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Background on Migration
- Migration is the movement of human being from one region to another with the aim of settling in then new place temporarily or permanently. The process of migration has occurred all through human history, for instance Adam and Eve were the first migrants to move from the Garden of Eden to the wilderness. Since then, men and women alike alongside their families become migrants at one time in their life.
- Migration can be internal where people move within the borders or externally where people move from one country to another. It can occur in large groups such as ethnic tribes or just within members of a nuclear family.
- There are many causes of migration, part of them can be voluntary and in most cases it is usually involuntary. Some of the reasons why people migration include, war, ethnic cleansing, job search, slave trade, religious purposes, or natural calamities such as extreme weather changes.
- The topic of migration has led to a number of studies from various scholars; some of them include the Feminist, Marxist and Regional views.
- Feminism is a collection of ideologies, practices and belief that seek to define, establish and defend women rights in the economic, political, cultural and social rights. For example, politically, feminism seeks to attain equal voting rights, political position just like their male counterparts. Economically, issues of gender workplace discrimination in terms of remuneration and hiring are fought against. Thus feminism strives to defend the rights of women in all spheres.
- Feminism views migration as an aspect that largely affects women more than it does to the male counterparts. When migration occurs, women loose their source of livelihood, move away from strong social fabric or may undergo various forms of exploitation and discrimination during and after migration.
- The ontological and epistemological perspective of feminism and migration occurred in the 19th century in the USA when the both the white and women of color fought for their rights to participate in voting rights. It also focused on abolishing slave trade and sex trafficking among the immigrant women.
- One of the leading causes of migration according to the Feminist perspective is political instability. When governments fail to put sustainable measures that address the welfare of its citizenry or acquire greed for power, it is usually the masses that are affected. Thus political systems in a place largely affect the trend or patters of migration in that area. For example, politically stable regions are likely to experience an influx of immigrants in search of opportunities.
- Given that migration challenges directly affect the wellbeing of women, the topic of migration has been of great importance in the Feminists studies which continues to carry out more research on the same.
- Marxism looks at the social, political and economic philosophy of the society in a bid to eradicate the misuse of the poor by the rich. Thus his approach is aimed at helping migrant communities assimilate faster and easy in their receptive countries.
- The epistemological and ontological viewpoints stem from the desire of Marxist in eliminating classes between the different social and economic classes in the society. He identifies the roles of labour mobility under the capitalist system in relation to migration patterns within and without borders.
- The subversion theory of migration supported by Marx, acknowledges the effect of human consciousness in the socio-economic structures of the society.
- According to Marx, subversion theory takes the form of both political and economic revolution in determining the pattern that a given kind of migration takes place.
- Marxism, recognises political influence in affecting the economic structure of a society ,which has direct impact on the migration pattern as exhibited between the different social class
- There are many regions in the world, depending on the standard used, examples of regions include continents, countries, trading blocks, regions and sub divisions within a country. Each region represents a different set of policies and regulation regarding the movement of people within and outside the regions.
- The regional viewpoint of migration looks at the patterns of migration within specific regions. The region can be divided into various parts including continental, country wise or be further divided within a country’s context such as district or towns.
- The ontological and epistemological viewpoints of regional migration stems form the fact that some regions experience high turnover of immigrants. For instance, war tone regions such as the Middle East experience high tendencies of people migrating from one country to another in search of peaceful settlement. Whereas, there are regions that experience minimal tendencies of migration such as the Soviet Union.
- Regional migration is in most cases instigated by political systems, this is one of the reasons why it is rampant in areas that are political unstable compared to those that are stable.
- Regional migration also studies that policies and governance issues that affect migration in specific regions, for instance, some countries have stringent rules for immigrants compared to others.
Migration is an aspect that has been in existence since time immemorial, when it occurs; it affects migrants in a number of ways. Studies that have been conducted seek to understand some of the causes, effects and patterns of migration in different parts. The Feminist view is more concerned about the effect of migration on women, Regional perspectives studies that various regions and their characteristics towards migration whereas Marxism, studies the effect of economic , social and political systems on the patterns of migration.