Rob is an avid traveller and self-confessed 'man of the world'. He is passionate about his home city, Manchester, & travelling the world.
Manchester Architecture Vernacular
Once known as 'Cottonopolis', the City of Manchester in northern England was, during the 19th century, the largest producer of cotton garments in the world with something like two thirds of the worlds cotton output coming from the city. Manchester was at the very heart of the international cotton and textile trade and a considerable number of advances in industrial technology were developed in the city. The industry on which the modern city was built was reflected in the city's architecture. Huge mills and warehouses dominated the Manchester architecture scene. These mills and warehouses formed the city centre with a doughnut of Victorian terraced housing and poorly built back-to-back dwellings forming a dense inner-city area.
By the mid-19th century Manchester's architecture was exemplified by cotton mills - the dark satanic mills as they came to be known across Lancashire. There were over one hundred cotton mills in Manchester, many good examples of this fine period of architecture in Manchester still stand today and have been converted for more modern uses such as apartments, hotels, offices, restaurants and even a cinema and bowling alley. By the early part of the 20th century however, the textile manufacturing industry had fallen into decline with more than 85% of those working in the cotton industry being made unemployed. Cotton production had started to move to other parts of the world, closer to the raw materials, and where labour was far cheaper. These once great mills became empty and fell into disrepair. And yet worse was to come: before any the regeneration of Manchester could be attempted, further damage was inflicted during the second world war, followed by a period of intense destruction and the clearance of land for new development.
Architectural Juxtaposition in Manchester
Huge new social housing projects were created - many of which would not even see out the end of the century, so badly did they fail - and new offices and hotels were built to the then-fashionable modernist architecture designs of the 1960s and 70s British and international architecture scene. But investment and employment opportunities were lacking and the population of the city continued to fall sharply. Entire families found themselves out of work and unable to get back into employment. Social problems deepened and the city found itself destitute and in serious decline.
Rebuilding Manchester in the 21st Century
As the 21st century approached a new generation of planners, architects and public officials started to spring up from the rubble and drag Manchester into the future with vision, ambition and a renewed sense of enthusiasm which had been lost for so long. Modern Manchester architects like Ian Simpson and Roger Stephenson were the architects that the city needed to demonstrate its intentions and thrust the city into the new millennium. After an IRA bomb destroyed part of Manchester City Centre in 1996 the city was united in launching Manchester into the 21st century, and for the first time in years there were new landmark buildings popping up that people were proud of and which were visible totems of this renewed sense of vigour and vitality.
New Circle Square mixed-use development in Manchester
Manchester Architecture Poll
Today, Manchester City Centre is modern, cosmopolitan, safe, vibrant and still distinctly Mancunian, and the architecture in the city aptly reflects this new confidence. Below are just a few of the new building projects which have been built within the last few years that represent Manchester's ambition and success. Of course, the city also attracts a lot of international attention through the continued success of Manchester United and Manchester City football clubs.
The Iconic Beetham Tower
Completed in 2006 and reaching a height of 157 metres and 50 floors this was, for a short time, the tallest residential building in Europe and the tallest building in the UK outside of London (a title since taken by a more recent addition to the Manchester skyline). The building has won many architecture and design awards and is possibly the best example of the new wave of bold architecture in Manchester.
The lower half of the building is a 285 bed Hilton hotel with a spectacular cocktail bar on the 23rd floor offering awe-inspiring views over Manchester and the surrounding area. The upper floors feature 219 residential apartments including a stunning duplex apartment on the top floors which the project's architect, Ian Simpson, has since made his home. This apartment has the largest floor plan of any apartment outside of London.
Manchester Civil Justice Centre
This 17-storey, 80-metre shining example of modern architecture in Manchester was completed in 2007 as part of the Spinningfields development in the City Centre. It houses 46 court rooms and is the largest purpose built law courts to be built in the UK since the Royal Courts of Justice were built in London in 1882. At the time of completion the building had the largest glass wall in Europe, but many agree that the most interesting feature of the architecture is the way in which the building's floors cantilever at the sides. Some of these floors cantilever out of the building to 15 metres. It's this feature that has given it the nickname of the 'filing cabinet'. The architectural design of this stunning building is the work of the Australian architecture practice, Denton Corker Marshall. The building has also won numerous architecture and design awards.
National Football Museum
Completed in 2002 it was this glass-clad that really signalled Manchester's growing ambition and intent upon entering the 21st century and is an iconic example of modern Manchester architecture. At only 6 floors high it's not the tallest building but its striking aesthetic certainly draws the eye of all passing visitors. Here the architect designed a stunningly simple, yet very elegant glass building that slopes its way down from a height of 35 metres. For the first 10 years of it's life the building contained a permanent museum dedicated to the modern city. It also had temporary exhibits but many felt that the space inside was never effectively utilised. Since 2012 the building has been the home of the National Football Museum which moved from its former base in Preston. As with the Beetham Tower, this iconic structure was also designed by local Manchester architect, Ian Simpson, who is responsible for much of the 21st architecture and skyscrapers in Manchester.
One Angel Square
In 2008 the Cooperative Group, a company founded and based in Manchester, announced plans for a new HQ building and the redevelopment of several million square foot of land in the northern part of Central Manchester.
Completed in 2013 the new Cooperative Group headquarters, One Angel Square, set the bar at a very high architectural level for other new developments to come in this part of the city. The double-skinned building is one of the most environmentally sustainable office buildings in the world and is ultra low carbon. One Angel Square, part of the NOMA estate, is 72.5 metres tall with 17 floors and holds more than 3000 workers. The building was designed by architects 3DReid and demonstrates that architecture in Manchester continues to excel.
The new building is the centrepiece of a large new public square that highlights quality architecture in Manchester and also quality landscape architecture.
The Imperial War Museum North
Berlin-based Polish architect Daniel Libeskind won an international competition held in 1997 for the design of this iconic building. Situated just over a mile outside of the centre of Manchester at The Quays, the Imperial War Museum North (or IWMN) was officially opened to the public in July 2002, the same summer in which Manchester hosted the Commonwealth Games. Being given the opportunity to design the building was something very close to the heart of Libeskind as, hailing from Poland, he had lost dozens of family members during the second world war.
Libeskind says of his design, "I wanted to create a building that people will find interesting and wish to visit, yet reflects the serious nature of a war museum. I have imagined the globe broken into fragments and taken the pieces to form a building, three shards that together represent conflict on land, in the air and on water." This is a great addition to the architecture in Manchester.
Manchester Architecture Poll 2
This content is accurate and true to the best of the author’s knowledge and is not meant to substitute for formal and individualized advice from a qualified professional.
© 2013 Robert Clarke
Robert Clarke (author) from UK on May 05, 2013:
Thanks for the comment srsddn. Manchester has certainly changed a lot on the last 20 years but is still a great place to live and study.
Sukhdev Shukla from Dehra Dun, India on May 04, 2013:
iammattdoran, Thanks for sharing all these wonderful architectural additions to Manchester. I wish I could visit it once again and see the changes/additions myself after a gap of two decades. I was a student at University of Manchester in 1991-92. It is a great city and I love it. Voted up and pinned.
Michael Zhang from Beijing, China on March 28, 2013:
Ok, thank you very much for your advice! I think I'll have sufficient time to enjoy England!
Robert Clarke (author) from UK on March 26, 2013:
Thanks for the comment playtime. Most visits to England don't tend to stray too far out of London. I'm not saying there's a whole lot to see and do in Manchester but it's a pretty cool city to visit.
Michael Zhang from Beijing, China on March 25, 2013:
Really attractive guide for me as I'll travel to the UK this summer. Thanks a lot for your efforts to converge them together!