of a device through which the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) was able to accomplish this thing. It was placed in Earth orbit in the 1990s. The 'Ultra Deep Field' is the most sensitive of the pictures ever taken. This is the NASA Space Agency's Great Observatory Series, which includes the Chandra X-ray Observatory, Spitzer Space Telescope, and the Compton Gamma Ray Observatory.

This universe of ours is full of many mysteries. To investigate this matter, the James Webb Telescope was built, which is a kind of infrared observatory. It was launched at 7:20 a.m. on December 25, from the French Guiana European Space Station Ariane 5 rocket by Space Ahency NASS. It was placed in the orbit of the Sun at the second Lagrange point or L2, about 1 million miles from Earth, on January 24, 2013. And now it will be able to give important information about space in the coming time.

India's contribution to the knowledge of space science in the history of the world since arise of early civliciviliz had been amazing. ISRO's Liquid Telescope has been no less than anyone. Leaving all telescopic technology behind, India too develoved a telescope which is made of a thin film of liquid Murcury.

Space is yet to be known very well, for this scientists are working day and night. Telescopes will still be greatly upgraded. In the future much advanced Telescopes will be invented, which will work on the principle of pin hole camera based on optical fiber technology. it will be easily available to everyone by Metaverse. With the help of computriized programs they will be run in through mobile applications..


© 2022 Samar Vir

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