The Master Teacher and His Lessons And Lectures
The "ERUDITE" Dr./Prof. John Henrik Clarke
Learning To Read And Write African History
What I have learned thus far about African history is that I am still trying to be half of what the Master Teachers were up to the point of writing this Hub. What I am saying is that, as a student and writer of African history, I am still a student of African history who is still learning how to read and write African history, originate and compose the history of African people as I have learnt from the Master Teachers, of which I will be trying to write about, also attempt to compose and rewrite South African African History. The Master Teachers all had one thing in common, they read and wrote a lot-in addition to that, they gave lectures and travelled all over the world lecturing and collecting, or as Prof. Clarke said he and Prof. Jackson would be "Hunting"" for books in old used book stores, libraries and so forth throughout the world.
Even in the lectures below, Prof. Clarke cites some books and writers and in a direct way by encouraging listeners the way he tells and asks the audience that he knows that they have not 'read' the books he is talking about-and confirms it by asking them the question and receives embarrassed giggles and inaudible sounds or nervous stifled laughs-but in the end encouraging them to try to get the books he was giving/telling them about. This is the real problem that he was faced with in as he states this in his lectures - the fact that most of them did not do the necessary and 'deep reading' in order for them or us to be able to deal with African History.
From the challenges issued by Dr. Clarke that Africans should write their own history and not expect that the former oppressor will write it for Africans-he exhorts his listeners to read and write their own story through history; I have tried to heed to their clarion call: writing and composing African history from an African-centered perspective. On the face of it, it sounds reasonable and a good idea. Doing it is another matter when one begins to listen to Clarke in his lectures and the references he doles out with such ease, that in the end it becomes very intimidating and a huge task. The proficiency, efficiency and intellectual vastness of his lectures, writing and speeches defy and dwarf any effort one was going to have in writing anything clear, compact and choc-full of information and data.
when one attempts to write about the Historian's lessons and lectures about African history, and formulate or write the history one has learnt from schools or from the Master teachers themselves-it becomes apparent what a huge task and undertaking it is. I will not use all the tapes that there are about his lectures; and there are still those lectures that he recorded whenever he lectured over the decades as a professor and African historian-which if ever transcribed, hold a wealth of information and more references. He had a very deep personal library of rare books, manuscripts and audio files along with video/films. A bit of mention about his greatness and the libraries that have been named after him, and the Web sites will be in order here to pay tribute to a man who read and encouraged African people to read and write.
History of the John Hendrik Clarke african Library
John Henrik Clarke
- In 1986, the Africana Library was named in honor of John Henrik Clarke, who was widely recognized as a pioneer in the field of Africana Studies. Dr. Clarke played an important role in the early history of Cornell University's Africana Studies & Research Center. He was a Distinguished Visiting Professor of African History at the Center in the 1970s. He also made an invaluable contribution to the establishment of its curricula.
- Dr. Clarke is the author of numerous articles that have appeared in leading scholarly journals. He also served as the author, contributor, or editor of 24 books. In 1968 along with the Black Caucus of the African Studies Association, Dr. Clarke founded the African Heritage Studies Association. In 1969 he was appointed as the founding chairman of the Black and Puerto Rican Studies Department at Hunter College in New York City.
- Dr. Clarke was most known and highly regarded for his lifelong devotion to studying and documenting the histories and contributions of African peoples in Africa and the Diaspora.
- Dr. Clarke is often quoted as stating that "History is not everything, but it is a starting point. History is a clock that people use to tell their political and cultural time of day. It is a compass they use to find themselves on the map of human geography. It tells them where they are, but more importantly, what they must be."
- The John Henrik Clarke Africana Library is a special library located within Cornell University's Africana Studies and Research Center. The library is one of nineteen units of the University Library system, and offers a full range of services. Its collection of volumes focuses on the social and political dimensions of the history and culture of peoples of African ancestry. It supports the curriculum of the Africana Studies and Research Center and sustained, independent study.
Included here are basic books, complete collections of works of important writers, and highly selective research materials that complement the collections housed in Cornell University's research libraries. The Africana Library's documentation collection contains valuable primary source materials, including copies of rare monographs, manuscripts, newspapers, and journal publications on microfilm and microfiche. Those resources focus on especially important material on the American civil rights and Black Power movements.
- The Africana Center was founded in 1969 following black student protests on the Cornell Campus. One notable event involved black students depositing hundreds of books at the undergraduate library circulation desk and denouncing them as irrelevant to their experiences. Historically, the faculty of the Africana Studies and Research Center has always had a strong commitment towards maintaining its own library. The Africana Center included a library when it was first established. Later, after its building was destroyed by arsonists (April 1, 1970), it garnered funds from the university and local community to replace materials lost from its library collection. Once it relocated to its present site the library was prominently established near the building's entrance.
- In the late 1970s there was heated debate on campus about relocating the Africana Center once more. Because it's location was some distance away from central campus (approximately 20 minutes walking time) and many of its courses were taught at the Center, some considered the Africana Studies program too segregated. A number of more central locations were proposed for relocation. In the end these were rejected because they entailed substantial reductions in space. Ultimately, the Center's fledgling library benefited from this consequence. A reduction in space would have affected collection size and overall growth.
- During 1984-85 the Africana Center and University Library reached an agreement to transfer the library administratively to the University Library. Faculty of the Africana Studies & Research Center named the library in honor of Dr. John Henrik Clarke during the summer of 1985. As a distinguished historian, Dr. Clarke was instrumental in establishing the Africana Center's curriculum in the 1970s and taught courses in black history at Cornell.
Several years later, in 1990, the Africana Center and University Library collaborated to raise $50,000 to renovate the library's space and enhance the overall level of service. The John Henrik Clarke Africana Library now occupies most of the lower level of the Africana Center's three-story building. A third of this space is shared with a graduate student lounge and a computer lab. All of the library's holdings are included in the University Library's online catalog, and the Africana Library itself houses several online catalog terminals, a circulation terminal, CD-ROM and various audio-visual equipment, and has access to numerous locally networked bibliographic databases.
Featured Web Sites About John Henrik Clarke:
The John Hendrik Clarke Virtual Museum
In Memory of John Hendrik Clarke (Hunter College) Schomburg Legacy Exhibition: John Hendrik Clarke Section
John Hendrik Clarke Bibliographies (Cornell University)
John Hendrik Clarke Resources(Runoko Rashidi)
Information on Film, John Hendrik Clarke: A Great & Mighty Walk
(Black Caucus of the ALA Newsletter, vol. XXIV, No. 5 (April, 1996), p. 11.)
I set out to compose an article on the suggestions he touches upon and repeatedly states that we need to read and write our own history. The confusion that is apparent today in South Africa, is because Africans either write their books with the collaboration of Whites, and do not yet produce that kind of historical reading that can be easily read by the population they are writing that history-without any collaboration of White people.
Whenever one listens to Clarke's lectures and lessons, he is always giving the listeners references as to what to read concerning what he is speaking about. He was simply a walking African History library. He always stressed and encouraged the listeners or students to read, and would give a bit about every book or writer or stories or characters/dates of the books he was recommending. I have given a bit about his libraries in memory of the fact that he himself was a walking library, bibliography and encyclopedia of African Historiography, History books and authors with themes that pertained to African history and made efforts at trying to make it much more understandable and easy to get, for those who were listening to his lessons or lectures, and even on his videos, he still does the same thing: give a reference(s) of books that should be consulted by the listener or students to further their own understanding of that part of history he might have been talking about during a lecture or lesson, especially in his YouTube videos, liberally yet extensively posted below for anyone interested to listen to and pick up whatever they want from Clarke.
The piece above about his libraries, are in part my way of acknowledging this aspect of Prof. Clarke: that of consistently and constantly giving names and books that can be consulted for further reading and understanding of the lectures he was giving. And, by the way, these were and rare and hard to find books, but could trace them if one "Hunted" seriously in any old used book stores, as advised by Clarke when he was talking about himself and Jackson, hanging out, discussing, and "Hunting" for books in old and used bookstores; libraries and the web too have most of the books he recommended. This Hub is in part honoring a great African History scholar, and my own paltry efforts in writing and showing the relevance of his lectures to the African history of South Africa, by attempting to compose and rewrite African South African history from an African Centered Perspective.
Dr. John Hendrik Clarke - African World Revolution: Africans At The Crossroads
A Historical Bird's Eye-view On The Master Teacher
See And View the 13 Master Teachers" videos Conducted By Gil Noble on "Like It Is" TV Show[at the end of the Hub]
When and Old Griot or Historian Passes On-It's Like a library Burned
Studying and learning from Clarke is very important and rewarding and edifying. One's consciousness is aroused and gaining knowledge becomes a weapon which he so selflessly gives of. Clarke also teaches one about "learning" and "understanding' history he has a way of cajoling his listeners to evaluate their own effort and reading into African History, and others he inspires to begin to write history by learning from him and his lectures and speeches on African Historiography.
The lectures that follow below are lengthy, so is the written material of the writing of Professor Clarke and mine included, was my 'experimental' efforts at composing and correcting African history in South Africa. But his lectures, in their length, touch on various themes of African Historiography as only a Master Teacher like Prof. Clarke could deliver.
Clarke does his speeches, lectures and writing in a way that anchors Africa History in the "respectful commentary of World History", as he would point out over and over again, to drive the point home. What he also does so well either writing, delivering a lecture or making a speech, he doles-out reference for further reading on the subjects he would be talking about to his audience, author, date and all, and without skipping a beat, continue and elaborate on other interesting and new issues while treading on his main theme of the lesson or speech and lecture.
I will not attempt to explain all the videos of the lectures and speeches by prof. Clarke. I refer that the reader/viewer listen to them themselves, and all I will do is delineate and tabulate the writings of Prof. Clarke, and indulge in experimental historical writing akin to or closely following that of Clarke in his lectures throughout the writing of this Hub. The writing I will be attempting, will be culled from different historical time lines- say from the 11th century to 2013 and beyond.
Prof. Clarke left us a body of work that is extensive including the libraries in different institutions named after him. He also had his own personal library in his house which will be see in one of the video below where he is being interviewed in his house and he donated these on his passing. He was himself a walking library and bibliography and he dispensed liberally of these to his listeners and students. He always reminded his listeners or students to read more, and pay attention to the literature that is found all over the world, and that modern day African history students should collect and collate these into their reading, research and studying.
Now that he has passed on to the ancestors, it is up to us to take up on his challenge and begin to do what I have done in this article: begin to take baby steps in composing and rewriting the History of Africans in Africa and in the Diaspora. I will also be posting a lot of African History speeches and lecture by Prof. Clarke and hope that the readers and viewers of this Hub will get a thorough and better Understanding as to why we called Professor Clark and others, "Master Teachers". Throughout the Hub, I have posted videos of different lectures by Clarke, but lengthy for the readers/viewers to listen to some of the Master Teachers takes, who I will be creating Hubs for and presenting them and hawking their historical wares to all and sundry.
Christopher Columbus and the Afrikan Holocaust: Slavery and the Rise of European Capitalism Paperback by John Henrik Clarke
The Slave Trade, Cultural Dependency and Cultural Terrorism
Just as Clarke, in the videos above throughout and below in the Hub gives the narrative of his life, he was also just as prolific with his delivery of the History of the Africans. As he said, he was looking for his people in the Bible, and could not understand why they were missing from the book of God. This then led him to search for the true history of Africans, that in the end, had learned since then that story of the Bible was stolen by Europeans from Africans in Africa. In his later scholarly years, he had reached a level of talking and lecturing and writing about Africa that can be seen throughout his tapes below which he characterized as if it was breathing to him. He then understood, postulated and formulated that we as Africans needed to control the image of God, as our own image. This ultimately led him to write:
"Early in the history of man there was no name for the human condition we refer to as slavery because no one had ever been relegated to that condition. The circumstances that would create the condition did not exist and the idea had never influenced a single mind. The enslavement of one people by another, in my opinion, grew out of fear, need and greed. In order to appease the conscience of the enslaver, a rationale had to be created - the enslaver had to convince himself and his victim that this new condition placed the victim and his family outside the realm of humanity.
"The general problem confronting African history is this: how to reorganize effectively, through meaningful research, all of the fragments of the past into a single ancient epoch, an origin which will establish African continuity; if the ancients were not victims of a mirage, it should be easy enough to draw upon another series of arguments and proofs for the union of history of Ethiopian and Egyptian societies with the rest of Africa. Thus combined, these histories would lead to a properly patterned past which it would be seen that (ancient) Ghana rose in the interior (West Africa) of the continent at the moment of Egyptian decline, just as the western European empires were born with the decline of Rome.
"Europe was emerging from the lethargy of the Middle Ages. It was regaining its confidence, manifesting a new from of nationalism and extending that nationalism into racism. The Africans had goods and services that the European needed, and the European had the basic technology that the African needed. Had the African needs and the European needs been considered on an equal basis, there could have been an honest exchange between African and European and the african could have gained from the technology needed and the European could still have had labor in large numbers without the Slave Trade and the massive destruction of humanity that went into the Slave Trade. This idea, only a dream in the minds of a few men, could have changed the world for the better had it been seriously considered.
That is why we need to rewrite and reconsider our narratives about African History. Diop writes: "The history of Africa will remain suspended in air and cannot be written until African Historians connect it with the history of Egypt [and I hasten to add, with the History of South africa-which has now been dated with civilization that existed 170,000 years ago-I will be embarking on this historical Hub as soon as time and opportunity presents itself]
Diop shows the interrelationship between African nations, North and South, and proves, [because in this case proof is needed again and again], that ancient Egypt was a distinct African nation and was not historically or culturally a part of Asia or Europe. Diop and other writers of African history called for a reconsideration of the role that African people have played in history and their impact on the development of early societies and institutions. Basil Davidson, makes the following statement of how, Africans being in Africa, was left out of the respectable commentary of world history:
"But isn't Egypt, other issues apart, quite simply a part of Africa? That, it seems, is a merely geographical irrelevance. The civilization of Pharaohnic Egypt, arising sometime around 3500 B.C. and continuing at least until the Roman dispositions, has been explained to us as evolving either in more or less total isolation from Africa or as a product of West Asian stimulus. On this deeply held view, the land of ancient Egypt appears to have detached itself from the delta of the Nile, some five and a half thousand years ago, and sailed off into the mediterranean on a course veering broadly towards the coasts of Syria. And there it apparently remained, floating somewhere in the seas of the Levant, until Arab conquerors hauled it back to where it had once belonged.
"Now what is one to make of this unlikely view of the case, coming as it has from venerable seats of learning? Does its strength derive from a long tradition of research and explanation? Is it what Europeans have always thought to be true? Have the records of ancient times been found to support it? As Martin Bernal has now ably shown in his "Black Athena", the remarkable book about which I am chiefly writing here, the answer to such questions is plainly and unequivocally in the negative.
"The ancient Egyptians were Black(African)-is a belief which has been denied in Europe since about 1830, not before. It is a denial, in short, that belongs to the rise of modern European imperialsim. I say, "new racism" because it followed and further expanded the older racism which spread around Europe after the Atlantic Slave Trade had reached its high point of "take off" in about 1630." This contributed to the miseducation of Africans in various ways.
Cultural Dependency And Cultural Terrorism
The cultural depenndnency of African people and many other ethnic groups is due to years of miseducation and the gradual loss of control of intergenerational cultural transmision. Most Africans are in deep debt.Culturally dependent people will believe, internalize and utilize anything that they are socialized to believe is correct. For this reason, Africans around the globe copy European standards of beauty. In certainAfrican countries, (Korea and some Asiatic countries), there is a crises in the number of people who bleach their skin in an effort to lighten it and look more European.
"Instead of growing food or practicing natural medical practices, that were passed on to us eons ago, we are totally dependent on others. It is ironic that those who make money on the medicine and other medical remedies today, studied and copied the practices of indigenous people around the world; the very people that they called backward. Now, instead of benefiting from the legacy of their ancestors, the descendants are dependent for medicine, food, and other things needed to survive.
"Africans have begun to internalize the views that exploiters have of us and our traditions. Many of us have become eager seekers to be educated in alien traditions, without criticism of them. For the past few centuries, the mass education that we receive in Africa and the Diaspora is rooted largely in Western European education orientation and practice.
"This condition has led to financial and political dependence. We no longer create the things that we need to survive; not food, clothing, or shelter. Even those things that we do create such as our music are under the control of others who have turned these very creativities against us. Destructive images are carried back into African communities, where the messages of uplift should be found."
In short then, dependency and lack of national autonomy has made Africans slaves to other foreign people who hold autonomy and their own brand of independence(Imperialism,etc.) over Africans. It is attempting to unshackle and free themselves fro such servitude that African writers and activists are needed to right the wrongs being perpetrated upon the billions of Africans globally. That is why I am writing about Master Teachers, and attempting to learn how to do what they are doing within and through the lectures, speeches, writing and references they so freely give of.
Race and Resistance: African-Americans in the Twenty-First Century (Race and Resistance, 3) [Paperback] Herb Boyd
Recovering The Lost Concept And Notion Of A "Nation"...
I am not capable to write about Prof. John Hendrik Clarke, per se, but I can attempt to discuss and write on what he wrote or lectured about and try to tie that to the history and struggle of South Africans Africans. It is his teachings I will and might be able to jot down and use them as a crutch in building the history of South Africa or use his lessons to enable Africans of South Africa to understand their position, role and direction in history, from his historical lectures and lessons, in order for them to begin to deal with their own historical enslavement and predicament in a much more clearer and informed manner.
Before I delve much deeper into the writings of Professor Clarke and his historical teachings, I would like to sample some of my thoughts and historical creations by experimenting with the pieces below. And when I write much more about the lessons and teachings of Prof. Clarke below, I will use the same synergy/South African historical data in attempting to anchor South African historical reality, also by piggy-backing on top of his research, lectures, writings and his lecture videos, to learn more from him and work on resuscitating the history, culture and critical consciousness of Africans in South Africa.
Attempts At Original Historical Composition Using Dr. Clarke's works as a Crutch in Re-Writing South African History
If we do a serious evaluation of African history, and because it is so broad, I will confine myself to South African African history, and how it has been shaped right up to the point it is today, it has been an amazing and revealing journey. It is a revealing journey now that we have a 20/20 vision and perspective as to what happened to African people all over the globe when colonization took creeped up on their sense of nationhood-because of the African Historiography now available.. And the teachings and speeches of Dr. Clarke and many/several other Master Teachers of African History.
This point was not lost to one Master Teacher, Prof. J.H. Clarke who astutely observed and prolifically wrote that:
"The major loss in the fifteenth and sixteenth centuries was the concept of nation, the attaching of Africans onto other nations: some to England, some to France, some to Portugal, and then some to the worst of the elements to come out of Europe-the United States.
"Europe was getting rid of its human waster matter. It sent some to Australia; it sent some to the Pacific. And here we have to look again at what happened to the Africans in the Pacific. What happened to the Africans in Tasmania? The entire Island was destroyed. The British sent a lot of Irish prisoners, oppressed White people, to Tasmania, the Islands near Australia, where every man,woman and child was destroyed. The British knocked one year to five years off an Irish prisoner's sentence, depending on how many Tasmanians he killed. And bringing two matching ears to the British authorities to show that you had killed a Tasmanian, would mean one year to five years off of your sentence."
Therefore, according to Clarke, a people memories were wiped out in various ways. Criminals were exported from the British prisons and sent to the Islands in the middle of the ocean with the hope that they will not be able to survive and might die out there. There was also reports from other sources that these prisoners were shipped out to sea because there was the belief that the earth was flat, and that these prisoners put onto these ships, for the Islands, as we learned from Clarke, would come to the precipice or edge of the *flat earth*(Sot the Flat Earth proponents believed, and die off).
But, as Clarke pointed out, a provision was made in case they survived, and they were forced to be more criminal in their populating those Island and by killing-off the inhabitants, they were assured of some years shaved off their sentence.
A genocide of a people is one way of assuring that the memories they had about nationhood get wiped -off the face of the earth. Another way was conditioning Africans, amongst themselves, through the governing techniques of 'divide and conquer', the Africans were made to forget about what kind of people or nation as they were; instead, they have been reduced to fighting one another to earn the bread-crubs, favorability, and acceptance into the White world by abusing and and ill-treating their own people, Brothers and fellow Beings. Clarke reminds us thus:
"Here is something we do not understand today: "the nature of oppressed people preying on other oppressed people in order to resist oppression". When we use the the term "Third World," we better use it carefully. Because there are a whole lot of people in the "Third World" who, in order to ingratiate themselves to their oppressor, would gladly become an "honorary" oppressor where we are concerned." This surely applies to the present ANC-led and ruling cabal in South Africa.
With the advent of the Web and the proliferating social media, Africans in South Africa reading this post will become aware of what Clarke is saying, immediately, because they are now faced with a quislings and cabals draped in Black skins,who are peddling and pushing the former oppressor's agenda with such exuberance and gusto, that they end up being belligerent towards their own people who put them in power, and they end up(these elected leaders) in the service of Imperial and Corporate service and their deep fiscal pockets.
One need read most of the posts here on the FB, of which, the majority of them are decrying the fact that the present-day ANC government is nothing but a stooge of Big Capital and a lackey of Imperial governments doing their bidding, and they getting their 'commission' for their omission/neglect of human rights and oppression of their own people from the Capitalist wealth and being in the loop of the riches of the countries. The ANC reports the body-count to Pharmaceutical conglomerates; they report their body counts of malnourished polity and who ingest food poisoned by Monsanto; They get their uniforms and guns fin the SADF, through the American Military and Industrial Megalomaniac Complex. They are in cahoots with and in compliance with the whims and demands of the International corporations and Rich Western government- They are a pseudo-bootleg government that is not serving any material and basic needs of the African people who put them into power, in the first place.
They get their share of some sort of payback/kickback/political payola from DeBeers, Anglo American and other mining magnates for allowing them to scoop out the diamonds and gold of South Africa and Warehousing it in London and Swiss Banks-leaving our mines depleted and too deep and expensive to dig for more gold; the present-day ANC government has been parcelling land out for the highest bidders and getting their shares from the investors and these mighty Conglomerates and predatory Imperial Capitalist honchos.One can see and learn about this from the "Book: "The Confessions of the Economic Hit Man"
Because Africans are still smarting to the world as African people who have "Ubuntu", but the majority oppressed still have to wrap their heads around the fact that they are the losers in what is happening to their country and its minerals. Africans are willing accomplices, in admiring and trying to woo these government vultures, thieves and crooks at the expense of the future of their children and the poor, who are faced with the prospects of inheriting barren and depleted-of-minerals lands. Professor Clarke hit it spot-on when he writes:
"Yet with our goodness (our built-in hope), our beautiful humanity, our belief in justice for all people, we fall into their traps." Most of those non-Africans and those who consider themselves not Africans unless it is convenient for them to do so, "they watch to see you fight fight for something," Clarke adds, "and the minute you win they come in and ask for half of it, when they were never even in the fight. And many times they get it.. You give them some of your pie, and they want parity, which means half.
"Because we have not learned to practice, figuratively speaking, the essential selfishness of survival, we should give no piece of the pie until every member of our family has a piece of the pie. If you fight for a pie, then you fight for it for your family, and I wish you well. But I fought for this for my own kith and kin, and they take the priority in its distribution.
"If we are going to be free[the African world] and the whole world from Western domination, we have to envision ourselves as having the ability to do so, and we have to have some understanding of the world when it was under the domination of Europe. European domination has nothing to do with the European having a superior mind, or having ability that you do not have. It has to do with the fact that the European believed he could do it and gained enough confidence to do it.. We can do the same if we make up our minds to do it.
"Now, as a result of the European's rise to power, a revolution began in the world, one we must now revolt against. To revolt against it, we must understand how it began. How did we lose lose our Africanness? What will we have to do to regain it? How did we lose the concept of "Nationness and develop a concept of dependency?[Clarke Aswers and addresses these questions in most of the videos below].
"The most dangerous of all dependencies is to depend on your powerful oppressor to free you and share power with you, because powerful people never train powerless people to take their power away from them. So, we're dealing with a contradiction in terms.
"It is a contradiction to go into schools and to expect education; there is only a form of indoctrination.There are certain basic curricula that we can use to educate ourselves. Therefore, for us, most of our education must happen in the home, in the community and the church. You think the church is a less spiritual institution when it is engaging in education? It is not; it is a more spiritual institution. There are many ways of praying and there are many ways of serving whatever deity you happen to choose. What should concern us is how we got into this trap so that we can estimate how we're going to get out of it."(watch Clarke's lecture on "Christianity" below)
Whether African South Africans like what I am about to say or not, anyone is free to disagree. They have walked into a trap in their haste to acquire "freedom" and economic "parity" with Whites-not necessarily taking control of our land and economy.. They took their children to the White people's expensive and private schools. Their children lost their ability to speak their mother tongues, acknowledge their cultures, customs and traditions; these children look at their parents with indifference and as buffoons(parents and extended elder families and their peers) as backward, and uneducated about anything and lacking etiquette and knowledge of the finer things of life they see with their White peers and their parents.
In this way, they rebel and are abusive to all and sundry in their African milieu, to their own culture, history, traditions, customs, sacred rites and practices. This adds to the already marinating social dysfunction. And still, Africans seeing this disaster they have wrought with their children, they still do not change their ways, instead, they are still taking their children to the White schools to be educated into ignorance by their former and present master. This is further dealt with within the Hub, below.
Reconstructing the Authoritarian State in Africa (Routledge Studies in African Politics and International Relations) [Hardcover] George Klay Kieh Jr. (Editor),
African History And Its Lessons About Nation-building
"We need to bridge these words with the meanings of our times" stated Obama."
African people need not only display our fluency in being able to cite intellectuals or coveted leaders only. Their words and actions ought to direct and give meaning to their understanding the action and the roles they need to play and work on. Their words(the martyrs) and the meanings of their daring actions need not only be something Africans should only regurgitate, but be blueprints and protocols for the emancipation of their people. Africans of South Africa have to know by now, since most are Web savvy, what the Web and surfing in the meta data of the viral stream what it is all about and how it should be used(as in the case of the social media). Social Media should be the vehicle through which Africans should bridge the gaps of divisions amongst themselves into a collaborative working forum that moves the stagnant struggles they are mired-in, forward.
People in the African communities are besieged by drugs of all sorts they have never had before the coming of the ANC(This will be discussed below in the Hub fully). They knew, then, that Sol Kezner was peddling coke, along with some other well-known soccer magnates and potentates; they also knew that there was something called the Mandrax,and sold through many illicit ways. Now there's a deluge of every drug conceivable circulating in the midst of all the poor African and rich ; children are splurged with violent games and pornography, and, most people save it in their cell phones; Rape is on the rise and rampage so do some other deadly crimes of "Africans on Africans"; the people who are suffering with HIV/AIDS, are left to wither away before they are given the Anti-Virals; chronic joblessness is creating all kinds devastation and despair not yet calibrated as to what does it all mean as it is ongoing as of the writing of this piece.
Africans of South Africa know that there is a culture that is practiced nationally by all the African groups that make the nation of Mzantsi. They have to first of all get rid of the hangover that has been the left-over from the Apartheid era. Africans are not "Tribes". By referring to themselves as such, they will be defeating the idea of seeing themselves as a free and united nation. African Consciousness means African awareness of the African's place in the world today, and the possibility as to where they could be tomorrow were they conscious. Knowing more about each other will help in the growth of a holistic understanding and appreciation of their own culture as a unified culture and one Nation.
So that, to be able to see themselves as a nation, they need to be cognizant and aware of their national make-up today as we speak. They have marriage customs and traditions; there are rules governing families and societies in their cultural protocols; there are specific laws and rules for labor and community services; Africans have a given expanse of African history, and within African history's curricula that can serve their needs as an African people, as touched-upon by Clarke above, and deep below in this Hub. Africans have a history of everything they might endeavor to take upon, without borrowing or aping other cultures, customs, traditions, languages, dance and music-the whole bit! This will be dealt with a little more down below in the hub
The day Africans in South Africa are able to link their present-here-and-now reality, to historical data and future planning, that will be the day the revolution of any kind will begin moving ahead. Understanding What the Media is and how to use it for one's gains is very important to come to grips with. Media, therefore, is just like oral communication, but using a gadget-a medium. I am not here talking about the TV, Radio or newspaper media, but technological media of the computer sort. Supporting one another and not being careless about their relationships with one another is of prime importance. The fulcrum of African South African culture is "UBuntu/Botho" along with "Inhlonipho/Hlompho"(Respect). This, if observed, can facilitate for cohesive and tight interpersonal relationships and interactions-and enable Africans of South Africa in building their history, culture and nation.
I am saying all the above because some of the 'have-plenties'(African Elite, in particular)have become so Westernized, that they have imbibed Western values, mores, moral and norms to the detriment of their own culture and people as I have described it above, because they boast and claim to know that "Shakespeare was a great writer and whatever; because Richard Elliot was the greatest poet; because eating out in restaurants has been imposed as a new African normal; McDonald's/now Burger King, KFC. et al, is the fastest way in and out for ones daily activities; that is, the Africans of South Africa, in larger numbers, are buying hook-and-sink into Westernized consumer patterns, fashion clothes that is parlayed as the sign of modernity(which Clarke addresses in this Hub).
The buying of expensive cars, housing, mannerisms, literature, music and mind-set, has become a way to show-off one's status in society, and sophistication about what others do not have, that one is the only one that has material wealth, and Western education; acquirement of Western individualism and fake accents and fake knowledge of a history, culture, tradition, custom and languages not of their own, is the way to go-the rule-something to be vied for and aspired towards attaining. Africans have and are living large in the shadows of other peoples ways of life, stories, and mannerism, culture, traditions except their own indigenous cultures, customs and traditions. They have discarded their own ways; and have also shown disdain and shame about and for their own culture, that in the end, instead of focusing on building a nation based on what their cultures offers, whereas, they 'pick up their noses' at it as if its unpalatable and has an odious odor, they label it derisively and dismissively in degrading terms and tones.
They brag about their jobs(which they do not own), cars, big houses in the suburbs(which they owe); sporting the finest clothes of Europe and America making them not local people-and that they believe makes them an important people; they wear expensive perfumes(French, Italian and American); they import and purchase house wares, dishes, shoes; go to these foreign countries and spend thousands of Rands on clothes and other trinkets and stay in five star hotels; they hobnob with VIP and Heads of States; they stay in suburban areas areas whose real estate prices could finance whole Townships with everything; they take planeloads of rich fun-lovers to remote Islands and rent-out a whole hotels and party for days. They are pigging away their paltry riches towards their own destruction-especially the monied African Elite and their hangers-on, relatives, friends and the whole nepotism, cronyism networked which has huge devastating and deleterious effects on the governance of the poor African masses and the poor themselves.
Nations are not build from such chaotic ways of being and forgetting communal existence in the African sense of living in that cultural manner.. Africans seem to fall into the trap that they are seeing big money for the first time, that this takes them out of our minds and wits as to what to do with it. There are many tales of waste and reckless spending that have become the lore of the rich African elite in South africa. Their children burn clothes and money to show-off the their vanity and ignorance along with boredom, plus lack of direction.
It would be better if African people knew what they were doing than wax political and rant revolutionary on Facebook and other Social media, and to no one in particular. All are pretentious acts that are an effort of a people running away from what is facing them: ignorance, mental illnesses; devastating illnesses like Cholera, TB, Scurvy, Alcoholism, Drug Addiction; rampant and callous corruption; insecurities; gloom and doom; bleak futures; joblessness; decaying communities and cultures, morals, mores, norms, customs, traditions,languages, discarding of sacred rites and practices which are fast disappearing permanently; miseducation and oppression, depression, repression. No Nation Will Ever Arise From A Disunited And Dysfunctional People!
Language Policy and Nation-Building in Post-Apartheid South Africa [Hardcover] Jon Orman
Nation-Building and Historical Cultural Refitting
This is what Professor Clarke has to say about all I have been talking about in the previous paragraphs:
"What I am trying to look into is how people maintain certain techniques that make them believe enough in themseles and become less dependent on other people in order to be whole again. And that the nature of oppression robs us of our wholeness, a lot of our confidnence, and, if we're going to have a cultural revolution, this cultural revolution must first be based on regaining our confidence in our ability to handle everything in a nation."
Prof. Clarke continues:
"That is why I have always disagreed with the current approach to South Africa, that we need to fight more than Apartheid. Apartheid is a real issue. Apartheid has caused misery to millions of people. We need to fight it all the way, but, while fighting it we need to prepare to take over that nation. A nation needs railroads. Who's going to build them? But if we buy steel from someone else, we've got to pay a high price. Who's going to develop an internal steel industry? Who's going to master the mines? Who's going to market what comes out of the mines? All of this is part of the restoration of self-confidence, and all of this involves a return to things that we've already done at a previous time in history.
"That is why, especially in [South africa] we are literally kept from our history. If you expect the present-day school system to give history to you, you are dreaming. This, we have to do ourselves. The Chinese didn't go out in the world and beg people to teach Chinese studies or let them them teach Chinese Studies. the Japanese didn't do that either. People don't beg other people to restore their history; they do it themselves. They learn something about freedom that we have to learn, that Freedom is something we must take with our own hands and secure it with our own hands. If other people's hands secure it for us, other people's hands can take it away from us." Our main ally and our most dependable ally in the fight for Africa, is us, and nobody is really addressing these facts, and yet when you read most of the posts on FB, you read people hollering for "Revolution and overthrowing the government", and yet, they are not even cognizant of the facts noted by Clarke above, or the goings on on the ground in their sectors.
In their thinking/talking about revolution and carrying out a revolution, Africans had better come to grips with what is a nation and how they are going to go about creating and building a viable and authentic and autonomous nation. Words should give meaning to our intentions and our intentions is to execute those meanings, words work as part of Afrcans' struggle and reality. As this piece is being written, it can be regarded and taken as a preface of the writing of African's own history and all that it requires from their own perspective and mindset.
They shall only succeed if they read what each is composing, not only copying from someone, and it al comes with original ideas that are relevant and relatable to their reality on the ground-from the Townships to the villages and suburbs, and might in the end be original in highlighting those pertinent and basic issues which resonate and are relevant to the people those seeking change for all those they are trying to mobilize and organize/uplift.
It is true, quotations, such as I have used from Clarke in this article should be used to edify one's points, perspective or point of view; also, those basic needs the people are decrying should should be etched onto their writing just as powerful in their rhetoric as those they would be citing. What they cite, should most of the time confirm what they are writing about, from the African perspective and concrete experience. What they are writing about and composing should be spot-on and relatable and relevant for the people to whom the writing is done on behalf of: the army of the poor and currently oppressedAfricans.
Just as in national-building, the material, ideas and ways and means that they will be utilizing should come from what the culture offers and has picked up on along the centuries-morphing and modifying itself from the new and the old-that, forming that cultural entity, which Africans can create and form a nation from, is one of the essential national building blogs. But it will take understanding the meaning of the reality, words and their relevance to their present-and how they articulate, elucidate, execute and manifest that which they know, have learnt and master from and about their cultures, customs, traditions,histories, music, dance, traditional dress, languages, sacred rites and practices within the make-up and formation of a nation as they see fit.... And with aesthetical erudition
If they can learn about learning from each other, respect their own ideas, thoughts and intentions, they might be able to grasp, fully and clearly, the notion and ways and possibilities of Nation building and unification... They need to better stop acting like they know it all, and accept that they have still so much much ground and learning to do about building a nation, let alone executing a revolution. Africans will never ever be Americans, nor Europeans or any other nation, but Africans of South Africa(Mzantsi). Maybe if African people start with that recognition, they might have their eyes, minds and hearts opened as to the importance of all that is theirs, originally and authentically and autonomously: .... a nation; maybe manage to start to build a nation in 2014-as the voting is around the corner, and they are only a nation when it is time for voting-after that, are discarded like snuff mucous. Africans in South Africa are far much better than this... This must be put to an end-the sooner, the better.
Dr. John Hendrik Clarke - African People in World History (Black Classic Press Contemporary Lecture) [Paperback]
"Africa's Walk In The Sun" With John Hendrik Clarke
What Africa Is For Africans and The World
One of the most difficult things to do is to write anything about Prof. John Hendrik Clarke, the African Historian and Historiographer Master Teacher par excellence with few equals. I started the Hub with a piece I have written walking and following on the steps of Dr. Clarke to begin writing African history, and in this case, I used his citations to guide me through my piece. So that, here I will make a few notes about Clarke, and draw heavily from what he wrote about certain important aspects of African history and historiography, and will also utilize his lecture/videos[which must be viewed by the reader/viewer to get the total effect of what Clarke is about] for him to make his points, which he does better than what I could write about him.
The first video is his critique that evaluates and questions Africans commitment and readiness to really take up the struggle another notch. Dr. Ben, and Prof. Clarke were teaching about the African conditions and what they should do about it. His speech and lecture is followed by Dr. Ben both of whom were offering us a critical Dialogue and Comments about themselves and African History and its role in the lives and existence of African people. The Second Video is about the old themes of oppression and what Africans are to do about it. The third video is a tour de force of his past lectures and raising our consciousness about the effects and affects of all the inhumanity foisted upon the Africans, and the lessons to be learned from that.
One of the constant themes that runs the gamut of the body of work by Prof. Clarke is that he often repeated the fact that: "Civilization did not start in European countries, and the rest of the world did not wait in darkness for the Europeans to bring the light" Clarke says that in order for us to understand how this attitude came along, "one needs to look at the sate of what is called "World History. He says that that there is no single book in existence called "World History," that is an honest commentary on the history of the world and its people. Most of the history books in the last five hundred years have been written to glorify Europeans at the expense of other peoples. The history of Asia has been as shamefully distorted as the history of Africa."
Europeans in South Africa(British/Boer regimes) have consistently insisted that Africans have no history nor culture to speak of, and that which is called african culture, customs and traditions is nothing else but backwardness Barbaric and useless along with the African history, customs, traditions and customs. To debunk, and deconstruct this lie, we will look at what was the culture of Africans of South Africa in the 11th century, prior to the coming of Bartholomew Diaz, Vasco- da Gama and Jan Van Van Riebeeck, in 1490, 1492 and 1652 respectively.
The Ways Of Ubuntu From European Sailors
What Clarke is saying above is similar to the case of Africa and in particular, in the history of South Africa. Africans, they were and are still being told not only that were they civilized by the Dutch settlers, but they arrived into the country today known as South Africa when they(The Boers) 'trekked' from the north, at the same time the setters were landing in the Cape in 1652. Nothing could be farther from the truth. I have written about the the sailors of the shipwrecked Stavenisse off the coast of Natal, in another Hub, whose story is told by George McCall Theal as follows:
"In the records of the Cape Colony, there is a graphic account of the adventures of the crew of a Dutch vessel named the Stavenisse, which was wrecked at the entrance of the Bay of Natal if February, 1686. It was wrecked written for the use of the directors of the Netherlands' East India Company, and contains a good deal of interesting information concerning the country and its inhabitants. Near at hand , and English vessel had been lost a few months previously, and still another was driven ashore a few months later.
"All the wrecked seamen were received with kindness by the (Natives) Africans; they were supplied with food, and what property they could save was respected. By the unified efforts of the Dutch and English, assisted to some extend by the Africans[of [Mzantsi], a vessel fifty feet long was constructed, partly from the wreck of the the Stavenisse and partly from the timber found growing there. In this little craft, the captain, three oficers, and seven seamen of the Stavenisse, with nine English sailors, set sail for Cape Town, taking with them abundance of provisions and three tons of ivory obtained in exchange for some beads and copper saved from one of the the wrecks. They made the passage form Natal to Cape Town in Twelve days.
"An English vessel which had opportunely called before thy sailed, took some others away and they left at Natal forty-seven of the crew of the Stavenisse, one Frenchman, and four Englishmen. Upon their arrival in Table Bay, the Cape government purchased their tiny vessel, fitted her out, and dispatched her to make discoveries along the coast and rescue the remaining sea men.
"In the meantime, most of those unfortunate people had attempted to make their way overland to Cape Town. Some perished on the journey and, nearly twelve months after their departure, nineteen of them were picked up on the African coast of the Cape by the little vessel they had assisted to build in Natal. They had by this time been living two years among the African peoples, whom they described as friendly, hospitable, obliging, intelligent and ingenious, with laws and customs the same as those of the present-day African South Africans. Of the countries in which they had resided and through which they had travelled, they spoke in high terms of praise."
Another account about the Africans before the coming of the Dutch, or before they collided with the British/Boer belligerent culture, the Ship, Noord, arrived in Natal on the 4th of January, 1689, and entered the bay, there being at the time a considerable depth of water on the bar. In the evening of the same day the commander accompanied two of the sailors of the Stavenisse, who had gone on board, to their residence, where they had been living in plenty since the loss of their vessel, and were then in possession of several head of cattle. The commander was conducted to a neighboring kraal(village), where he was feasted on milk and fresh millet, and found the people civil and kind- ... During the nineteen days that the Noord remained in the Bay of Natal, the utmost harmony was maintained between the African people and Europeans."
"These seamen were not the only Europeans who had been kindly treated by the Africans of South Africa, for they found an aged Portuguese in the country, who had been wrecked on the coast forty years ago before, on his homeward voyage from India. The man had forgotten the language of his youth, and even his God; he had adopted the African customs, and had a wife and cattle in plenty"
What has the history of Africans in South Africa have to do with what I am writing about Prof. Clarke, one may ask. Well, One of the things that Clarke did was his encouragement to Africans to begin to read and write their history. In their writings, Wilson et al, Stavenisse is that "in 1688, survivors from the Stavenisse wreck on the Transkei coast and those who were shipwrecked around the 1500s described a population and a way of life of Xhosa-speaking people has been like that for many centuries, which demonstrated that the Xhosas who had been living there for some antiquated centuries/millennium before they came into contact with them in from the 1500s to the 1600s and beyond; that these were the ancestors of the present occupants of Xhosa People they met and those that presently lived there for eons to date.' (M. Wison and L. Thompson(eds)
The detailed accounts given by these survivors suggest that change in the way of life of the Xhosa-speaking people was very slow for very many centuries(Credo Mutwa gave the earliest account of this in his book "Indaba My Children," 1966). What the shipwrecked men described was not very different from the domestic life from antiquity to today, despite the fact that the people had by now lost their political independence and economic self-sufficiency.
One other point that I will like to make and revise is the fact that Around the 5th century A.D. there was iron smelting in the Transvaal(South Africa) and there was also the stock-keeping iron workers at Ntshekane, South of the Drakensberg Mountains in what is now Natal in the ninth century. There was also pottery found along the coast as far west as the Chalumna river indicate early iron-age settlement, typical of the Pondo and distinct from that at Ntshekane, and was dated back to around the eleventh century.
These historical factoids are conveniently left out by the Dutch Historians isthat the African people of South Africa were living in the places and regions they found them in, for eons before 1652, and that it is not true that the Africans came to South Africa around the time the Dutch landed in the Cape in 1652; also,they had fully function societies and families with culture, customs, traditions, languages, practices, rites that they adhered to throughout time form the remote antiquity(This will be briefly touched upon below).
So that, when Prof Clarke points out that for the past 500 years of African colonialism there has been no authentic book written as World history that makes an honest comment about the people of the world, I am simply filling up the gaps that are inherent and strewn throughout the literature which is hard to get, and bring them to the fore in order to point out to and and on behalf of African people of South Africa that their present history, culture, traditions, custom, practices, music, dances and language, have been in place, millennium before the coming of the Dutch, and the Dutch sailors, Portuguese and the British knew about the kindness, hospitality and Peaceful people the nation of Africans, and saw their cultures, custom, traditions as viable,and that the africans were civil and ingenuous, before the arrival of the warring and belligerent British/Boer coalition of the country that is called by the Africans of Mzantsi today, were like.
Learning from Clarke and using him as a crutch through-which we can present the histories of the people's of Africa, is one way I find to be helpful in originating and resuscitating the history of Africans in South Africa because what Clarke is saying, is the same thing that africans in South Africa know, and this is why I am highlighting, too, different points of concern about African South African history, and show, in the process, the relevance of Clarke's lecture and his lectures and lessons. That is why I regard him and dubbed him as a Master Teacher of African Historiography, Culture, Customs,Traditions, Sacred Rites, practices, languages and History.
Afrikan-Centered Consciousness Versus the New World Order: Garveyism in the Age of Globalism (AWIS Lecture Series) Paperback
Africans Being Africans Again
The Denial Of African History and African Humanity
Writing about a Master Teacher, there must then be something about his mastery of the work that qualifies him to be so. In his soulful and oratory way, African history was for him something he could share with anyone, with the hope that it will make them become more aware and conscious persons. As I have indicated above in this Hub, I am going to write about Prof. Clarke's work, not his life, in order that I can begin to take my baby steps in helping re-create and rewrite African history(South african History in particular) from an African perspective whilst deferring heavily and extensively onto Prof. Clarke's work. What I have written above about African people of South Africa being very kind to the ship-wrecked sailors pre-Van Riebeeck in 1652 is to deconstruct and debunk the myth that has been expounded upon by the Apartheidizers and their disinformation machine, that South africa does not belong to Africans who came when they, the 1652 Settlers landed in the Cape, and that the Africans were simultaneously 'trekking' from the North of Africa into South africa..
The Video above is wherein Prof. Clark explores the fact as to whether we can be Africans again. He teaches us by making examples with the other nations that they(the Asiatics) did not copy any one's God, although they were all Buddhists. Their God looked like them or the local people. The starting point of this lesson begins with Clarke saying: "Most Western Historians have not been willing to admit that there is an African history to be written about, and that this history predates the emergence of Europe by thousands of years. It is not possible for the world to have waited in darkness for the Europeans to bring light because, for most of the early history of Man, the Europeans themselves were in Darkness(and somewhere he adds that 'no one ever knew they(Europeans) even existed').
If Africans believe this, they will not be able to write their History because most of the time they will learning and reading what the Europeans supposedly was bring to them as knowledge and light. And yet Clarke keeps on reminding us that our historical memory has all the things we need to be normal again. He said Africans have[had] a culture, a history, ways of governance, ways of living and existing with other people from anywhere in the world. What I have written above confirms what Clarke is saying. The very Dutch, some of who landed in the Cape, but those Dutch sailors of the wreck, stated clearly as how they had been kindly treated by the Africans, and they also observed that they had a strong culture, tradition and were ingenious and a fully functioning and legit society. They had a system that worked in harmony with nature, and the communities were based on consensus-but was now(as we see it today) demobilized(to some extent) by the Europeans-and Clarke insists that we should look at these customs, traditions, cultures, languages anew, and recreate them in the image of what is authentically left as African Culture of yesteryear, today.
So that, one of the things that Clarke points out that caused us to loose our being Africans was because:
"It is too often forgotten that, when the Europeans emerged and began to extend themselves into the broader world of Africa and Asia during the fifteenth and sixteenth centuries, they went on to colonize most of mankind. Later, they would colonize world scholarship, mainly the writing of history. History was then written or rewritten to show or imply that Europeans were the only creators of what could be called a 'civilization'. In order to accomplish this, the Europeans had to forget, or pretend to forget, all they previously knew about Africa."
The problem that we as African people are facing, according to Clarke is that we are enamored and taken up trying to be like our oppressors, believing them as they tout their lies about educating us, and we help boost their economies because we buy and sell everything that is theirs. We presently rush pell-mell into being accepted into their European milieu/society, to the point where we are willing to discard and shed-off the culture that bore, shaped and is still running in our blood. But despite all that, we awkwardly try to force our way into their(European) graces and acceptance, whilst we have a culture that is beckoning to us to be of it and use it as we see fit. Even to this day, this is still the conundrum that the Africans cannot resolve, as yet..
The other problem as an upcoming researcher, myself, is that I see Africans working assiduously to be European in language, manner of walk, gesticulating eating, dressing and having a good time[entertainment]. Now, writing the article above is because I am aware now, a bit, that at some time it is because Africans do not know what I am telling them as part of their African history and how it was like in the past for the different communities of Africans in South Africa.
Clarke advises: "A new approach to African history must begin with a new frame of reference. We will have to discard a number of words that have been imposed on our history. There is a need to reject the term "black Africa" because it presupposes that there is a "white Africa" There is an urgent need to discard the "term(s) Negro Africa," ["Kaffirs," Tribe," "Black"], and all that it[they] imply[ies]. This word (Black) grew out of the European slavery and colonial systems and it fails to relate the people of African descent to geography, land, history, and culture. There is no "Negroland" nor "Black land". When one hears the word "France" or "French," it is easy to visualize the land, history, and culture of a people. The same thing is true of the words "English" or "Englishman." When one hears or reads the word(s) "Negro"[Kaffir, "Black", "Tribe,"] the only vision that comes to mind relates to a condition."
The history That I wrote about about the information the crew of the Stavenisse gave us about the customs, culture and tradition of the Zulu, the historian from whom I culled this information, Theal used the words like "Natives" "Kaffir"(Niggers), "Kaffirland", when refering to the Africans of South Africa. Also, he did what Biko once talked about, that, the White writers of African history justify everything the settlers did to the Africans, so much so, this clouds their wrongdoing, and elevates their "Adventurists" spirit, and even if they cheated the Kings of their land, they legitimizes that transaction with the knowledge that the King was thinking something about the deal, that was not related to the actual contract.
So, what I did when I was writing down the history of Africans as presented by the crew of the Stavenisse wreck, I omitted these demeaning word, to the extent that whenever I write about African people, and the person I am quoting, no matter how good their work is, whenever they use the term "Black", I substitute it with African or put "African" in brackets. I did this because of the lesson I am taking from Clarke as I have cited him above, wherein he states that these terms that have been used against Africans or to name Africans, they do not tell you about the people's land, history and culture. In a jingoistic semantic way, these terms obfuscate the humanity and realities of Africans and 'disappears them from decent and proper commentary about their history', culture, customs, traditions and practices in World History. And Clarke has already pointed out that if ever there's "World History", it is not an honest history of the People of the world because Clarke says that the "Europeans, not only colonized nations, but they colonized Information about the world."
As Theal states that the settlers did what they did because they saw it 'fit to do,' and Clarke points out that the Europeans did what they did to Africans because they developed the confidence that they could do it and did it." This means too, that as up and coming African historians, we should filter those terms that downplay Africans and their history, and write history as we see fit to write. In learning to write our historical Historiography and story of Africans, and taking the lessons from Clarke about our history, we are able to discern a much more revitalized and revamped history from where we can now begin to develop and write an authentic and clear history of African in Africa and elsewhere, particularly, in the case of this Hub, the concise history of Africans in South Africa. This will greatly help and improve Africans to be able to "Become Africans Again."
Dr. Amos Wilson - Falsification Of Afrkan History - Eurocentric History, Psychiatry and th the Plitics of White Supremacy (AWIS Lecture Series [Paperback]
Contemporary African Minds Are For African Authentic Autonomy- Freedom
African Minds Must Look At African History Anew In Relation To world History
ANC's Neo-Post-Proto Apartheid
The Apartheid regime worked the African mind deliberately, constantly and consistently to befuddle, bamboozle, stuppify and dumb-them-down for many years to come. This can be easily seen when one studies and notes what has been actually done toAfricans of South Africa in a systematic manner and way because all this was done over time, deliberately. Apartheid was preparing and conditioning Africans of South Africa that when the time came for them to take power(Africans), they should be confused, indecisive, divided according to 'tribes", regions, Township, schools, churches, Township segregated living amongst themselves; they broke them down according to languages, in the education, employment, in the religion, that is, in every aspect of their lives. This effectively seems to have a serious impact on the present-day Africans who still can't overcome those divide and conquer techniques and shenanigans affected on them by the Apartheid regime over its life-span-to date.
When their history is retold by White writers, demeaning and inhuman terms such as I have mentioned above are used to belittle and segregate Africans from themselves, Europeans and from the world. So that, the way Africans are functioning today, it is as a result of the divide and conquer strategies that the Europeans, and in particular, the Apartheid Masters (Boers/Afrikaners) designed it. They made sure that any semblance of unity should be crushed and obliterated by talking of the behalf of, and for Africans in all spheres and aspects of life. The minds of the Africans were streamlined to the extend that a dependency was established, intellectually, spiritually and militarily and otherwise.
The product is the present-day African collective that is not able of getting a handle nor able to wrap their minds around their decrepit and dehumanized existence. Thinking has been curbed long time ago; independent will has been discouraged and trampled-upon; free will is akin to that of 17th century slaves; self assertion was replaced with hat-doffing, eyes cast down, and obedience demanded from their responses and body language/and thinking. Complete brainwashing and mental enslavement was the goal and modus operandi of the Apartheid regime.
This Hub is about unshackling and deconstructing that behavior and critiquing the present-day forms of slavery gripping the Africans masses, that is touted as democratic freedom and liberated Africans, by the present ANC-led government. This is not just a statement to attack the ANC, but a statement of fact. The ANC leaders know about this as a matter of fact because they too, at one time before 1994, couched their rhetoric in the same way I have been talking above about the suffering of the Africans of South Africa. They understand very well what Apartheid did to African people in Mzantsi, with them as part of that oppressed African collective. But today, wielding power as slave drivers, they ignore and purposefully forgot about the liberation struggle of Africans from the oppression foisted upon them by the Apartheid regime and European financial and military potentate.
The ANC has chosen to use the strategy of ignoring and intimidating their critics, unless they find something to complain about-then they react to that criticism in various ways, which are akin to their Apartheid former Masters.. The callous, laisez faire and reckless abandon mindset with which they are pursuing money makes them a ruthless adversary, against their people, and that needs to be critiqued.
They operate on top of the 'left-overs' of the Apartheid way in many way than one. Their people, a majority of them, still live in the places created by apartheid, and are worse-off now that they are permanently unemployed, sick, drugged, poverty stricken, made-purposely-ignorant; victimized and shut down and dumbed-down; harassed and killed if they demonstrate; rampant corruption that is so chronic and devastating, still needs to be written and talked about; malfunctioning clinics and hospitals; in a word, ANC is practicing 'neo-post-proto Apartheid.'
The eight videos of Clarke posted above address such issues and then some. He does it in a Historically, informative and soulful way. So that, in order for us to begin to understand ourselves as Africans what that is all about-and what it is that happened to Africans who got separated from their past and customs-this Hub is a teachable moment and enabler for Africans to be able to wrap their heads around their centuries old miseries and overcome that. I cannot really repeat what Prof. Clarke said in the eight(8) videos above all at once or all of it, but I will pick up on the writings of Clarke on this issues as he informs us thus:
"In a recent speech on the "Significance of African History," the Caribbean-American writer Richard B. Moore has observed:
The significance of African history is shown, though not overtly, in the very effort to deny anything worthy of the name of history of Africa and the African peoples. This widespread, and well nigh successful endeavor, maintained through some five centuries, to erase African history from the general record, is a fact which of itself should be quite conclusive to thinking and open minds. For it is logical and apparent that no such undertaking would have been carried on, and at such length, in order to obscure and to bury what is actually of little or no significance.
"The Prime significance of African history becomes still more manifest when it is realized that this deliberate denial of African history arose out of the European expansion and invasion of Africa which began in the middle of the fifteenth century. The compulsion was thereby felt to attempt to justify such colonialist conquest, domination, enslavement, and plunder of African resources and their labor, along with their humanity. Hence, this brash denial of history and culture to Africa, and, indeed, even of human qualities and capacity for civilization to the indigenous peoples of Africa."
Clarke, after citing Moore adds:
"Mr.Moore is saying, in essence, that African history must be looked at anew and seen in its relationship to world history. First, the distortions must be admitted. The hard fact is that most of what we now call history is the only history of the second rise of Europe. The Europeans are not yet willing to acknowledge that the world did not wait in darkness for them to bring light. The history of Africa was already old when Europe was born."
This is true of the history of Africans in South Africa, that their history was already old when the Dutch, in the 11th century, from the the 1440 to the mid-1600s, landed in the Cape. For them to try and convince African people that they are not the original people of South Africa, but 'trekked' from the north of Africa, and arrived at the same time as the Setters landed on the Cape, I have already written above about how that is not true, and it is false on its face and in its ahistorical account and context.
It is very important that what Prof. Clarke has to say should be relevant and relatable to Africans in the Diaspora, in Africa and particularly in South Africa. My take is that Africans did not come from any North of Africa, but have always been inhabitants of South Africa-from the beginning of time. Just recently, some archeological history has come out that there are, in South Africa magnificent structure that are dated as far back as 170,000 B.C.. There are so many things that have been unearthed, that I am still constructing a Hub on this new history. Clarke says that we must write African History, that is part of the re-wrting of South African African history which I still have to do, and it is by now very close to the stage where I will just have to write it and publish. But for now, the mind-set of oppressed Africans of South Africa is slowly being unshackled by Hubs of this calibre, and the very powerful and pithy Video lectures of Prof. John Hendrik Clarke and a few other Master Master Teachers I have added to Clarke's lectures in this Hub, below..
How Capitalism Underdeveloped Black America: Problems in Race, Political Economy, and Society (South End Press Classics Series) [Paperback] Manning Marab
Pedagogy of the Oppressed, 30th Anniversary Edition [Paperback] Paulo Freire (Author), Myra Bergman Ramos (Translator), Donaldo Macedo (Introduction)
Each One Teach One; Each One Reach One
Education and Information In The Struggle Used For Power, Liberation And National Building
Master Teachers: Those Who Preserve African History
Writing this Hub for is education and very difficult one because I have to write about the Master Teacher of Master Teachers. I have posted some of his videos in different lectures. I have taken my education into my own hands as Clarke advices, and am using his lessons to upgrade and update the history of Africans of South Africa.. I have taken up the task of helping to educate Africans in Mzantsi(South Africa), and in the process I am carrying out my own education from a Master teacher-at-large par excellent.
So making the education work for me because is learning from those who are the preservers of African history, thus giving Africans a fighting chance to carry on the torch of enlightening African people. To be able to do so, will be to look much more deeper into this phenomenon of Europe denying Africans their history and humanity. Professor Clarke, along with Cheik Anta Diop, has always spearheaded the preservation and teaching of African history, and it is to him(Diop) we will defer to learn our lessons about this issue.
Cheik Anta Diop has this to say about the Nations of Black(Africans) and their Culture in 1955:
"In our time, it is customary to ask ourselves all kinds of questions; so we must ask if it was necessary to study the problems dealt with. Even a superficial examination of the cultural situation in Black(African) Africa justifies such an undertaking. Indeed, if one must believe Western works, it is useless to look in the interior of the African forest for a single civilization which, in the last analysis, might be the product of Blacks(Africans). The civilizations of Ethiopia and Egypt, they express testimony of the ancients notwithstanding, the civilizations of the Ife and Benin, of the Chad Basin, of Ghana, all those referred to as neo-Sudanese (Mali, Gao, etc.) those of Zimbabwe (Monomotapa), of the Congo on the Equator, etc. ... according to the coteries of Western scholars, were created by mythical Whites who then vanished as in a dream, leaving the Blacks(Africans) to perpetuate the forms, organizations,techniques, etc, which they had invented.(We read a bit of this by Basil Davidson above)
"The explanation of the origin of an African civilization is only logical and acceptable, serious, objective and scientific if one, by what distortion whatsoever, leads up to this mythical Whiteman. One does not bother to provide proof of his arrival or his settling in these parts. It can be readily understood how scholars could not help being led to the extreme from their reasoning, from their logical and dialectical deductions, to the notion of "Whites with Black Skins," a notion quite widespread in the circles of European specialists. Such modes of thought obviously cannot persist forever since they are completely lacking in any substantial foundation. They are explained only by the passion which consumes those who create them and shows through their appearances of objectivity and calm.
"But these "scientific" theories on the African past are highly consistent; they are utilitarian, pragmatic. Truth is what is good for something and, in this instance, good for colonialism: the aim is, under cover of the mantle of science,to make the Black(African) man believe that he has never been responsible for anything at all of worth, not even for what is to be found right in his own abandonment and renunciation of all national aspirations on the part of those who are wavering, and the reflexes of subordination are reinforced in those who have already been allienated. It is for this reason that there exist numerous theorizers in the service of colonialism, every one more clever than the other, whose ideas are spread abroad and taught on a popular scale as fast as they are worked out."
Clarke adds the following: "The use of cultural alienation as a weapon of domination is as old as the world itself; every time one people in the world have conquered another, they have used it. It is edifying to underline that it is the descendents of the Gauls against whom Caesar used that weapon, who today are employing it against us."
Then Clarke informs us that: "Many White students of African history are now willing to admit that, according to most of the evidence we now have available, mankind started in Africa. The same students are not also willing to admit that it is logical to assume that human cultures and what we refer to as civilization started in Africa." Professor Clarke goes on to cite Leo Hansberry's lecture on "Early African Civilizations" who goes on to say that:
"Between the years 1834 and 1908, there occurred a revolution in academic thinking about Africa's place in the outlines of world geography and world history. And in the past 150 years, European explorers and archeologists have found in the valleys of the Niger, Benwezi, Limpopo and the Nile Rivers, [Limpopo River] in the basin of Lake Chad and the Sahara, extensive remains of hundred of ruins which bear witness to the existence of former civilizations hundreds and thousands of years ago. This knowledge of the facts about the African past when combined with the known history of other continents reveal that these also are the stories of triumphs and failures of mankind and form many chapters in the history of the human race."
As I have mentioned above in the Hub that I am preparing to write a history of South Africa that began around 170,000 years ago. What Dr. Hansberry is talking about is true, If I am to make it relevant to the history of Africans in South Africa, I have to go into the greatest and deepest of antiquities to begin to reshape and reform, rewrite and re-compose this history from the sparse, but available material in order to counter the existing falsehoods that the History of the Africans in South Africa began at the time when the Dutch accidentally landed in the Cape in search of fresh food, because the salted food had exposed them to and were assailed by scurvy and diseases like Beriberi. The explanation below explains it much more better"
A life on the sea, whether fishing, whaling or sailing the tall ships, barks, brigs, etc., has never been an easy existence. The early sailors were plagued by diseases such as Scurvy and Beriberi, Typhus or ship fever from mouse and venereal diseases from contact in port with Maritime Magdalenes. You never hear dysentery mentioned, but I would suspect, after reading about the salty food they ate and the poor water they drank, that that was a problem as well. With time and insightful observations, knowledge on how to prevent some of these problems evolved, and sea captains wanting to maintain a healthy crew would employ such tactics. For instance, scrubbing the decks daily prevented diseases caused by rats and insects.
By putting historical facts into perspective helps to clarity those issue which are still confusing about a people's distorted history. So that, this unknown history combined with the dissemination of it and trying to make it known through the available technologies today, is in a way creating a permanent corrected history that will be used by the generations of the Web in the future. It is also teaching one of the Africans and making sure that one reaches all Africans with this important historical data as presented on this Hub.
I have also written a Hub which I titled: "South African Culture, Customs and Practices Writ Large: Re-Morphed Cultural Renaissance against Dysfunctional Existence," and its sequel, "History, Culture, Customs, Traditions and Practices Of The Africans of South Africa: Deconstructing Historical Amnesia." In these Hubs I was attempting my hand at writing about Culture, Traditions, languages and customs, languages, music.literature and practices of Africans in South africa.
In the first hub of the two mentioned above, I go to the extend of trying to establish and attach the historical fact that Mapungubwe is South Africa's premier civilization and covered the whole area from the Limpopo, to the western Cape, Eastern Cape, The "Old Transvaal, Natal and Mozambique(Maputo now). We can not only regurgitate what the Colonizers wrote about the History, culture, etc., of the African people of South Africa, we must also do what Biko and Clarke intone us to do, very well, write African history ourselves from an African perspective.
I dared write articles that were new in the literature of South Africa, so that they became a rewritten history using many sources, images, and exploring the culture as it had been from the 1800s to today, and in the process, try asserted that these cultures we one unified cultures which had a lot of variety and diversity to them, but were one and uniform African South African Cultures. This is an effort to try and disseminate historical truth and facts to a people who still will have to discover these types of works, and who are still going to have write their history from their own African-Centered Perspective. Hub like this one, will offer that enabling chance.
I am working to try try and bring these thousands of years old civilization like the one of South Africa into light, and though this is a very difficult task, it is doable because there is now ample African history scholarship and using Master Teachers as the crutch of recreating and rewriting this culture-this helps in rewriting, composing and reconstructing the History of africans from remote antiquity into decent commentary of World history. Even if most of us have been educated or miseducated in these White institutions of higher learning, it is up to us to begin to search for African past and its greatness, and make sure we give continuity to it. By walking, as long as we able to, in the historical shoes and steps of the Maser teacher, using their lectures and the videos I have posted above, whilst at the same time reconstructing and recomposing Africans history, Africans in the 21st century, will be able to correct and write the true history of Africans in South African, Africa itself and the whole Diaspora,with the same intensity and information garnered from the Master Teachers and that which, as the students learned, adds to this historiography. By doing this, one is able to help educe a lot of Africans about African history, its importance and empowerment.
How And Why Europe Underdeveloped Africa
"What Should Be Done To Uplift and Develop African History
"European domination has noting to do with the European having a superior mind, of having ability that you do not have. It has to do with the fact that the European believed he could do it and gained enough confidence to do it.. We can do the same if we make up our minds to do it. That is why, especially in [South Africa] we are literally kept from our history. If you expect the present-day school system to give history to you, you are dreaming. This, we have to do ourselves. The Chinese didn't go out in the world and beg people to teach Chinese studies or let them them teach Chinese Studies. the Japanese didn't do that either. People don't beg other people to restore their history; they do it themselves. They learn something about freedom that we to learn. Freedom is something we must take with our own hands and secure it with our own hands. If other people's hands secure it for us, other people's hands can take it away from us. Our main ally and our most dependable ally in the fight for freedom is ourselves."
It is true, quotations, such as I have used from Clarke in this article should be used to edify one's points on writing African history; also, those basic needs the people are decrying should be etched onto our writing just as powerful in their rhetoric as those we would be citing. What we cite, should most of the time confirm what we are writing about. What we are writing about and composing should be spot-on and relatable and educing to the African polity we are writing for and to. Our writing of African history should be done so within the African perspective. W.E.B Du Bois decries the fact that:
"There are those who would write world history and leave out this most marvelous of continents. Particularly today, most men assume that Africa lies far afield from the center of our burning social problems and especially from our present problem of world war.Yet in a very real sense, Africa is a prime cause of this terrible overturning of civilization. ... In Africa are the hidden roots, not simply of war today but of the menace of war tomorrow.
"Always Africa is giving us something new or some metempsychosis of a world-old thing. On its Black bosom arose one of the earliest, if not 'the', of self-protecting civilizations, and grew so mightily that it still furnishes superlatives to thinking and speaking men. Out of its darker and more remote forest vastness came, if we may credit many recent scientists, the first welding of iron, and we know that agriculture ad trade flourished there when Europe was still in wilderness. Nearly every human empire that has arisen in the world, material and spiritual, has found some of its greatest crisis on this continent of Africa, from Greece to Great Britain."
As Mommsen says, "it was through Africa the last flood of Germanic invasions spent itself within the hearing of the last gasp of the Byzantium, and it was again in Africa that Islam came to play its great role of conqueror and civilizer."
Obfuscation Of African Historiography
On the Clarke Historical Tilt
One of the many things I have learnt from Prof Clarke is that "you cannot understand world history without understanding the central role of African history." What one learns from Clarke is that like his teachers, his teachings were African-Centered, and gives you accurate analysis and descriptions of history, he provides prescription of what Africans have to do to bring into being a new day. He has consistently urged all the people he has come in contact with to seek the truth about human history by pursuing the path of enlightenment through knowledge, first of self and one's people and then others. He has constantly predicated that this path of wisdom would lead to improvement and a new day for Africans everywhere.
Clarke provides an overall analysis of a period of history that has been systematically falsified and hidden from the serious scrutiny of African scholars and researchers and other committed individuals. He points to concepts that are keys to unveiling that truth about African history and destroying "Big Lies" about White supremacy. He articulated most neglected periods of African history, like those dealing with slavery and its impact on Africa and the world, for one. Prof. Clarke challenged the traditional views of African civilization and its strengths and weaknesses before enslavement and colonialism periods. He challenges the Eurocentric view of Columbus as a "discoverer" and instructs us that Columbus set in motion the genocidal process and renewed western racism.
Development Of Underdevelopment
Walter Rodney wrote:
"The seeds of the European-American system of materialism were planted during this definitive period of history from 1482-1536 and were nurtured by the exploitation of new lands, labor and resources. The centerpiece of this exploitative system was the trans-Atlantic Slave Trade. This development of Europe and it colonization of the New World or Western Hemisphere goes hand-in-hand with the Underdevelopment of Africa and the indigenous people of the Americas."
"This process of African Underdevelopment was genocidal and made for the African Holocaust through the enslavement. History informs us that the development of economic and political forces laid foundation for a European-American nation state and nationalism," Clarke informs us. The American economy in its foundations was centered around intercontinental trade and capitalism. So that, when we look at the fifty year period from 1482-1536 A.D., the European world was able to synthesize various economic, political and cultural forces and laid the foundation or a global system of power, centered around materialism, capitalism, and Imperialism. At the heart of the new global system of European-American materialism was super exploitation of the indigenous people of the Western hemisphere and the enslavement of Africans-[as well as colonization and enslavement of Africans on the African continent]..
"More often than not, the term ‘development’ is used in an exclusive economic sense – the justification being that the type of economy is itself an index of other social features. What then is economic development? A society develops economically as its members increase jointly their capacity for dealing with the environment. This capacity for dealing with the environment is dependent on the extent to which they understand the laws of nature (science), on the extent to which they put that understanding into practice by devising tools (technology), and on the manner in which work is organized. Taking a long-term view, it can be said that there has been constant economic development within human society since the origins of man, because man has multiplied enormously his capacity to win a living from nature. The magnitude of man’s achievement is best understood by reflecting on the early history of human society and noting firstly, the progress from crude stone tools to the use of metals; secondly, the changeover from hunting and gathering wild fruit to the domestication of animals and the growing of food crops; and thirdly, the improvement in the character of work from being an individualistic activity towards an activity which assumes a social character through the participation of many.
"Having discussed ‘development’, it makes it easier to comprehend the concept of underdevelopment. Obviously, underdevelopment is not absence of development, because every people have developed in one way or another and to a greater or lesser extent. Underdevelopment makes sense only as a means of comparing levels of development. It is very much tied to the fact that human social development has been uneven and from a strictly economic view-point some human groups have advanced further by producing more and becoming more wealthy.
"The moment that one group appears to be wealthier than others, some enquiry is bound to take place as to the reason for the difference. After Britain had begun to move ahead of the rest of Europe in the 18th century, the famous British economist Adam Smith felt it necessary to look into the causes behind the ‘Wealth of Nations’. At the same time, many Russians were very concerned about the fact that their country was ‘backward’ in comparison with England, France and Germany in the 18th century and subsequently in the 19th century. Today, our main pre-occupation is with the differences in wealth between on the one hand Europe and North America and on the other hand Africa, Asia and Latin America. In comparison with the first, the second group can be said to be backward or underdeveloped. At all times, therefore, one of the ideas behind underdevelopment is a comparative one. It is possible to compare the economic conditions at two different periods for the same country and determine whether or not it had developed; and (more importantly) it is possible to compare the economies of any two countries or sets of countries at any given period in time.
"A second and even more indispensable component of modern underdevelopment is that it expresses a particular relationship of exploitation: namely, the exploitation of one country by another. All of the countries named as ‘underdeveloped’ in the world are exploited by others; and the underdevelopment with which the world is now pre- occupied is a product of capitalist, imperialist and colonialist exploitation. African and Asian societies were developing independently until they were taken over directly or indirectly by the capitalist powers. When that happened, exploitation increased and the export of surplus ensued, depriving the societies of the benefit of their natural resources and labour. That is an integral part of underdevelopment in the contemporary sense.
"In some quarters, it has often been thought wise to substitute the term ‘developing’ for ‘underdeveloped’. One of the reasons for so doing is to avoid any unpleasantness which may be attached to the second term, which might be interpreted as meaning underdeveloped mentally, physically, morally or in any other respect. Actually, if ‘underdevelopment’ were related to anything other than comparing economies, then the most underdeveloped country in the world would be the U.S.A, which practices external oppression on a massive scale, while internally there is a blend of exploitation, brutality, and psychiatric disorder. However, on the economic level, it is best to remain with the word ‘underdeveloped’ rather than ‘developing’, because the latter creates the impression that all the countries of Africa, Asia and Latin America are escaping from a state of economic backwardness relative to the industrial nations of the world, and that they are emancipating themselves from the relationship of exploitation. That is certainly not true, and many underdeveloped countries in Africa and elsewhere are becoming more underdeveloped in comparison with the world’s great powers, because their exploitation by the metropoles is being intensified in new ways."
The following table gives a clear picture of the gap between Africa and certain nations measured in per capita incomes. It is the gap that allows one group to be called ‘developed’ and another ‘underdeveloped’. (The information is obtained from United Nations statistical publications, and applies to the year 1968 unless otherwise stated.)
Countries Per Capita income in U.S. dollars.
- Canada 2,247;
- France (1967)1,738;
- United Kingdom (1967) 1,560;
- AFRICA as a whole (1965) 1,400;
- Congo 52;
- Ghana 198;
- Kenya 107;
- Malawi52 Morocco 185;
- South Africa 543;
- Tanzania 62;
- U.A.R. 156;
- Zambia 225
"The gap that can be seen from the above evidence is not only great, but it is also increasing. Many people have come to realize that the developed countries are growing richer quite rapidly, while underdeveloped countries for the most part show stagnancy or slow rates of growth. In each country, a figure can be calculated to represent the rate at which the economy grows. The growth rate is highest in Socialist countries, followed by the big capitalist countries, and with the colonies and ex-colonies trailing far behind. The proportion of international trade which is in the hands of the underdeveloped countries is declining. That proportion was roughly 30% in 1938 and went down to less than 20% in the 1960’s. This is an important indicator because trade is both a reflection of the quantity of goods produced and a way of obtaining goods not locally produced.
"Developed economies have certain characteristics which contrast with underdeveloped ones. The developed countries are all industrialized. That is to say, the greater part of their working population is engaged in industry rather than agriculture, and most of their wealth comes out of mines, factories, etc. They have a high output of labour per man in industry because of their advanced technology and skills. This is well known, but it is also striking that the developed countries have a much more advanced agriculture than the rest of the world. Their agriculture has already become an industry, and the agricultural part of the economy produces more although it is small. The countries of Africa, Asia and Latin America are called agricultural countries because they rely on agriculture and have little or no industry: but their agriculture is unscientific and the yields are far less than those of the developed countries.
"In several of the largest underdeveloped nations, there was stagnation and fall in agricultural output in and after 1966. In Africa, the output of food per person has been falling in recent years. Because the developed countries have a stronger industrial and agricultural economy than the rest of the world, they produce far more goods than the poor nations-in the category of necessities as well as luxuries. It is possible to draw up statistical tables showing the production of grain, milk, steel, electric power, paper, and a wide range of other goods; and showing at the same time how much of each commodity is made available to each citizen (on the average). Once again, the figures are highly favorable to a few privileged countries in the world.
"The amount of steel used in a country is an excellent indicator of the level of industrialization. At one extreme, one finds that the U.S.A. consumes 685 kg. of steel per person, Sweden 623 kg. and East Germany 437 kg. At the other extreme, one finds that Zambia consumes 10 kg., East Africa 8 kg. and Ethiopia 2 kg. When the same kind of calculation is made for sugar, a sample of the results shows Australia with 57 kg, and North America and the Soviet Union with 45 to 50 kg. on the average. Africa, however, consumes only 10 kg. of sugar per person per year, and this is better than Asia with 7 kg..
"An even more gloomy set of statistics relate to basic food requirements. Each individual needs a certain quantity of food per day, measured in calories. The desirable amount is 3,000 calories per day; but no African country comes anywhere near to that figure. Algerians consume on average only 1,370 calories per day, while Ivory Coast can consider itself very well off within an African context with 2,290 calories as the national average. Furthermore, one also has to judge the protein content of the food; and many parts of Africa suffer from ‘protein famine’ – which means that even when calories are available from starchy foods, little protein is to he found. Persons in developed capitalist and Socialist countries consume twice as much protein food as those in underdeveloped countries. Such differences help to make it clear which countries are ‘developed’ and which are ‘underdeveloped’.
"The extent to which basic goods and social services are available in a country can also be measured indirectly by looking at the life expectancy, the frequency of deaths among children, the amount of malnutrition, the occurrence of diseases which would be prevented by inoculation and public health services, and the proportion of illiterates. In all these respects, the comparison between the developed and underdeveloped countries shows huge and even frightening differences. For every 1,000 children who are born alive in Cameroon, 100 never live to see their first birthday, and out of every 1,000 African children born alive in rural Sierra Leone, 160 die before reaching one year. Yet the comparable figures for the U.K. and Holland are only 12 and 18, respectively. Besides many more African children die before they reach the age of five. Lack of doctors is a major drawback. In Italy, there is one doctor for every 580 Italians and in Czechoslovakia there is one doctor for every 510 citizens. In Niger, one doctor must do for 56,140 people; in Tunisia, one doctor for every 8,320 Tunisians; and in Chad one doctor for 73,460 persons.
"It takes a large number of skilled people to make an industrial economy function; while the countries of Africa have a woefully insufficient number of highly qualified personnel. The figures on doctors just given confirm this, and the same problem exists with engineers, technicians, agriculturalists and even administrators and lawyers in some places. Middle level skills in fields such as welding are also lacking. To make matters worse, there is at present a ‘brain drain’ from Africa, Asia and Latin America towards North America and Western Europe. This is to say, professionals, technicians, high-level administrators and skilled workers emigrate from their homes, and the small number of skilled people available to the underdeveloped world are further depleted by the lure of better pay and opportunities in the developed world. The lopsided nature of the present international economy is strikingly brought home by the fact that the underdeveloped countries have in turn to recruit foreign experts at fantastic cost."
I have cited Rodney as extensively as I have because I waned to give a picture and sense of what he meant by "Development of Underdevelopment". At the expense of those countries with natural material and human labor, the exploitation of both was improving on the development of the European countries, and in the process, the underdevelopment of the Countries of Africa and the the so-called Third world countries. This is another way of learning about the another process, embedded within colonization and present-day Imperialism which facilitates for the subjugation of Africa and robbing it of its natural wealth, and exploiting its labor power for the maximization of the Profits and development of Europe. This is not different from the the exploitation of slaves, who were firstly captured, and their labor power exploited without any compensation to the slaves.
Prof. Clarke's analysis provides us with a perspective that enables us to understand that slavery ad genocide were institutionalized and systematized into a global system of domination, destruction and death which not only control land, labor and resources, but colonized information. Clarke says all this was done in the name of White Supremacy, based upon the concept of "chosen people" and "Manifest Destiny", enabling and furthering cultural genocide and was empowered,thus, to maintain mental slavery, which persists to date.
This has assured a continuation of the enrichment of Europe and the perpetual enslavement and continual exploitation and underdevelopment of Africa, the African Diaspora and the so-called Third Word to be developed to the extent that they remain in perpetual servitude and enslavement, also depended to Europe for everything, without being free, and dependent on themselves and their natural resources and massive human labor force. Up to this day, Africa has still not recovered, and is still made depended on the Western Big Capitalist and their own people are suffering from all imaginable diseases, poverty, hunger, ignorance and oppression which comes in the From of Cultural Wars and Cultural Imperialism. At times we do blame Europe for the underdevelopment of Africa, but at the same time, we ought to blame Africa and it endemic corruption.
Corruption to Blame for Africa’s Underdevelopment
In 2011, Evans Wafula wrote:
"Africa’s long quest to achieve the Millennium Development Goals is far from realization and is doomed to fail if radical reforms are not enforced in urban managements in Africa. Kenya’s housing Minister; Mr. Soita Shitanda has warned.
"He expressed fear on the pace of urban development in Africa and has blamed it on endemic corruption in a continent ravaged by poverty and diseases despite huge resource potential.
“Although many African countries have viable national frameworks for urban management on the continent, corruption remains the major challenge in Africa and is the main cause for under development in Africa,” Mr. Soita Standa, added.
"After the UN Conference on Sustainable Development in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, Africa is still struggling to meet her development targets. An estimated 1.1 billion people remain without safe drinking water and about 2.6 billion have no access to adequate sanitation. Almost 1 billion people, most of them in developing countries, live in slums, with constrained sanitation. This is figure expected to double over the next 30 years.
"That was the dark picture painted at the World Water Day 2011 in Cape Town, South Africa. The international observance of World Water Day is an initiative that grew out of the 1992 United Nations Conference on Environment and Development (UNCED) in Rio de Janeiro to forge common standpoints on urban development and urbanization in order to promote access to water and sanitation.
"In Africa, the importance of this is the rapid rate at which African countries are becoming increasingly urban societies and monitor the implementation of the World Summit on Sustainable Development (WSSD), held in Johannesburg in 2002."
During the Cape Town conference delegates mostly from Africa also under took to reviewed the progress in provision of water, access to sanitation and human settlements, as envisaged at the 2005 African Minister’s Conference on Housing and Urban Development (AMCHUD) held in Durban, South Africa in 2005.
“Africa continues to stagnate in realization of her MDGs painting a stark picture on the face of increased challenges of urbanization”. Edna Molewa, Minister of Water and Environmental Affairs, South Africa said as she underscored the importance of dialogue on water and sanitation issues globally.
"Although the expectation of the World Summit on Sustainable Development (WSSD) was to reduce by half the proportion of people without access to safe drinking water and sanitation by 2015, an estimated 300 million people in Africa are faced with lack of access to safe drinking water and 14 countries on the continent suffer from water scarcity. With domestic water use below 50 liters per person per day in over 55 countries (the minimum requirement set by the World Health Organization), 35 of this countries are in Africa. An estimated half of people living in African suffer from one of six main water-related diseases.
According to a 1990 report by the UN Development Program, the proportion of urban dwellers with access to safe drinking water in Sub-Saharan Africa only declined slightly from 86 per cent to 83 per cent in 2000.This slow trend was not expected to change much towards 2015 due to the complex nature of urban development in Africa.
"Delegates at the WWD 2011 also identified lack of money and technology as the major hindrances to solving Africa’s urbanization problems and called for increased investment for water supply and sanitation in Africa and to deal with lack of resource capacity.
"African governments were encouraged to involve the stake holders at the grassroots and encourage equal participation of the local communities in solving their own problems through participation in order to access the challenges of urbanization."
If one reads Wafula's article above, not much has changed, and he has not touched upon the points raised by Walter Rodney above about "Development" and Underdevelopment.". But in talking about the development of Urban Africa, water shortage, sanitation and poverty top the list. The replication of the same conditions that Walter Rodney addressed above are the mainstay of the backward economic, social and political manifestations in Africa(South Africa) that even the UN can only report on, and its paltry contributions which do not give or make a dent on the lives of Africans in the year 2011. Walter Rodney's assessment of the underdevelopment of Africa was around the year 1968. Wafula's reportage was in 2011. The same conditions that Rodney talks about are recurring problem in the 21st century Africa.
Africa's lack of everything for autonomy to modern technology, is touched-up upon by Wafula, and this is modern type of underdevelopment which retards African development and progress in the21st century. It is well know that Africa is falling behind the rest of the world in terms of economic wellbeing., and poverty is on the rise in Africa compared to those countries that were once referred to the so-called Third World. There are about three strands of thoughts that are contemporaneous with this topic that are summing up the Underdevelopment of Development of Africa in the 21st century if we might try to talk in much more solid and concrete terms:
The first is the disease view. According to this view, malaria and other infectious diseases have fatal as well as debilitating effects on the human population in Africa. It negatively influences productivity, savings, and investment and directly affects economic performance of the continent (Gallup and Sachs 2001; Bloom and Sachs 1998).1 According to Bloom and Sachs (1998), the high incidence of malaria in sub-Saharan Africa reduces the annual growth rate of the continent by 1.3% a year and eradication of malaria in the 1950s would have resulted into a doubling of per capita income from what exists today.
The second is the colonial institutions view. According to this view, the persistent effect of colonial institutions can explain the huge differences in income across all ex-colonies including Africa (Acemoglu et al. 2001, Rodrik et al. 2004, Bhattacharyya 2004).2 The story goes as follows. Europeans resorted to different style of colonization depending on the feasibility of settlement. In a tropical environment the settlers had to deal with the killer malaria and hence a high mortality rate. This prevented colonizers from settling in a tropical environment and they erected extractive institutions in these colonies. On the other hand, in temperate conditions European settlers felt more at home and decided to settle. In these colonies they erected institutions characterized by strong protection of private property and efficient enforcement of contracts. These institutions created by the colonizers have persisted over time and they continue to influence the economic performance of the colonies even long after independence. The settlement colonies with better institutions continue to perform well in the economic arena, whereas the non-settlement colonies with poor institutions continue to struggle.
Finally, a third group of explanation relates to the economic impact of Africa’s engagement in slave trade. According to this view, Africa’s engagement in the slave trade caused massive depopulation of the continent over two centuries. This resulted into an implosion of the continent’s production possibility frontier and an unambiguous reduction in welfare. The secular decline in welfare continued over more than two centuries plunging the continent into economic backwardness (Gemery and Hogendorn 1979; Inikori 1992; and Manning 1981).
Another theory within this group is proposed by Nunn (2004). He argues that Africa’s engagement in slave trade had a detrimental impact on the development of domestic institutions.
"The frequent slave raids and the culture of violence attached with it severely damaged the security of private property and weakened the judicial system creating a persistent state of lawlessness in the society. These weak institutions persisted over time and are continuing to affect contemporary development.These theories, even though plausible, do not tell us how much of the variation in income across the continent they can explain."
But if we re-read What Rodney has tabulated above about the state of Africa in 1968, and we read what the authors I have cited above have to say about African progress or non-progress, they would do well to go back and read Rodney and try to trace those issues and aspects of underdevelopment of development and whether their regressive tendencies have improved in tandem with the developing world-and the Answer remains a resounding 'No'.
As a historical piece, Rodney's work still resonates with the africans in Africa, and Africans in South Africa because their material conditions have never changed since their development was arrested by the Apartheid rulers in 1948, and has been exacerbated by the ANC-led government since 1994. One way of understanding South African African History, is to read and understand Walter Rodney's development of Underdevelopment of Africa by Europe, and the truth of the matter is that that type of underdeveloped development has never gotten any better, to date, and If the articles I have cited above mean nothing, the reader should bear in their minds that development Rodney addressed in 1968, has worsened in all the things he addressed as a form of underdevelopment of Africa.
Toward the African Revolution (Fanon, Frantz) [Paperback]
They Came Before Columbus: The African Presence in Ancient America Paperback by Ivan Van Sertima
In Defense Of African History
We Are All Entitled To Our Opinions; But Facts Remain Facts
We have to breakdown our dependency on other people. I choose to follow Clarke's advice to work on creating, composing, rewriting, defending and developing Our Story(History). For those historical issues that I am not yet too familiar with as well versed as the Master Teacher(Clarke) and other others on any particular topic I am dealing with, I always will have to remember to defer to the African History Master Teacher, Prof. Clarke; it is important to remember that Facts about African History have been distorted and dislodged form the psyche and consciousness of Africa, and that we shall have to carry out his(Clarke's) directive that we need to rewrite our own History: Defend African History with African-centered historical-based evidence and be able to insert our opinions regarding the validity and importance of African history.
I use the Social media to test run some ideas and evaluate the responses before I create some, not all(a paltry few), Hubs. Facebook(FB) works well as this mechanisms of weighing what I am writing and the kind of feedback I get, and in the process, try and apply my bit of know-how of history, and insert the better elaborations of the African Master Teachers to create, invent, compose and rewrite African history in general, and South African African History, in particular.
At times I do editorialize, and in many cases I offer my opinions, but overall, I use "facts" which cannot be altered or twisted. I use the Master teacher's teachings on particular subjects and issues I might be working on to develop and broaden the sense and importance, relevance and power of knowing and understanding writing about and synergizing the Master Teachers' facts, my own historical knowledge, opinions and their relevance to the African history of Africans in South Africa-in defending, composing, rewriting and making commentary about it into the viral stream and on Hub pages.
Another thing is, the more Africans Understand the Media and use it to the Advantage of Africans, as in my case, and as a sounding board of ideas and dissemination of ideas, with constant and immediate feedback from the Facebook users, in order to rewrite and recreate African History and Historiography, is what should and will be in order here. As Africans, we have to begin to understand and know that the media is not entertainment only, but a power tool that is not working in our favor, as yet. I advocate through practical use of the social medium Facebook, that it can become a tool of self-empowerment of Africans with the means to enable them to reset themselves and their history-and also propagate the History of African people effectively and profusely in the social media-through the Internet.
This article is about Prof. Clarke and his writings and lectures. It is also about how we as his students adhere to the lessons he teaches and applying ourselves to and through his protocols. This Hub is also about how as an aspiring Historian, using the lessons of a Master Teacher, I take and make his lessons relate and to be relevant to the past and present history of Africans in South Africa. What follows below, is one of the pieces I have written to show how serious the attack of Africans and African History is, and interim, I defer to two revolutionary Master Teachers to edify and solidify the importance of the discourse below.
Also, it is important to know how to begin to deconstruct and demystify their(Europeans) assertions that whenever Africans talk about African history, they say Africans are merely 'apologizing' or crying 'victim' with a history that will not help them, but cause confusion, since they "have 2000 languages" and it will be like "herding cats" trying anything like to unite them, impossible. It is such spurious and nonsensical ideas that should not be allowed to go by, and by putting African South African history into perspective, we need to speak truth to the former colonizers, and the present ANC-led government in power at present, and the people we are defending: Africans of Mzantsi, Africa as a whole and the rest of the Africans in Africa and in the Diaspora.
African history is not necessarily dates and event(which are important) but the constant refining and deconstruction of all those who are its detractors, very efficiently. The Hub above and in its entirety is very important because it does not only talk about Clarke, his writings and and philosophies only, but also offers and has posted a number of his lectures to satisfy anyone's curiosity and need to know about the history of Africans in the World; also, my added feature, more specifically, is connected to the Clarke's teaching,along with South african African history, to show relatedness and relevance and importance of the African Historiography by Clarke as a whole, and as it relates and how it is connected to South African History, specifically..
I have been here on Facebook for some time and have posted some things, and some were good, others, maybe not. I do not expect to get "Likes" or comments, as I often never do, that much anyway. I know I unsettle many people with my directness and spin of facts or whatever; but also, I have a right to be amongst Africans people and say my 'two cents'. There are many views and other things that African people are engaged in throughout the Web(FB Specifically), and I am privy or party to some, too, jut as most of us here on all these Africans Walls are doing, reaching out and connecting with the not-so-famous non-celebs and famous celebs-and nobodies like me.
I have been keeping in-check the pulse and the direction of the posts about South african Africans, and their disgruntlement about the ANC. This has helped shape and give direction to the composing and development of African History, using all other scholars, but mainly Prof. Clarke's lectures(See the videos) and writings from his books, that the writing and recreating recreating of African South African history has been made possible and relevant.
I think that given what the Internet and Facebook in particular is about, that should be expected and cede the fact it is about everything. One other thing I have been patiently working on is all things about African History(As African People, Culture's, traditions, Customs, Practices, Music, Dances), [and still will talk about South African languages in due time-for this topic about languages, readers can read my Hub titled "History, Culture, Customs, Traditions and Practices Of The Africans of south Africa: Deconstructing Historical Amnesia"] but for now, I am going to be dealing with those detractors who are working hard to ensure their insidious role, impact and stating the unimportance of African History by falsifying, demeaning and belittling its relevance to african people of South Africa. I will work hard to deconstruct and demystify this breed and intellectual terrorist of African history.
From the factual history of Dr. Clarke, if one get time to listen to his videos, one will discern the truth that anyone, who does not know about all what he is talking about, how can they(the detractors) have anything to say about the History of Africans? This is a very long article, and wish those who read it in its entirety will find something from it. The lectures are very long, varied and involved. Because those who still maintain that Africans will go back to 'Mud and Dung' houses and such careless-like talk, are clearly against African history and a terrible attack on Africans in Africa and globally, and the sad thing is that they do not know much about African history
Now, These Africanist Walls on FB, are Walls wherein we try to bring about the Dignity and Importance of African people and their History, are also good sources of the temperature, views and other aspects of African voicing their frustrations, opinions, at times facts about their present decrepit conditions presently under the ANC. As all know by now, that African people of Mzantsi are-with all their contradictions and whatever, are using writing about Africans to discard off these contradictions and are constantly working hard to achieve ways and means of erasing these contradiction, it is not an easy thing to do, and needs time and patience to really succeed.
I am clear about my history and how many people labored to see towards its edification and upliftment. Anyone of us(Africans) have a human given right to write about African history as we see fit and just. Anyone who finds it in himself to easily castigate Africans and writing about and talking through their history negatively and falsely, is an impostor, quisling and a former Apartheid dupe, and I will add, an agent provocateur whose sole goal is to keep Africans ignorant and as as slaves, even now in the 21st century..
The Liberal Conundrum
If people are wondering what this article is about and what it is I am saying, I will defer to the ultra revolutionary and visionary Bantu Biko at length here regarding White Liberals and their planting themselves in the Africans' midst and pretending to be for and with their causes. This is what Bantu warned Africans of:
"The role of the White liberal in the Black(African) man's history is South Africa is a curious one. Very few Black(African) organizations were not under White direction. True, their image, the White liberals, always knew what was good for the Blacks(Africans) and told them so(As will be seen with Phillip below). The wonder of it all is that the Black(Africa People have believed in them for so long. It was only at the end of the 50s that Blacks(Africans)started demanding to be their own 'guardians.
"Nowhere is the arrogance of the liberal ideology demonstrated so well as in their insistence that the problems of the country can only be solved by a bilateral approach involving both Black(Africans) and Whites. this has, by and large, come to be taken in all seriousness as the 'modus operandi' in south Africa by all those who claim they would like a change in the 'status quo.' Hence, the multiracial political organizations, all of which insist on integration not only as an end goal but also as a means.
"The Integration they talk about is first of all artificial in that it is a response to conscious maneuver rather than to the dictates of the inner soul. In other words, the people forming the integrated complex have been extracted from various segregated societies with their in-built guilt complexes of superiority and inferiority and these continue to manifest themselves even in the "non-racial" set-up of the integrated complex. As a result, the integration so achieved is one-way course, with Whites doing all the talking and the Blacks(Listening).
"Let me hasten to say that I am not claiming that segregation is necessarily the natural order; however, given the facts of the situation where a group experiences privilege at the expense of others, then it becomes obvious that a hastily arranged integration cannot be the solution to the problem. It is rather like expecting a slave to work together with the slave-master's son to remove all the conditions leading to the former's enslavement.
"Secondly, this type of integration as a means is almost always unproductive. the participants waste lots of time in an internal sort of mudslinging designed to prove that "A" is more liberal that "B". In other words, the lack of common ground for solid identification is all the time manifested internal strifes inside the group.
"It will not sound anachronistic to anybody genuinely interested in real integration to learn that Blacks(African) are asserting themselves in a society where they are being treated as perpetual under-16s(teenagers). One does not need to plan for actively encouraging integration. Once the various groups within a given within a given community have asserted themselves to the point that mutual respect has to be shown then you have the ingredients for a true and meaningful integration.
"At the heart of true integration is the provision for each man, each group to rise and attain the envisioned self. Each group must be able to attain its style of existence without encroaching on or being thwarted by another. Out of this mutual respect for each other and complete freedom of self-determination there will obviously arise a genuine fusion of the life-styles[and history] of the various groups. This is true integration.
"From this it becomes clear that as long s Blacks(Africans) are suffering from inferiority complex - a result of 400+ years of deliberate oppression, denigration and derision - they will be useless as co-artitects of a normal society where man is nothing else by man for his own sake.
"Thus in adopting the line of a nonracial approach, the liberals are playing their old game. They are claiming "monopoly on intelligence and moral judgement" and setting the pattern and pace of or the realization of the Black(African) man's aspirations(As Philip has done as will be shown below). They want to remain in good books with both the White and Black(African) worlds. They want to shy away from all forms of "extremisms". Condemning "White supremacy"a as being just as Black as Black(African) Power.(in the case of Philip, attacking and assailing of Africans discussing of their history, as if were "apologizing for their race" and too much involved with their history" also, and crying too much and seeing themselves as "Victims"), which will be seen below.
"They vacillate between the two worlds, verbalizing all the complaints of the Blacks(African) beautifully while skillfully extracting what suits them from the exclusive pool of White privileges. But ask them for a moment to give a concrete meaningful program that they intend adopting, then you will see on whose side they really are.Their protests are directed at and appeal to White conscience, everything they do is directed at finally convincing the white electorate that the Black(African) man is also a man and that at some future date he should be given a place at the White man's table.
"There exists among men, because they are men, a solidarity through which each shares responsibility for every injustice and every wrong committed in the world, and especially for cries that are committed in his presence or of which he cannot be ignorant.
"The description of "metaphysical guilt" explains adequately that White racism "is only possible because Whites are indifferent to suffering and patient with cruelty" meted out to the Black(African) man. Instead of involving themselves in an all-out attempt to stamp out racism from their White society(which I told Philip to do, below); liberal waste a lot of time trying to prove to as many Blacks(Africans) as they can find that they are liberal.
"This arises out of the false belief that we are faced with a Black(African) Problem. There is no nothing the matter with Blacks(Africans) The problem is WHITE RACISM[made bold by Bantu himself] and it rests squarely on the laps of the White society(I told Philip that it is his people who need to apologize to the African people, in my discourse with him below).
"The sooner the liberals realize this the better for us Blacks(Africans) Their presence amongst us is irksome and of nuisance value. It removes the focus of attention from some essentials and shifts it to ill-defined philosophical concepts(Philip's genetics spoof), that are both irrelevant to the Black(African) man and merely a red-herring across the track. White liberals must leave Blacks(Africans) to take care of their own business, while they concern themselves with the real evil in our society - White Racism.
"Secondly, the Black(African)-white mixed circles are static circles with neither direction or program. The same questions are asked and the same naivete exhibited in answering them. The real concern of the group if to keep the group going rather than being useful. In this sort of set-up one sees a perfect example of what oppression has done to the Blacks(Africans). They have been made to feel inferior for so long that for them it is comforting to drink tea, wine or beer with Whites who seem to treat them as equals. This serves to boost up their own egos to the extent of making them feel slightly superior to those Blacks(Blacks) who do not get similar treatment from Whites."
This Hub will be expanding and defending African history in the video presented above, and the cited writing and those that are original about Africans history and deconstruction of the argument spewed and spawn by the detractors of Africans and their history.
These are the sort of Blacks(Africans) who are a danger to the [African] community." This is the role that is being played today i south Africa.These dangerous Africans who 'suck' up to their former Master and in the process impoverish their voting African polity-whilst running pell-mell into trying appease and impress their Masters, for what I call "Commission" for an overseer-job well done. They are the most dangerous class of quislings and wanna-be Capitalist vultures who mooch on the people's coffers and play the role of "good and trusted lackey' for their monied Handlers-Western corporations and governments.
A Dying Colonialism Paperback by Frantz Fanon
Dr. Cheikh Anta Diop: The African Origin of Civilization: Myth or Reality Paperback
African Nationness and Nationhood
Recovering The Lost Concept And Notion Of A "Nation"...
If we do a serious evaluation of African history, and because it is so broad, I will confine myself to South African African history, and how it has been shaped right up to the point it is today, it has been an amazing and revealing journey. It is a revealing journey now that we have a 20/20 vision and perspective as to what happened to African people all over the globe when and how colonization took crouched up and creeped-up on their sense of nationhood-because of the African Historiography now available..
This point was not lost to one Master Teacher, Prof. J.H. Clarke who astutely observed and prolifically wrote that:
The major loss in the fifteenth and sixteenth centuries was the concept of nation, the attaching of Africans onto other nations: some to England, some to France, some to Portugal, and then some to the worst of the element to come out of Europe-the United States.
"Europe was getting rid of its human waster matter. It sent some to Australia; it sent some to the Pacific. And here we have to look again at what happened to the Africans in the Pacific. What happened to the Africans in Tasmania? The entire Island was destroyed. The British sent a lot of Irish prisoners, oppressed White people, to Tasmania, the Islands near Australia, where every man,woman and child was destroyed. The British knocked one year to dive years off an Irish prisoner's sentence, depending on how many Tasmanians he killed. And bringing two matching ears to the British authorities to show that you had killed a Tasmanian, would mean one year to five years off of your sentence."
Therefore, according to Clarke, a people memories were wiped out in various ways. Criminals were exported from the British prisons and sent to the Islands in the middle of the ocean with the hope that they will not be able to survive and might die out there. There was also reports from other sources that these prisoners were shipped out to sea because there was the belief that the earth was flat, and that these prisoners put onto these ships, for the Islands, as we learned from Clarke, would come to the precipice or edge of the *flat earth*(Sot the Flat Earth proponents believed, and die off). But, as Clarke pointed out, a provision was made in case they survived, and they were forced to be be more criminal in their populating those Island and by killing-off the inhabitants, they were assured of some years shaved off their sentence.
A genocide of a people is one way of assuring that the memories they had about nationhood get wiped -off the face of the earth. Another way was conditioning Africans, amongst themselves, through the governing techniques of 'divide and conquer', the Africans were made to forget about what kind of people or nation as they were; instead, the have been reduced to fighting one another to earn the bread-crubs, favorability, and acceptance into the White world by abusing and and ill-treating their own people, brothers and fellow Beings. Clarke reminds us thus:
"Here is something we do not understand today: "the nature of oppressed people preying on other oppressed people in order to resist oppression". When we use the the tern "Third World," we better use it carefully. Because there are a whole lot of people in the "Third World" who, in order to ingratiate themselves to their oppressor, would gladly become an "honorary" oppressor where we are concerned."
With the advent of the Web and the proliferating social media, Africans in South Africa reading this post will become aware of what Clarke is saying, immediately, because they are now faced with a quislings and cabals draped in Black skins, but pushing the former oppressor's agenda with such exuberance and gusto, that they end up being belligerent towards their own people who put them in power, and they end up(these elected leaders) in the service of Imperial and Corporate service and deep fiscal pockets.
One need read most of the posts here on the FB, of which, the majority of them are decrying the fact that the present-day ANC government is nothing but a stooge of Big Capital and a lackey of Imperial governments doing their bidding, and they getting the 'commission' for their omission and oppression of their own people from the wealth and loop of the riches of the country. They report the body-count to Pharmaceutical conglomerates; they report their body malnourished and food poisoned body Count to Monsanto; They get their uniforms and guns from the SADF, through the American Military and Industrial Megalomaniac Complex.
They get their share of some sort of payback from DeBeers, Anglo and other mining magnates for allowing theme to scoop out the diamonds and gold of South Africa and Warehousing it in London and Swiss Banks-leaving our mines depleted and too deep and expensive to dig for more gold; the present-day ANC government has been parcelling land out for the highest bidders and getting their shares from the investors and these mighty Conglomerates and predatory Imperial Capitalist honchos.
Because Africans are still smarting to the world as African people who have "Ubuntu", the majority oppressed still have to wrap their heads around the fact that African people are the losers in what is happening to our country and its minerals. They are willing accomplices, in admiring and trying to woo these government vultures at the expense of the future of their children, who are faced with the prospects of inheriting barren and depleted-of-minerals lands. Professor Clarke hit it spot-on when he writes:
"Yet with our goodness (our built-in hope), our beautiful humanity, our belief in justice for all people, we fall into their traps." Most of those non-Africans and those who consider themselves not Africans unless it is convenient for them to do so, "they watch to see you fight fight for something," Clarke adds, "and the minute you win they come in and ask for half of it, when they were never even in the fight. And many ties they get it.. You give them half of your pie, and they want parity, which means half.
"Because we have not learned to practice, figuratively speaking, the essential selfishness of survival, we should give no piece of the pie until every member of our family has a piece of the pie.. If you fight for a pie, then you fight for it for your family, and I wish you well. But I fought for this for my own kith and kin, and they take the priority in its distribution.
"If we are going to be free[the African world] and the whole world from Western domination, we have to envision ourselves as having the ability to do so, we have to have some understanding of the world when it was under the domination of Europe. European domination has nothing to do with the European having a superior mind, of having ability that you do not have. It has to do with the fact that the European believed he could do it and gained enough confidence to do it.. We can do the same if we make up our minds to do it.
"Now, as a result of the European's rise to power, a revolution began in the world, one we must now revolt against. To revolt against it, we must understand how it began. How did we lose lose our Africanness? What will we have to do to regain it? How did we lose the concept of "Nationness and develop a concept of dependency?
The most dangerous of all dependencies is to depend on your powerful oppressor to free you and share power with you, because powerful people never train powerless people to take their power away from them. So, we're dealing with a contradiction in terms.
"It is a contradiction to go into schools and to expect education; there is only a form of indoctrination.There are certain basic curricula that Africans can use to educate ourselves. Therefore, for us, most of our education must happen in the home, in the community and the church. You think the church is a less spiritual institution when it is engaging in education? It is not; it is a more spiritual institution. There are many ways of praying and there are many ways of serving whatever deity you happen to choose. What should concern us is how we got into this trap so that we can estimate how we're going to get out of it."
Whether as African South Africans like what I am about to say or not, anyone is free to disagree. We have walked into a trap in our haste to acquire "freedom" and economic "parity" with Whites-not necessarily taking control of our land and economy.. Africans took their children to the White people's expensive and private schools.The Children of Africans children lost their ability to speak their mother tongues, acknowledge their cultures, customs and traditions; our children look at us with indifference and as buffoons(we the parents and extended elder families and their peers) as backward, and uneducated about anything and the finer things of life.
"We need to bridge these words with the meanings of our times" stated Obama.
African people need not only display their fluency in being able to cite intellectual or coveted leaders. Their words and action ought to direct and give meaning to our understanding the action and the roles we need to play. Their words and the meanings of their daring actions need not only be something we regurgitate, but be blueprints and protocols for the emancipation of the people. Africans have to know by now, since most of them are Web savvy what it is all about and how it should be used(as in the case of the social media). Social Media should be the vehicle through which African people bridge the gaps of divisions amongst ourselves into a collaborative working forum that moves the stagnant struggles they are mired-in forward.
People in the african communities are besieged by drugs of all sorts they have never had before the coming of the ANC. We knew, then, that Sol Kezner was peddling coke, and some other soccer magnates; we knew that there was something called the Mandrax,and sold through many illicit ways. Now they have a deluge of every drug conceivable circulating in their midst; African children are splurged with pornography and most people save it in their cell phones; Rape is on the rise so do other crimes of "Africans on Africans"; the people who are suffering with HIV/AIDS, are left to wither away before they are given the Anti-Virals; chronic joblessness is creating all kinds devastation and despair not yet calibrated as to what does it all mean as it is ongoing as of the writing of this piece.
Africans of South Africa now that there is a common culture that is practiced nationally by all the groups that make the nation of Mzantsi. We have to first of all get rid of the hangover that has been the left-ovr of Apartheid. Africans are not "Tribes". By referring to themselves as such, they are defeating the idea of seeing themselves as a nation. African Consciousness means African awareness of the African's place in the world today, and the possibility as to where they could be tomorrow were they conscious. Knowing more about each other will help in the growth of a holistic understanding and appreciation of their own common and united culture.
So that, to be able to see themselves as a nation, Africans need to be cognizant and aware of their national make-up today as we speak. In their African culture Africans have marriage customs and traditions; they have rules governing families and societies; there are specific laws and rules for labor and community services; given the expanse of African history, there is a curricula that can serve their needs as an African people, as touched-upon by Clarke above. Africans have a history of everything the endeavor to take upon, without borrowing or aping other cultures, customs, traditions, languages, dance and music-the whole bit!
The day Africans in South Africa are able to link their present-here-and-now reality, to historical data and future planning, that will be the day the revolution of any kind will begin moving ahead. Understanding What the Media is and how to use it for one's gains is very important to come to grips with. Media, therefore, is just like oral communication, but using a gadget. I am not here talking about the TV, Radio or newspaper media, but technological media of the computer sort. Supporting one another and not being careless about our relationships with one another is of prime importance. The fulcrum of our culture is "UBuntu/Botho" along with with "Inhlonipho/hlompho"(respect).
I am saying all the above because most africans have become so westernized, that they have imbibed Western values, mores, moral and norms to the detriment of our culture as I have described it above, because "Shakespeare was a great writer and whatever; because Richard Elliot was the greatest poet; because; eating out in restaurants has been imposed and touted as a new African normal; McDonald's is the fast way in and out for ones activities; buying hook-and-sink into Westernized consumer patterns, fashion clothes is the sign of modernity; cars, housing, mannerisms, literature, music and mind-set, has become a way to show-off one's status in society, and sophistication about what others do not have, that one is the only one that has; Western individualism and fake accents and fake knowledge of a history, culture, tradition, custom and languages not of one's own. Africans have and are living large in the shadows of other peoples ways of life, stories, and mannerism. The people of African descent have discarded their own ways; they have disdain and shame about their own culture, that in the end, instead of focusing on building a nation based on what our cultures offers, they 'pick up our noses' at it as if its unpalatable and has an odious odor, and label it derisively and dismissively.
Africans in south Africa brag about our jobs(which they do not own), cars, big houses in the suburbs; sporting the finest clothes of Europe and America; they also wear expensive perfumes(French, Italian and American); import and expert house ware, dishes, shoes; go to these foreign countries and spend thousands of Rands on clothes and other trinkets and stay if five star hotels; in the end, they hobnob with VIP and Heads of States; they stay in areas whose real estate could finance a whole Townships with everything; Some of them take planeloads of fun-lovers remote Islands and rent-out a whole hotel and party for days. In a word, they are piggin away into our own destruction-espaecially the monied African Elite
Nations are not build from such ways of being and existing. Africans seem to fall into the trap that we are seeing big money for the first time, that they are out of our minds and wits as to what to do with it. There are many tales of waste and reckless spending that have become the lore of the African elite; their rich and spoilt children burn clothes and money to show-off the their vanity and ignorance along with boredom, plus lack of direction. It would be better if they knew what they were doing than wax political and rant revolutionary. All what they are doing are pretentious acts that are an effort of a people running away from what is facing them: ignorance, mental illnesses; devastating illnesses like Cholera, TB, Scurvy, Alcoholism, Drug Addiction; rampant and callous corruption; insecurities; gloom and doom; bleak futures; joblessness; decaying communities and cultures, morals, mores, norms, customs, traditions,languages, discarding of sacred rites and practices which are fast disappearing permanently; miseducation and oppression, depression, repression. No Nation Will Ever Arise From A Disunited And Dysfunctional People!
This is what Professor Clarke as to say about all I have been talking about in the previous paragraphs:
"What I am trying to look into is how people maintain certain techniques that make them believe enough in themseles and become less dependnent on other people in order to be whole again. And that the nature of oppression robs us of our wholeness, a lot of our confidnence, and, if we're going to have a cultural revolution, this cultural revolution must first be based on regaining our confidence in our ability to handle everything in a nation."
Prof. Clarke continues:
"That is why I have always disagreed with the current approach to South africa; that we need to fight more than Apartheid. apartheid is a real issue. apartheid has caused misery to millions of people. We need to fight it all the way, but, while fighting it we need to prepare to take over that nation. A nation needs railroads. Who's going to build them? But if we buy steel from someone else, we've got to pay a high price. Who's going to develop an internal steel industry? Who's going to master the mines? Who's going to market what comes out of the mines? All of this is part of the restoration of self-confidence, and all of this involves a return to things that we've already done at a previous time in history.
"That is why, especially in [South africa], Africans are literally kept from our history. If you expect the present-day school system to give history to you, you are dreaming. This, we have to do ourselves. The Chinese didn't go out in the world and beg people to teach Chinese studies or let them them teach Chinese Studies. the Japanese didn't do that either. People don't beg other people to restore their history; they do it themselves. They learn something about freedom that Africans still need to learn. Freedom is something we must take with our own hands and secure it with our won hands. If other people's hands secure it for us, other people's hands can take it away from us. Our main ally and our most dependable ally in the fight for freedom is ourselves."
In thinking about revolution and carrying out a revolution, Africans had better come to grips as to what is a nation and how they are going to go about creating and building a viable and authentic nation. Words should give meaning to our intentions and our intentions is to execute those meanings, words and works as part of the Africans' struggle and reality. As this piece is being written, it can be regarded and taken as a preface of our writing Africa's own history and all that it requires that it be from an African perspective and mindset. Africans shall only succeed if they had time to read what each is composing, not only copying from someone, and if all can come with original ideas that are relevant and relatable history to the the reality on the ground-from the Townships to the villages and suburbs; Africans might in the end be original in highlighting those pertinent and basic issues which resonate and are relevant to the people one is trying to mobilize and organize in order to form a nation.
It is true, quotations, such as I have used from Clarke in this article should be used to edify one's points; also, those basic needs the people are decrying should be etched onto the writing just as powerful in their rhetoric as those we would be citing. What we cite, should most of the time confirm what we are writing about. What Africans are writing about and composing should be spot-on and relatable and relevant for the people to whom the writing is done on behalf of-and to whom they are trying to relay to as to what nation-buildingis about, and how to go about it.
Just as in national-building, the material,ideas and ways and means that we will be utilizing should come from what the culture offers and has picked up on along the centuries-morphing and modifying the new and the old-that, from that entity, african people in South africa can create a nation. But it will take understanding the meaning of the words and their relevance to to our present-and how they articulate, execute and manifest, compose that which they know, have learnt and master from and about their cultures, customs, traditions,histories, languages, sacred rites and practices within the make-up and formation of a nation as they see fit.
If African people can learn about learning from each each other, respect one another's ideas, thoughts and intentions, they might be able to grasp, fully and clearly, the notion and ways of Nation building and unification... African people need to better stop acting like they know it all, and yet they have still so much much ground and learning to do about building a nation, let alone executing a revolution african people of South Africa will never ever be Americans, nor Europeans or any other nation, but Africans of South Africa(Mzantsi). Maybe if they start with that recognition, they might have their eyes, minds and hearts opened as to the importance of all that is our, originally and authentically and autonomously and Nation.... maybe manage to start to build a nation. And now in 2013-as the voting is around the corner, and African people are only a nation when it is time for voting-after that we they discarded like snuff mucous.. African people of South africa are much far better than this...
The Wretched of the Earth Paperback by Frantz Fanon
Steve Biko: Black Consciousness in South Africa; Biko's Last Public Statement and Political Testament Paperback by Steven Biko
Disparaging and Dissing Africans History Under the Cloak of Africanism
Quislings In The House: A Teachable Moment
Now, what's my point of citing so heavily from Bantu Biko? The reason is what I am about to post below, a discussion I was having with Philip, who was challenging the article I posted I titled "Recovering The Lost concept And Notion Of A Nation", and this is mostly what this article is about. The discussion below will be posted init entirety, and I will conclude this article with some serious thoughts on African History. Philip is all what Biko has Addressed above, in the post I am about to put below. The reader will have to read the article I have mentioned above that I have written and then check out my back and forth with Philip below.
What happened to the Africans in Tasmania? Dude you need to get your genetics right. The Aborigines and English are closer genetically than Zulus and Nigerians. All those carrying the M162 market left Africa together 60 000 years ago - otherwise a good piece.
I would add that one of the biggest problems obscuring a fair view of African History is the obsession with Christianity, a creed brought like a virus with colonialists less than 200 years ago.
We are all entitled to our own opinions, but facts remain facts. It is better to really be seriously and better informed about certain subjects, and African history is not your forte. Nonetheless, a bit of some added reading would help clear up the air...(I proceeded to give him a link titled "Some History They Don't Teach.. Tasmanian Genocide")
On the contrary African history IS my forte. I love it. I will read your link - read the first chapter of my book - izwelethu
You have not responded to the post I made, and I checked your site.. well, is all I can say.. anyway.. your response to the article I posted to you I think requires your response.
What the British did in Tazmania was a shocker. They did some pretty bad things here in Africa too. What I have in common with you is a modern desire to drive Africa up the high road. The danger is projecting the racist terminology of the colonialist period onto modern Africa. Sure we still have dictators held up by foreign intervention, but they are black dictators. I am particularly critical of my own race for their lack of support of the Africanist cause. Let us seek ways to convert them to our cause, not to drive them away. Now if you have read the first chapter of Gods ................." you will follow how Christian (aka colonialist) thinking clouds an accurate understanding of African history.
I am not enamored nor bamboozled by Christianity and its being brought about to Africans here in Mzantsi by the Colonists. Also, I think before you make other people read your book, you should read Biko on the issue of Christianity and African South Africans and what he has to say about it. One more thing, I am more interested and well attuned to the the fact that all these religions, Christianity, Judaism and Islam have their origins from Africa and Africans. I do not want to go into this now, because the article above was not about religion, but about nation-building. I can write you an article about Religion and how it was used as a rationale for the crimes committed against Africans.. But, the article above is about "Nationhood" and "Nation-building, and "Nation-awareness". So that, you can sell your book, which I do not object to, but the article above is about how Africans have forgotten what it was like when they had their own nations, and what happened that they should lose that, and how they can recover that. I do not know what race you are, but you would do good to go into your milieu and educate them about what you have written about in your book-with me, you are speaking to an African historian and all else. The article above is all about what I say it is. As for religion and Christianity, along with its compatriot, Colonization, I can write an article about that-but the one above is about Nationhood and nation-building... Savvy?
Where do I find the information on Biko and his postion on Christianity? That would interest me greatly.
The issues of race really gets screwed by historians, usually twisted for the purpose of argument. Anyone reaching to the issue of race would do well to get a clear understanding of genetics. I bring up Christianity as a prerogative for sdiscussion, because it is impossible to have a rational dialogue on long term human history and race with people that believe the world is made in the Middle East and that we all came from Cane and Abel. I fear that your fantasy of an African beginning for Abrahamism, is wishful thinking at best. An African that clings to the colonial religions, cannot even begin to speak of Freediom, because they are still trapped in the biggest chains of all.
Evidently, you do not really have an inkling nor knowledge of African history African Historiography.. You really do not have proof that I am coming from an "Abrahamism" origins of African history, or what my views are of Christianity and Christendom... I also never parlayed my ways of knowing African History were that, " ... I believe that the World is made in Middle East, nor neither that we "came from Cane and Abel. You even speculate, wrongly, that "My Fantasy" and "wishful thinking". And finally, you stereotypically imagine that I belong to a group of "Africans that clings to colonial religions" and ignorantly group me with those converts to Christianity. All of which is erroneous and false. Apparently, your geneticists view, which has so many flaws, is untenable, unsustainable and will never hold up when we are specifically talking about African history and historiography. I can tell that you do not really know "African History" because you do not even know Biko and what he wrote. As I have said before, you are really a 'johnny-come-lately' into African history, and you need to go and read/study/meditate on African history and historiography, before you trumpet falsehoods and label people, without any facts, to be what you think they are-that's patronizing and ignorant at their worst-plain and simple. For most of the Africans here in Mzantsi, gone are those days when White people determined the national, historical, political and whatever discourse or ideas that were the permanent feature of Apartheidom. And by the way, we have not yet even begun to talk about African history of Mzantsi (Suid Africa)... No European religion has me entrapped in any way you might imagine, and I have and never was chained to the putrid morass and dehumanization of Apartheid, and I and most martyred cohorts, overthrew Apartheid; and you should give yourself time to read African history in South Africa, Africa and the Diaspora... You might learn something...
I have been a member of the PAC for 23 years, so I have had a lot of discussions about African history. My father was also a history teacher. I don't like it going in circles. I also don't pull my punches. If you get in the ring with me, keep your hands up and expect an onslaught.
I agree with you that the story has always been told from a colonial perspective. (That's how they taught us in Apartheid) - that “we”, white people are a superior race. It may be hard for them to admit this, but over EVERY white person, African or not, squats the concept of superiority.
I can see that you are both enthusiastic and intellectual, but this discussion can go all over the place if we don't put down a framework. These issues are so subjective and views of history, especially in South Africa, become distorted usually by racial outlook. My two main disagreements with you are
i) We cannot both be right. One of us is wrong. Different views can be tolerated but not exonerated.
ii) You overplay the importance of history on todays destiny.
One of the biggest barriers we have in the PAC is an overemphasis on the past and the history of the struggle (We all oversell our own roles in the outcome). Africanists need a forward positive looking vision. Careful of painting ourselves as "victims". This is not a moment in history for Africa to cower. We cannot succumb to the age old tactic of divide an rule. This is the moment for us to rise as a world power. Unity is paramount..
Where is that Biko/Chistianity Link?
Can I post your article on Azania1.com - Many PAC members will find this interesting.
I debate my equals, the rest I teach!(a la Clarke) You can repost my articles anywhere you please, but make sure you credit me for my work. Again, just because I am writing on these PAC pages does not make me a PAC person. I do not "join" nor belong to any organization, and have never . I write on these Walls because they let me, not because I am a member of any, PAC, ANC or 'whatever!" I am a ghetto dweller with a mind of my own, and I rail against anyone who patronizes of tries to be "Boss", "Bass", "Ngangara" or whatever, of me. I do not play second fiddle to no man born of a Woman(a tinge of McBeth there), and I am what I think and know that I am. When it comes to history, Philip, I was born into into it, self-educated on it, and the ring is too small to contain me alone, let alone you in it. What I am saying is that, your disagreements with me leaves me non-plussed. Thus far, I have not touched on religion because if I want, I can talk about many things concerning "spirituality and religion". But, my article above was not about religion per se, but nation-building and my two cents as to "What's to Be Done(Lenin-esque, that one). Anyway, you will not want to tussle me, seriously, and as for the Biko Link, ask those Pan Africanists if they know what I am talking about. I was born in the Ghetto and was educated at home(a rarity in my times) The rest of what I know, is what I devoted my life to.
About the relevance of history, which you say I am "overplaying it in its importance", right there this tells me I am talking to a neophyte Lilliputian who's the one who can say what you said; and, in your second point of disagreement - semantics is another area of my expertise, and when I see one, as feeble as yours, I know that you are really having issues and problems, because, as I opened up in my response above, that for me, it is not about you being right or wrong, since I once told you "we can all have our opinions, but facts remain facts". As to being 'enthusiastic' and "intellectual", well, that's your patronizing assessment, but as for me, I know that when we talk about African History, I debunk and deconstruct those who belittle it and, so that, check yourself, now, and I think there is so much in the article above, and thus far, I have yet to see your full response to what I wrote above. The rest is frivolous and inconsequential, as it relates to the article above. You must not really know Africans, those who live in the Kasi( Township), and note then that there are still some here who are as sharp as they were in the sixties and seventies, today. What I think about Africanists, you might wanna know, well, I am in 'working' terms with them, and those who know me, know that I hasten to harshly critique them, in real life and here on FB and other sites. As to the vision of PAC, well, since they are an organization, I leave that to them to decide what they want to do, because I am not an "Official' member, as noted above. As for threats about what will happen to me when I get into the ring with you, you welcome to try your luck.. Any time is tea time with me. So, if you want to rumble, set those perimeters you suggest, and see if they'll hold and whether you'll be able to keep up.. Unity! My article above has something to say about that...
Ma'Afrika - let me explain Africanism to you. It is like herding cats. Everyone has a different view. There are over 2000 languages in Africa, each with a different culture. What ever we have as a difference between us, if we are to build a nation out of this melee, we will have to find a common block size and we will need to start laying them in a line, otherwise we are back to your old days with the mud ans dung huts. If you can make that small step to the PAC comrade, I can promise you that you will never have to apoologise for your race again. In the PAC there is only one race - the human race. I can offer you a lifetime of service to Africa, and we will meet at the gates of Lagos. Try to feel the spirit iof Subukwe, it will reward you.
I think you are off-base in a terrible way, and you are stepping over our heads and yourself, and you should be speaking to your White folks. I do not need a White man in Jozi(Johannesburg) to tell me anything about myself; and PAC, if accepted your being White, is their problem, but I do not give a a problem if you are in the PAC or not. And I think you are biased, just because I talk to you, you should start assuming things and I am not a 'comrade' to Whites" and am not to Africans. So, I do not apologize to no one, let alone you, about African people. I have told you that you are ignorant, and now I have more proof that you are nothing but a White-wanna-be-African. you do not sound or talk like Africans, in fact, you are more so a White person the more we try to talk about African History.
Look, man, whenever we talk about African History, we are not apologizing to nobody, and it is our Business as Africans to do so as we wish and see it fit. You have no right to even try to talk about a history you do not understand, neither know nor have no idea what it is all about. So far, you have been a patronizing White man of the type who I disdain . You should go and teach White people your brand of Africanism, of which you are not one and will never be one. You reek of Europe, and think like a European, that is why you are still on this dialog. You have not even started talking about the article above, and you have the gall and nerve to come and teach about me about myself. You must be out of your mind. The last response I am responding to, shows how much White you are. You think you know Africans that you can come and talk anything you have been spewing on this Wall. If there are Africans who think you are worth anything, I think they too are nuts like yourself. I do not pay mind to what you think, for as far as I am concerned, your thoughts, and aspirations and ideas.
You Jozi (Johannesburg) Whites think you will father all Africans because you 'understand' Africans-you purport to know Africans more than they know themselvesselves-which is balderdash. "No! You don't"! You won't! and are not capable of being African, even if you can because your mind is that of Whites I dislike, detest, and ignoramuses, of which you fall in all categories. That is why you think we Africans will deteriorate to "Dung and Mud Huts"-how demeaning and debasing you sound.
Do not patronize me About being African, and I did not read about being African, I lived it, and am still living it, and now I have to deal with detractors like you-and by the way, I am an African who is proud of his history and will tell it any way I like, as long as I want, and you, with your brand of humanity, you should go teach your racist and ignorant White people about Africanism. I am not only encouraged by Prof., SIR! I met him and hung with him, and you know diddle about him, except what you read.
My experience as an African is not read from books, or some lousy historical claptrap, or some uninformed discussions. I am the total experience of African people, and attackers of african history like you need not try to even tell me about my history, and I wonder which PAC people have you as their member.. Its people like you who are an abomination to African people, and that is why Africans cannot move forward because of people like you, who come to tell Africans who when they speaking about African History they are 'apologizing'-also claiming being 'victims'. You really do not know How I detest your type of 'liberalism'(Of which Biko was spot on about it), which seeks to undermine African History, its importance, relevance and truth..
You should Go and talk to White people about your ideas. And if next time you come to this post about AFRICAN HISTORY and what it means to African people, again, ever! I will take you to task much more seriously than I have done thus far-Not You, sani... You see Boerman/Whiteman, you really do not know who are dealing with here. Do Not talk about African HIstory, or say that when Africans talk About their history, they are 'apologizing', you must be inebriated, and if you cannot answer or respond to the article above, and decide to talk about issues that do not relate to the article above. Who really put you into the PAC, by the Way? .. and you are one of those Whites who think less of Africans and their african history, and I wonder why you have joined these Africans in their organizations and Walls for.. if you keep on talking down to me about african history, then, what is your role in the betterment of African people and their partly destroyed story and history..
You should stop your jingoistic proselytizing jabberwocky, because you're "Undignifying" "AFRICAN DIGNITY" under the cloak of Africanism by trumpeting that when Africans talking African History, that Africans are apologizing and crying victim. What?! You need to profusely apologize for your Racist Race, and do not tell me that with your Africanism "I will stop apologizing for my race" This is preposterous. What's your role here on this Wall if you can come and tell African that their history ought to be forgotten and concentrate on your 'weak' theory of genetics and your brand of 'god'. You really do not know anything about Sobukwe and about the Kasi(Township) and Ghetto of Soweto... And they do not know you in the Townships... So, What are we talking about here and dealing with, if the person who claims to be White wants to teach africans "Africanism", while with the same mouth condemns africans and their history and talks in degrading terms of africans "with their 2000 languages being like herding cats, might go back to the 'dung' and mud' houses". This is insulting, belittling, demeaning, dumbing down of and very much against Africans and their history, without any doubt.
The Mis-Education of the Negro
They Came Before Columbus: The African Presence in Ancient America Paperback by Ivan Van Sertima
Attack On African History; Defense Of African History
I had an encounter with this person on FB and this is how it went:
This post was put onto the "Concerned Africans" FB Wall by Evelyn Clarke:
detailed reports are posted daily about the Afrikaner/Boer genocide -
MONDAY, 6 AUGUST 2012
Afrikaners denied all survival-rights
While fund-raisers are held as far afield as Poland and The Netherlands to help the one-million destitute, often homeless Afrikaner families survive in their bleak little squatter camps, the South African government has made laws which deny all survival rights to Afrikaners: This small 3,5m strong minority in South Africa is denied food-aid, land-rights, most jobs and even denied public housing in their own historic suburbs.
15-million blacks receive survival benefits and food-aid – but Afrikaners are denied those rights:
There is a growing suspicion that the 3,5-million Afrikaners are being deliberately starved to death: for while poverty is rife amongst more than 40million South Africans, at least 15-million black South African residents do receive monthly survival benefits including food-aid for themselves and their children through the US-Aid programme which is administered by the ANC-regime. Black South Africans also are entitled to child-benefits, surviving-spouse pensions and even free school-fees. None of those benefits are granted to any Afrikaners who apply for them.
The destitute Afrikaners in the squatter camps have suffered chronic malnutrition for the past ten years. Many will not be able to survive much longer against this onslaught, also because they are also not allowed to work for a living. In a recent shocking incident in Kimberley, some 600 children at an Afrikaans-language primary school who already suffer from chronic malnutrition and rely on school meals for their survival, reportedly were collapsing and falling asleep at school because the ANC-regime had stopped their school meals without any advance warning. At this school, Afrikaans speaking children of Afrikaner- and Khoi-San extraction are all suffering the same fate.
This is the Report I wrote on it, and when I tried to post it it was not accepted by the post, maybe too long or ... Anyway, I have posted on the relevant Wall to begin to look at the froward line of discourse that permeates the Web; well, if it lands on Walls such as this, I for one will take issue with it and tackle it the best way I know of.. I have not really answered and or responded to it the way I would like, but nonetheless, I will do so should need be or arise...
Yes, it is true what you are talking about above. It is also true that there are Afrikaner people living in shacks, lining out for food being doled-out by a myriad organizations. Malnutrition has surely beset part of the 3.5 millions Afrikaners and this was the case, by the way, when the Afrikaner Nationalist Party took over power from the British, many Afrikaners were suffering the same fate that you so eloquently discuss above. The information you bring about is very important for the country as a whole, because, you talking about it gives those who read your post some information they might not have because of a gazillion reason too numerous to tabulate here. it is also interesting that you note the fact that the you show concern concerning the preservation and the survival of the Afrikaner people and bringing it up in this forum.
I think your point is well taken, and of course the ANC is to blame for all this fracas. I do not really buy your assertion that the Khoi too are part of the destructive billing that the ANC, and that of the indigenous multi-corporations and their International cohorts are in cahoots with the same vibe, you seem not to point out that smidgen. Well, Have you ever been to the Townships of South Africa where African live? Have you say, slept a night in their houses and shacks? How about if whether you have ever made friends with them, shared their pains and woes, or have an exchange visitation with the people of the outlying ghettoes from Downtown anywhere in South Africa, a week, daily, ; a year, yearly? Do you have a really deep understanding what the African people of South Africa have gone through and are going through here in South Africa? Are you aware what the 48 years of concrete Afrikaner rule has done, effected and affected the African people has been like? Do you really have an idea what segregation has done to Africans in South Africa since 1652? to the present day date of 2012 has done and wrought amongst the collective African people's of South Africa, and what this was happened to them then to today as you are writing your piece above?
The point is, what you are describing is about 18 years old? Imagine what you are describing above as atrocities against the Boers is spanning a period of 18 years is what the African peoples of South Africa have suffered for 360 years, and more intensely than anywhere else in the last 48 years of the now decrepit Apartheid rule which has morphed into what we can discuss at any time you are willing to. Now, my point is, it is well and good to raise the issue you have cited above, but you should not overlook not belittle the suffering of Africans in South Africa as if it is something you can cavalierly make reference, but stress the groups you choose to show as being affected. In fact, we can discuss the Khoi History at length if you have time to read were I to break it down.
I do not see the Khoi as separate from any other group of the Nguni/Bakone people of South Africa. What you are discussing about is not necessarily new to the Afrikaners, but Africans have lived with it, to date, in its most debased and worst form for the more than three centuries and a half, every micro-second of their breathing lives and existence; shouldn't you really be talking about the genocide that is taking place amongst African South Africa in real historical time and see what you would come out with? Before we jump the gun, lets's not conveniently forget the present day suffering of Africans and project and present it as if they are doing any better with the paltry government handouts you are mentioneing-and which they have never received during Apartheid, but were given freely to White and poor families by their Apartheid government..
That is somewhat disingenuous and purposefully myopic of you and all those who are jibing about suffering, genocide, hunger, chronic malnutrition , school meals, kids collapsing from hunger int the Afrikaner milieu. but overlooking what the intensity and harshness of apartheid has left Africans with a hangover of Apartheid Mental Disorders of all who never had psychiatrists help them deal with or what has been happening or has happened to them for the past 48, every second of that 48 year, with no pause nor respite to speak of...
I am mot even talking about the 360 past years. That the Khoi are suffering the same fate is not working and it is a bit of stretch, and as I have indicated, we can delve into it if we were to hold this discourse. As you are now within this forum, pay respect to the 'audience' you are prospecting, and you need to really read-up of African History in South Africa, Africa and the Diaspora, because when it come to that Historiography, Everything Is Everything, and one needs to be cognizant of the confluence and confluence of various myriad assemblages of all that is bad the country of South Africa present country. You are welcome to sit under the African Shade, but you will have to learn about those who will permit to rest your torso, along with them under the African Tree and Shade.
To you it might not be apparent that there are those of us who know what time it is. Remember, we do not say that the concerns of Africa people are lacking in realizing the "ubuntu" of others, but it is time that the Afrikaners, with due respect, begin to respect and treat African people with some humility and manner of beginning to know and "See" who they really are, according to the terms of African people. The present government might be drunk with the "Gravy Train" left-overs, but the African Masses, at their core, are not what you seem to know, and knowing them will bring you down to earth and your understanding of Africans will heighten your maybe knowing something of Africans, and why the Afrikaners are suffering, why the African people in South Africa are being wiped out(I will say being "Genocided") if this applies.
I am as passionate about Africans as you are of Afrikaners(who are not Africans, for those reading this response). You can tell your story however you want, but pay attention to the audience you are addressing and what they are all about. I thought I would give you this long 'praatjie'(talk) and maybe this will help and allow you to present your story, without being ignorant of the story of African peoples of South africa and, Africa and the Diaspora... Every one is entitled to their own opinions, but facts remain facts... Historical facts help us understand the present so that we can formulate our future. I think this is what Africans have been doing up to now, and you would do well were you to ask Africans about things you really do not know about them.. That is my two cents and hope this help put a few things into Perspective.
Then this Exchange occurred:
Whatever my dear friend has given you the impression that I am on the Afrikaners side ??? I am merely bringing to all the brother & sisters attention, as to how the wheel has turned. God has said that we may not take delight on others suffering, so I will not take delight. However I am a victim of the Afrikaners cruelty. How we as Transkei Traders were driven out & our roots were snapped by these uncaring people, the Nationalist Government wanted to turn the Transkei into a homeland. For 40 years we have wandered around SA with no sense of belonging. I have suffered & suffered!!! I would like to tell you more, are you interested??
The article I posted, can clearly be seen as where it comes from. I've just re-posted it. I never wrote it at all!
By the way, - why does it look as though I've been taken off this site? What have I done wrong?
Well, Evelyn, there are three sides to any story, one is yours, the other is mine and the third one is the Truth. A holistic purview and review of the issues need to be in order here. To tell the Story of Afrikaners and their misery is a good thing, so is the story of Afrikaans a good thing for one to tell, as one sees fit. I would not hasten to harken to Religious spiritual matters as of yet because there too, I have my opinions and facts. In the instance above, I am talking about everything Social, psychological, psychohistorical, references will be made, were I to say my side too, to the Historiography of African history. If, as your article purports and assert and cites stats and incidences of Afrikaner suffering, I think that is a point well-taken, as I have stated above.
Yes, if you want to indulge me with your suffering, I willingly oblige and be prepared to learn more than from what I know or do not know about how other people suffered in South Africa who belong to different ethnic groups. I would emphasize the point that you tell African people what your story is... Africans are going to tell you too what their story is about and also is like at present. Your telling us about yourself will help in enhancing our understanding of the plight of those whites who suffered under Apartheid, and those who were fighting for the liberation of all righteous people. There are those who are White and have suffered from the coercion and limited choices as to what they should act like under Apartheid. Then there are those who are called "The silent Germans"who knew of the concentration camps and said nor did nothing, as was the case and is still the case in South Africa-when it comes to White people..
Finally there are the with "Verkrampte" views which are not prepared to listen to Africans, no matter what.. I do not invoke God in such discussion because I think there are facts spread-out through the internet and literature to satisfy one's curiosity and wish to learn or know more about that.. Your emphasis of the fact that you "have suffered and suffered!!! is well taken and understood because for Africans, our Second surname is "Suffered or Suffering"; we know very much all about it and are still going trough its pervasive, defective and destructive effects even as we speak to each other. I am simply saying, if you want us to know and learn about what you went through, and seeing that you do not know about Africans that and what it meant to them going through that type of social dysfunction and cultural miasma, it behooves you to listen to us too tell you about Africans and your learning more about us than what you might want to tell thems what it is you know about Africans-which should be unbiased and be true (which is acceptable, but incomplete).
I am talking as an African and apologizing to no one for what I say, I am not dismissing you not to tell Africans about you and your life, you should too, be willing to learn from them when they tell you about their plight, stresses, distresses, oppression, depression, repression, segregation, racism, abuse, torture, debasement, forcibly made to accept an inferior complex and status, constantly trying to prove oneself to one oppressor and the whole bit! Yes, I am willing to listen and learn about your and your 'struggle', and you should too learn and respond to African historical narrative and know and understand that too as the 'third rail'- "Truth!". I read and understood your post above and responded to it clearly and decisively. There is nothing that I did not understand in what you said. It is all on record so is my response. But if you want to tell Africans about your 'story', they too, will in kind to give you a heads-up about the historiography of African history as told by Africans-from their own African perspective-and this must be respected...
And also, I think you should have made that point quite clear by prefacing it with such comments and in the process making . us, your audience aware of that fact, and could have added a bit of a comment that would indicate that. I did not appreciate the fact that you thought I was the one that had you taken off this site, but all I did was that I had decided to cut and paste it in all sites in order to give people and idea of the jive-talk out there, and used it as a teachable moment of how to respond to that chaff of a one sided narrative and biased post. I think it looked like it your supporting this idea that irked some folks, but I never want to shut off ideas and I respond only as a member of this site and do not control the machinations of posts and blocks. I welcome anyone and talk to anyone who is also willing to listen to what I have to say, and respect it and acknowledge it, too-which is apparent in my responses to you above and thus far.
Yeah! Right!! Lapha ku khulluma owo-Mdabubu maje... Ha o sa kgone hore hlompha, o bua ka modimo oo wa hao, le rona her re tla bual leleme la rona re bue ka modimo wa rona. Uma usidelela, abanye bethu abancono kunawe empahkathini wethu bazakuyiqhapela le mekhwa yakho e nga qondile. Jwale he, wena ya ngotseng mona, ho tla tlameha o tsebe hore ke reng, o nkarabe ka hlompho le boikokobetso,.... We do not appreciate and nor accept your blessings for they are fake, and you know it. To me, you still need to learn how to respect Africans and their points of view... you are doing neither here...
I quite understand everything that you have said. My Great Grandfather befriended his Chief in the Transkei during the 1800. During the Kaffarian Wars, W.J. Clarke wrote a book about how wrong the Colonials were, this included the white magistrates. If there was ever a white family who grew & understood the Xhosa very long ago, - it was my family!!! We loved them & they loved us. One story goes where W.J. Rode on his horse to the jail & had a fight with the magistrate to free his beloved Chief & 300 Impis. The same Chief ~together with 3 important Chiefs, sent a black man riding a horse with a white flag, into the war zone, with a message for W.J. The message was from the gig Chiefs that they wanted to see him. All the soldiers laughed & said that he was crazy to go out, that he must take a gun, mounted on a horse with a few soldiers to ensure his safety.
My Great Grandfather chose to WALK, UNARMED, with no SOLDIERS to go to the Chiefs, so he walked the one mile. Upon arriving, all of them sat on the ground & they wanted to know what he was doing there & they told him to “get out” because they wanted to attack the Colonials. Next day, after W.J. Left, the Xhosa s wiped the slate clean & many white Colonial soldiers died that day. What I'm trying to show you is the love that W.J. Had for the Xhosa people. We all grew up under black people, raw Pondos & Tembus, there is nothing that you can teach me of their suffering, we are intertwined with these people, we love them, they can never be separated from us, I love them with all my heart. I speak & write Xhosa, even think like a Xhosa. We don't know about our other Europeans Ancestors.
As far as we are concerned, the Queen of England threw us away. We belong to the Transkei now. My cousins have married Pondo women & I have coloured relatives. I dare not look down on them, who am I to do this? The Afrikaaner has done irrevocable harm to the English, Irish speaking Transkei Traders, - I am a living testament to this! My story has a happy ending. The Great Grandson of the Chief that was my Great Grandfathers best friend, is calling me to come back home to the very place that my Ancestor built. I will be the Chiefs guest & will be listening what he wants me to do. The love story continues, - even in the fourth generation! It was the Chief that said, “Why can't it be like that again?” I hope you could peep inside my heart, dear friend?
D.p.Lloyd is quite right, at the end of all our stories, - who are we, - really, - to judge or bear a grudge on anyone? Little ole me has also forgiven the Afrikaners for what the National Government has done to the Transkeians. I've had to forgive them for one simple reason & that is that our Lord has commanded us to love our ememies. - now to any normal thinking person, that's sounds impossible, but remember, God is God & we must obey because we are His children. That's how simple it is. There cannot be any arguments, no matter how much the Afrikaners have hurt & destroyed everything that us Transkei Traders have ever built up, its down now. The good news is that I can now get off th my clothese ground, - shake the dust off my clothes, & stop blaming the Afrikaaners, - roll the my sleeves up, - & actually DO something about my sad situation that I've found myself in. That's is exactly why our Living Heavenly Father is doing something about it, - He has looked down & His face is shinning on me!!!
I am not really interested into ya'lls sermons and they are not helping your cause here.. Please, either you practice and do what you believe for yourselves and I for one am nonplussed. I do not care what your religious or spiritual beliefs are and as for my history, I will make sure I write about it and tell our African people our story. I am not a preacher and do not care for one or organized religion per se. I am an African raised within my History culture, custom, and their practices, and languages. If there is anything you cannot offer about history, do not bother me with your sermonizing to me... I am not talking about God and religion at this point of our discourse ... Keep that to yourselves in your own abode. Or look for someone you can rework into your crew, I am not interested and will not respond to you if Religion is all you can talk about.. Look... Take your beliefs and religion to someone who will follow you, I am not interested in your ways of belief or religious practices your way. Thanks but no thanks. And by the way, it is my right and prerogative to say anything positive about African historyand be what I want and like...
Yes it is your prorogative to say what you like & I appologise, - I did not know that you were an aethiest. Clearly it is Jehovah God that is bothering you, I will pray for your unbelief, one of our commandments is to love your enemies, - so I'm bound to love you! Goodbye!
'Atheist' is how it is spelled, and am neither that too nor anything you can imagine. You can sell your christian wares to those willing and of the same ilk. If I say I am what I told you what I am, respect that and stop putting labels as to what I am,.I think if it comes to prayer, do it for yourself because that is your modus operandi, not mine. As a person of African descent, as I am telling you something, it behooves you to learn and listen and respect that person without assuming what it is I am up to or not up to. I do not really care about what you call 'unbelief' and you do not even know the origins of the Ten Commandments of which you revert to.
I will not waste my time talking about beliefs and the Ten commandments to you, and try finding a convert some place else because to me, all what you profess is fake and you seem to be ignorant of that fact. As I have said, you really do not know me and whatever I am in life, So, please, stop and become your own christian with your beliefs in your heart, home and amongst those with whom you share such concerns and beliefs.. With me, you are barking at the wrong tree and a person. What I believe or not. practice or not, am or not, I have a human right to be or not to be(not in the Shakespearian mode) but as a fully and intelligently and opinionated African Person. Stop labeling me as I have not labeled not tried to define who you are.. I would be responding to your historical piece, but at this point, anyone who tells me to forget my history, must tell the jews to forgive and forget the concentration camps and what happened to them,. I will not compromise nor forget my history, and I will use these pages to disseminate history amongst African people, and if your people are interested, they can learn, too. Otherwise, your "Belief" is your concern, not mine. Whatever I am is not your concern nor for you to try and judge or define, because you will not be able to, and will not let you.. Ciao!
Your last comment seems to be very lengthy. What I would like to tell you, Sir, is that you have STOLEN my post about the Afrikaaner s, - then you have seen to it that I got banned from “Concerned Africans”, I've only just worked it out! That is precisely why your consciounce can't go to rest, that why you write l-o-n-g rude messages to me. Voetsek now! - & I will un friend you, - so that I don't read another rude message from you!
Oh, before I block you. You STOLE my “Status” to premote yourself, - you are just a THIEF man!!!
Ya, that's what I expected.. An ignoramus with jingoistic and decrepit information... Why am I not surprised? I told you that you have fake religion and and faith and I know you are ahistorical and ignorant.. Your response above says a lot about you, and the article you posted or wrote. Oh, I am not responsible for your being cut-off this wall-it is your racist ideas which are biased and one-sided within that article. I am glad you 'unfrieneded' me and blocked me.. I will post this whole dialogue for all to see... Anyway, I will not swear at you to get my point across. And this I have done throughout out talk, I think you do not know what you are talking about and you are going to have to respect African people. or no one in the African world will want to listen to you. I did not steal your horrible post, I gave you full credit for it and posted it so that people can see what kind of person you are. I was right.. You are a real sad case and you need some help.. I will talk history and other topics I want to because 'I Write What I Like And Like What I Write..'(Biko-ism). You can visit my Wall and see my post.. I am not impressed with racist who are not smart to realize that their archaic and tired racist ideas about Africans have been relegated to the rubbish can of history.. Have a whatever day for your tortured self... You were banned because you are racist, and I answered you because I could see that you are ignorant... so, your irrational outbursts and swearing at me proves my point- you are really sick and sad, and you need help...
This is the type of drivel one has to contend with and deal with, effectively. She accused me of setting her up so that I could get her fired and thrown off the This Wall. I am not in the administration of this Wall and they are the one who call the shots. I answered her because her article was biased and one sided. I will not let such ogres from our past get way with the idea that they can say anything on these African Walls and get no sort of response. She was so mad that she even used an expletive.. I wish they had not edited it out. Anyway, whenever we come across these racist, it is important to fight them with facts and not necessarily opinions because all of us are entitled to our our own opinions, but facts remain facts. I do not use and abuse people on these viral social networks, all I do is stick to facts. Defending Africans has been a life-long passion of mine and I will do it to whatever end. I engaged Evelyn who contradicted herself saying that this was not her post, and in the next breadth accused me of being a thief and having stolen her post. No, I have given credit to her, which she at first denies and in the claims it to be her property. Well... this for us should be teachable moments where we can see that with knowing our history clearly concisely, definitively and concretely, we can withstand the vicissitudes of race wars...
The Wretched of the Earth Paperback by Frantz Fanon
African History As Psychohistory
Our Past Never Forgets Us And Is Never Left Behind
The two posts I made of Philip and Clarke, followed by the video on top wherein Prof. Clarke debates Mary Lefkowitz, are prime examples of the attack brought upon African History by those Whites who still find it in themselves to talk about subjects they have no idea about, and their liberalism is betrayed by the way they talk about Africans, and that they like them', are in their "organizations", and they advocate "Africanism" to Africans, when they have not lived with them, nor are amongst them, as in the case of Lefkowitz, has never been to Africa before, but went many times to Greece, and the common talk-down they are used to talk to Africans like. Mary Lefkowitz was exposed for her lack of knowledge and literature, even African historians she did not consult in her "Not Out Of Africa Book".
They have little and low regard of African history and how it is told by Africans , for Africans. They are also not cognizant of African life, politics and everything about Africans, but they have a nerve, life Philip, to caution Africans if they do not stop "apologizing", claiming 'victimhood' that they well end up in their "dung and mud huts". It is interesting that Philip points out to the fact that I am 'overplaying" the historical importance of African's history, and yet he cites the doyen of Pan Africanism, Sobukwe, who spoke of all people being human, that if I listen to him, I will be better off. This needs to be negated and African History put into its proper pespective:
It is at this juncture that will use Wilson's colloquy about history to give gravitas to the assertion that I know that African history is important, and Wilson clarifies it this way:
"The study of history cannot be a mere celebration of those who struggled on our behalf. We must be instructed by history and should transorm history into concrete reality, into planning and development, into construction of power and the ability to ensure our survival as a people. ... Let us make sure that we look at and study history in a light such that it advances our interests, not inflates our egos and blinds us to reality.
"..We should look at history, more accurately, as Psychohistory, "i.e., the psychological result of undergoing certain historical experiences." We, as individuals, are our history. History is not that which is forgotten and left behind. We don't leave history behind. History is the present, history is the future. Those of us who are Afrocentric and mystical must know that the division of past. present, and future is false, Eurocentric and political. The world is not a linear structure. Past, where the present and future are one and the same. When we have been made to believe that the past is separate and in some straight line with the future, then we've already been brainwashed and set-up. Our past never forgets us and is never left behind.
"If you forgot your past, you would not be able to understand me right now. You would not be able to walk or talk. You did not learn to walk and talk and do the things you're doing at the moment you entered here; you learned them in the past. Forget that then! Since that is history, leave that behind. You will see that you also have no future! Past, present and future are one, and that proposition is at the center of an African-centered history and approach."As men with knowledge and desire ultimately make history, so does history make them."(Joel Kovell). So that, Wilson adds:
"History is a time dimension. History structures time, and all cultures have a time dimension related to them. So, when we let another people write history - and history is an arbitrary division of time - they define us within that division of time. .. Therefore, history as mythology, even if it tells the truth, by the very fact of its structuring of time, can still be used as propaganda, to manipulate, and create unreality in consciousness.
"European history to a considerable degree, attempts to control consciousness by the way it is presented. .. Even more pernicious that this is the fact that many of our people feel as if they do not come into existence and self-consciousness until they have been recognized by European historians. It's a very good psychology that rules us today; we are not famous until they make us famous; we are not anything until they make us something. Before that, we are nothing.
"History as propaganda, history as mythology, creates and brings into consciousness. History by Europeans is seen as a validation of truth. It establishes authority. It's a puzzling situation, as I've pointed out to my students, that we use as arbiters of truth those who have lied to us most. These are the kinds of contradiction that keep us crazy, and they are widespread. Consequently, we can only feel it is truth when it comes out of a European historical mouth - solely. Many of us, as individuals, seek to forget our history and do not want to confront our history because of the anxiety, the anger, the fear, the shame, the guilt we feel when we read/[see] some aspects of the African experience, and hence will often stay away from it. We think we have escaped its effects thereby.
And so, the idea that we don't know, that we're not aware of certain early experiences, does not mean that we have escaped their effects. In fact, it puts us more profoundly under the influence of these unknown forces.
"Through pretending to be amnesiac when some of us are not, by ridding himself/herself of his/her conscious remembrance of painful experiences he/she seeks to rid himself/herself of anxieties and fears connected with their past[we are simply running away from ourselves]. He/She may then succeed in forgetting those experiences completely, to the point where he/she cannot recall them, but this does not mean that those experiences do not continue to operate within his/her personality"
I can go on citing Wilson, but have to wrap up this article. As I have shown above, we have amongst us liberals and Africans who want to make sure that African people do not use their history to do anything with it. Whites, like Philip above, in a patronizing tone, attempts to 'teach us' about Africanism! There are some of us who use the strategy of ignoring things or issue/matters, that some read this stuff and act like they did not. Though, that is not my problem, but my worry is allowing these false agent provocateurs to control the dialogue, the definition of Africans, their history and talking down to Africans that we let slide by, because we want to preserve our statuses with the detractors of African people, no matter what they say and how they say it.
I for one will not let that go by me, and I will call out these pretenders and racists if they dare try and pull or play their game of downgrading Africans and their history, they will have to put up or shut up. Philip was trying very hard to use this Wall to hawk his decrepit book, promulgate his skewed "Africanist" ideas, under the cloak of of being a Pan africanist, but only ends up by bashing African History. Well, I for one will not stand idly by and let that slide. Reading from Biko and Wilson, we are at the beginning of where African people, if they read this whole article, will give themselves a fighting chance and an opportunity to be able to wrap their heads about the issues raised in here regarding the importance and the role African history plays in the lives and existence of African people of Mzantsi...
Discourse on Colonialism [Paperback] Aimé Césa
Facing Our Past and Refurbishing the Present
Form a United National Pride in the Future...
Theoretical Revolutionary Theory Will Come from the Assessment and Concrete Reality of the Poor Masses
I am an ardent advocate of Anything South African culture and its and am not backing off my stance. Why? It seems like few people really understand what is happening to us here in Mzantsi [A place down South of The Continent Of Africa] as the Africans fondly call their country. Well, I am editorializing about things South African and why it is so importantt to air these points of view On the Web and Social Media. Africans are currently facing a crisis amongst in their midst as African South Africans. I am not talking on behalf of those who have taken the responsibility that they are the middle class of South Africa. I am talking on behalf of the army of the poor and ignored. In the Townships, there are people who drink bails of water just to go to sleep; people who cannot receive medical help or never know when the next meal is coming from.
People are still suffering the devastating effects of alcoholism, malnutrition, mental illnesses; freezing and unheated houses; drug abuses and multiple devastating diseases. People used to bury on weekends only-now they do so everyday- the cemeteries are already full and other space is being sought; they suffer unemployment, messed-up education; they live with rats, rodents and some big and larger than cats; there are still many people living in shacks; the government is not taking care of the meek, weak, sick and poor as it should; Africans in Mzantsi are jeered at by everyone as being lazy, won't works; they still have to fight against the undercurrent maneuvers of their past enslavers who are manipulating foreign labor at the expense of local workers; enforced ignorance; women being raped; men being killed, drugged- In sum, Africans are worse-off than during the Apartheid era- and the people themselves say so too. Then, when I defend the defenseless of South Africa, some people who are African accuse me of being only an about South Africa. Well, Africans in South Africa are about to loose their current population and land, humanity, and facing extinction-albeit creeping up slowly, but consistently wiping them out in a myriad ways; have metal sickness, unemployed, deficient and poor public service and health delivery...
They see their land being parceled away to the highest bidders, amidst corruption. I am talking here, not about the rich and comfortable, but what is going on in the poor's lives... everything that they thought was theirs, is not. At the same time they have to fight against a relentless and determined enemy which has all the resources available like those with money, media and information control, so that when the oppressed raise their voices in disgruntlement they are told that they have to remember that they are more free than the whole of Africa(An old Apartheid logic-trumpeted by the presently ANC-lded government today). But we forget that Africa was not liberated in one swoop. The presently free countries in Africa went on over many years, and still those that were free such a long time ago, still have not resolved their internal contradictions in their respective countries.
South Africans are talking here of a mere 20 years and instead, they, the supposed-owners of South Africa and its wealth, are the wretched of the earth. How can Africans talk in terms of the continental unity when they still have to battle the West and the rest of those who think Africans in Africa and African South africans should not complain, protest in trying to push their national unity agenda, [of which none of these things have been accomplished], and should not protect themselves and their lands with their a natural wealth and abundance. Africans are still reeling from the 48 straight years of the worst form of Naziism(Apartheid) with its presently continuing effort to eliminate, confuse, and oppress/depress/suppress and dehumanize Africans-and the [resent-day ANC ruling Party is in cahoots with them..
Africans in South Africa are facing a predatory and gendarme rogue and quisling vulture government bent on fleecing and enriching/deepening their pockets at the expense of the poor African locals. Some people think that South Africa is New York, and they have the right to do as they please, even if they are not indigenous to the place... Others(From North of South Africa) act like they're fighting for issues for Africans, and that South Africans are not fighting for Africa's Prosperity and Autonomy! Preposterous!. Some of our South African African brothers think that they are White or More Europeans than Africans from the North Of South Africa, and you can tell from the way they are talk, act, behave and plan their lives and ignore their culture, tradition,customs, practices,languages and sacred rites. They quickly run away from the present morbid and dreadful conditions of their bleak existence with the hope that if they concentrate elsewhere, they might find respite from the present harsh realities of their witnessing and facing their extinction. And in doing so, nothing has changed,and thing are deteriorating and getting worse for poor Africans of Mzantsi
Thus far, what the people of Mzantsi see there is nothing that they can be proud of or claim as theirs - therefore, my insistence on the preservation of South Africa culture, custom, traditions, languages and practices and rites is not because they have any handle on it, but because the people do not feel like their in control of refurbishing and recalibrating their culture, and it and them are barely recognizable, nor is it fully acknowledged by most of them as a power tool and edifying entity towards renewing, recreating, reinventing and re-forming their Sense of Nationhood and Nationness. Poor education is disempowering African people of South africa, that is, unless one has money to send their child to better schools, those who cannot afford it are doomed are doomed. So, there is Aparthiedized pantheon of educating levels that are affecting the Teaching and Learning Of Africans in south africa
Without knowing,practicing and respecting their cultures, customs, traditions, history, music and dance, there is now a proliferation of mental illness and total amnesia about what as Africans they should be doing, or what their identity means to them and how to move on with it into the burgeoning future, the 21st century and beyond, is dysfunctional and dumbing down the Africans of Mzantsi down. This calamity and dysfunction is eroding the true social fabric of our people; its disappearing millions of people due to HIV-AIDS, TB; cholera; high blood pressure, sugar diabetes, kidney failure; depression, repression; genocidal attrition... Everyday of their liver lives... By Ignoring Culture and all else I mentioned above is what is the the real course of the present intellectual and academic menticide, Coilonial Mental disorders,dysfunction and working towards elevating the cultures, traditions, customs, history, languages, practices of sacred rites will alleviate the suffering the africans are facing today in Mzantsi.
South Africa is in Africa but it is run by everybody except the African masses of Africans in South africa. You cannot talk of fixing your neighbors houses before you put yours in order. One cannot overlook the importance of building ones' Street, Township, Province without first taking care of and hold of all that which is local-family, housing, street, Townships and so forth. How can these leaders talk of fixing Africa which has so many different countries run by the West and the East? Why pretend like they can take on this mammoth task whilst the city states within Africa are dependencies of the West and the Rest of the Capitalist vultures lurking within and owning African and Africa's mines, farms, railway system, African land, all the metropolitan towns and our labor power? It really does not add up.
How can this lack of control and ownership help in the reunification of Africa if the Africans of South Africa are not even having a smidgen of unity; a semblance of a nation; neither controllers of their economy, media, sports, arts, dance,music, culture, tradition, custom, practices, languages manufacturing, you name it. Africans in South Africa, as a collective, are not holders of rights to everything that is enclosed within the borders of that country as a nation or the indigenous rightful owners of all that is in and within South africa?. These questions still linger on, and African people are dying by their millions from a myriad of ailments in this putrid and decrepit South Africa.. yearly... all the time-as I am onto this article about their dying.. And they are going crazy -or say metal diseases in many numbers than before; and their cultures, customs, traditions, history, languages, dance,music and all is not in their service nor made to work for them-instead it is owned and controlled by outsiders more than the African people themselves-and these foreigners call the usurpation of African everything, their 'own intellectual property". Some of these foreign Cultural hawkers claim that they have Intellectual property ownership and rights to what is not theirs but that of Africans in South Africa- an they are going through multiple gyrations in trying to own and control and disseminate, as they see fit, and as it profits them, with care or concern as to hat Africans of South Africa have to say about this theft and Imperial Cultural bullies..
Nobody has asked Africans of South Africa as to what is really going on here in Mzantsi. Everyone knows that they can get a piece of action, but as to the locals, they are dismissed and are not even listened to.. I am raising this issue knowing that it is going to raise the ire of some people- so be it. What do I have to loose but raise pertinent issues of nation, custom, culture, traditions, languages, practice and rites and their being African South African and for them and should be run and controlled and owned by Africans of South Africa-I see nothing wrong with that.... What do Africans have to lose but their already lost land, its resources and all that is contained in it. Africans need to fight even harder, irk some people, maybe find some allies, if possible, but fight this war which has morphed into many differentiated fronts.
I am identifying those fronts here, and I do not want any compensation for it. But I will use this viral media to get my point across- and I am using many new technologies to get this type of message- through Blogs, Internet radio, journal posts and writing; FM and Television-Worldwide to make our concern to be at the forefront of the global purview. Below I will be going deeper and making the points above more clearer and I embarked on a project which I will be discussing in a short while below
Everyone comes to South Africa and African South Africans cannot go out as they please for many reasons. African People have been purposefully kept ignorant, penniless, poor and oppressed up to this day; books are hard to come bye; the media is white-owned; Malls are white-owned; Whites still own 83% of the land; if you ask the locals what's going on, they will tell you that the sad thing is that really nothing is going on, or nothing has changed for them, but instead, they are now living in hell without a choice of changing the order of things inside the country.
The say, as matter of fact and conviction that "Our brothers are our enemies;
"our children disrespect us elders; our social mores and norms have been sacked, flaunted and discarded. We really never had 'freedom of speech', economic self sufficiency nor educational development where teaching and learning should take place; we do not own our own businesses and are attacked from any imaginable angle; we are the most deprived on knowledge, information and at the tail-end of this modern era as a technologically come up as a disempowered people," and they always answer in one or the many ways I have pointed out above and more.
To have people decry the fact that they should not be living under such coditions in the land of their birth, and have begun to see their lives ebb away because of currpution and other things, is to see how disconcerting it is for them, because they note that they are being ignored and sidelined in the land of their birth; but mainly because they see to be lsoosing the "The Cultural War", and it(African Culture) has never be attaked in a way that utilizes the present technology and relaying information that can get to the people; or conversely, get under the skin of the roving capitalists vulture of all stripes and ethnicities within their midst. The people have stopped being proactive, and have not had time to ameliorate their present condition; or to seriously begin to mount a revolutionary path towards addressing and setting all these social maladjustments and maladaptive societies and individuals and as a people, collectively. If I have to advocate for South Africa, I will do so with gusto and much energy. I approach the issue of Africa from many points of view, and will mostly attack it, as in the case of this Hub, from a historical cultural point of view.
Unity and Struggle: Speeches and Writings of Amilcar Cabral [Paperback] Basil Davidson
Pinch Of African Fighters/Seers As Radical Thinkers
Rumination of A Guerilla Fighter: Cabral
M.K Rwantsane made the following suggestion and posed this question below:
"this month of January i have commited myself to reading about Cabral & Lumumba.
Can anyone tell me why i choose them?"
I decided to take the cudgel(to think hard) and since I like and think his works are of a genuine guerilla fighter who 'has been there-and done that' I found him legit and honest about how he saw and executed the Struggle carried out by the Partido Africano da Independencia da Guine e Cabo Verde(PAIGC).
I am therefore making some "Repost" of what I had posted earlier in the middle of the past 2012 year., and will will write up some of his ideas as an opening salvo to this discourse and diatribe about Cabral, specifically.
"The Struggle For African's Revolution Cannot Be Achieved Through jaundiced and Jingoistic Prattles."
I know for a fact that African peoples aphorisms are relevant when they say:
"The Path Going Forward is Asked from those Who Went Before, or ahead". (A loose translation of "Tsela e botswa ho ba pele/kapa bao ba ileng ba e tsamaya"). I will cull from Cabral who seems to buttress the meagre observations I have made above in a more elaborative and broader sense, so as to lay some groundwork as to 'what is to be, and needs, to be done':
"We are not going to use this platform to rail against imperialism. An African saying very common in our country says: "When your house is burning, i's of no use beating the tom-toms. ... For us, the best or worst shout against imperialism, whatever its form, is to take up arms and fight. This is what we are doing, and this is what we will go on doing until all foreign domination of our African homelands has been totally dominated.
"Our agenda includes subjects whose meaning and importance are beyond question and which show a fundamental preoccupation with 'struggle'. We note, however, that one form of struggle which we consider to be fundamental ... is the 'struggle against our own weaknesses'. Our experience has shown us that in the general framework of daily struggle, this battle against ourselves-no matter what difficulties the enemy may create-is the most difficult of all, whether for the present or the future of our peoples. This battle is the expression of the internal contradictions in the economic, social, "cultural" (and therefore, historical) reality of each of our countries. We are convinced that any rational or social revolution which is not based on knowledge of this fundamental reality runs grave risk of being condemned to failure.
"However, we must recognize that we ourselves and the other liberation movements in general (referring here above all to the African experience) have not managed to pay sufficient attention to this important problem in our struggle.
The ideological deficiency, not to say the total lack of ideology, within the national liberation movements-which is basically due to ignorance of the 'historical reality' which these movements claim to transform-constitutes one to the greatest weaknesses of our struggle against imperialism, if not the greatest weakness of all.... A full discussion of this subject could be useful to many subjects, and would enable the [movement] to make a valuable contribution toward strengthening the present and future actions of national liberation. This would be a concrete way of helping these movements, and in our opinion, no less important than political support or financial assistance for arms and such like.
It is with the intention of making a contribution, however modest, to this debate that we present here our opinion of "the foundations and objectives of national liberation in relation to the social structure."
"Our refusal, based as it is on concrete knowledge of the socio-economic reality of our countries, and on the analysis of the process of development of this phenomenon of class, leads us to conclude that if class struggle is the motive force of history, it is so only in a specific historical period (I have addressed this point somewhat in my earlier post about history). It is not difficult to see that this factor in the history of each human group is the "mode of production"-the level of productive forces and the pattern of ownership-characteristic of that group. ... It therefore seems correct to conclude that the level of productive forces, the essential determining element in the content and form of class struggle, is the true and permanent motive force of history.
"Thus, we see that our peoples have their own history regardless of the stage of their economic development. when they were subjected to imperialist domination,the historical process of each of our peoples (or of the human groups of which they are composed) was subjected to the violent action of an external factor. This action-the impact of imperialism on our societies-could not fail to influence the process of development of the productive forces in our countries and the social structures of our countries, as well as the content and form of our national liberation struggles.
"But we also see that in the historical context of the development of these struggles, our peoples have the concrete possibility of going from their present situation of exploitation and underdevelopment, to a new stage of their historical process which can lead them to a higher from of economic, social and "cultural" existence. (Amilcar Cabral.)
It is not only a certain specific type of History, that of past and ancient civilizations that is only of concern here, but contemporary history is just as relevant as the one above about how to conduct and execute a revolution. Cabral explains above what are the nitty-gritty or struggle for African people Just as in the struggle for liberation of a people, the ideas that shape the struggle are akin to those of when one write the history of Africans. It is important to infuse and suffuse the article above with different ideas about how to project, present and rewrite African history that matter here. What I mean is that, different themes and narrative about a history of a people cannot afford to be one-dimensional, but multi-pronged.
As I present the ideas of Cabral which enlighten the historical narrative about the masters of African history, it is important to use other Master historians in their element, speciality and erudition to edify and solidify the information base and data about the history of African people one is writing about. At this juncture, it is also important to learn from Bantu Biko, and flesh-out his ideas that share some light as to the distortion and degrading of African history: that is, his insights and and prophetic ruminations are so relevant today that it is very weird and spooky...This is what Bantu Biko wrote as to what it is Africans of South Africa, wherever writing Africa SouthAfrican history should pay attention to and dovetail their ideas and efforts towards writing history and nation-building-also, giving his take on what type of society the Africans of society are like:
"The Prophetic And Relevant Insights Of Biko"
"As one Black(African) writer says, colonialism is never satisfied with having the native in its grip, but, by some strange logic, it must turn to his past and disfigure and distort it. Hence, the history of the Black(African) man in this country is most disappointing to read. It is presented merely as a long succession of defeats. the Xhosas were thieves who went to war for stolen property; the Boers never provoked the Xhosas but merely went on "punitive expeditions" to teach the thieves a lesson.
"Heroes like Makana (early nineteenth-century Xhosa prophet, sentenced to life imprisonment on Robben Island and drowned while escaping in a boat. Refusal by Blacks(Africans) to accept the truth of his death led to the mythical hope of his eventual return), who were essentially revolutionaries are painted as superstitious trouble-makers who lied to the people about bullets turning into water. Great nation-builders like Shaka are cruel tyrants who frequently attacked small clans for no reason but for some sadistic purpose. Not only is there no objectivity in the history taught us, but there is frequently an appalling misrepresentation of facts that sicken even the uninformed student.
"Thus, a lot of attention has to be paid to our history(culture, music and dances, etc.-my addition), if we as Blacks (Africans) want to aid each other in our coming to consciousness. We have to rewrite our history and produce in it the heroes the heroes that formed the core of our resistance to the White invaders. More has to be revealed, and stress has to be laid on the successful "NATION-BUILDING" [I have just posted a piece on my evaluation of what I worked here on FB on a project about our culture: Dance and Music - and wrote about that project and projection (see my posted article by scrolling down on the wall, and it is titled "A Review Of The Posted Cultural Videos Of The People Of Mzantsi"), attempts of men such as Shaka, Moshweshwe [Faku] and Hintsa. these areas call for intense research to provide some sorely needed missing links. We would be too naive to expect our conquerors to write unbiased histories about us, but we have to destroy they myth that our history starts fro 1652, the year Van Riebeeck landed at the Cape.
"Our culture must be described in concrete terms. We must relate the past to the present and demonstrate a historical evolution of the modern Black(African) man/woman. There is a tendency to to think of our culture as a static culture that was arrested in 1652 ad has never developed since. The "return to the bush" concept suggests that we have nothing to boast of except lions, sex and drink. We accept that when colonization sets in it devours the indigenous culture and leaves behind a bastard culture that may thrive at the pace allowed it by the dominant culture.
"But we also have to realize the basic tenets of our culture have largely succeeded in withstanding the process of bastardization and that even at this moment we can still demonstrate that we appreciate a man for himself. Ours is a true man-centered society whose sacred tradition is that of sharing. We must reject, as we have been doing, the individualistic cold approach to life that is the cornerstone of the Anglo/Boer culture. [some people on FB tell us whatever they say is the bottom line, with many exclamation marks to whit).
"We must seek to to restore to the Black(African) man the great importance we used to give to human relations; the high regard for people and their property and for life in general; to reduce the triumph of technology over man and the materialistic element that is slowly creeping into our society. [It is as if Biko is Alive, Today!]
These are essential features of our Black(African) culture to which we must "cling". Black(African) culture above all implies freedom on our part to innovate without recourse to White values. This innovation is part of the natural development of any culture of the natural development of any culture. A culture is essentially the society's composite answer to the varied problems of life. We are experiencing new problems every day and whatever we do adds to the richness of our cultural heritage "as long as it has man at its center". The adoption of Black(African) Theater and drama is one such important innovation which we need to encourage and develop. "We Know That Our Love Of Music and Rhythm Has Relevance Even In This Day".. (I stressed Bantu's words in italics)].
'I Could Not Have Said It Any Better, Even If I have Tried On My Recent Post'!- Very eerie and spooky vision!
Closing Thoughts: FB and The Making and Discourse about "Change" in Mzantsi
To add up and add another perspective from Wilson who says that according to Ronald Leifer (1969) defined the ethnicization of psychotherapy "as the molding and polarization of behavior so that it conforms to prevailing cultural patterns. It is indoctrination or training for culturally specific traits, attitudes, and actions." thus, Wilson states that "The aim of ethnicized psychotherapy is to return the deviant to "Normal", i.e., to instil in the deviant a set of particular traits, attitudes, values, behavioral orientations, and goals which when pursued or realized, support and maintain the political-economic social status quo along with its ruling elite ... Ethnicized psychotherapy, too, views any form of behavior and state of consciousness which do not conform to the norms or political-economic interests of the ruling establishment or group as, "by definition, a reflection of individual maladjustment, emotional immaturity, mental pathology, or some other negatively valued concept". Thus, problems which may be reflective of social and political problems are dismissed as the ailments of isolated individuals, as evidence of individual maladjustment, the epiphenomena of a distorted personality and economic forces which generate their existence from. " This, according to me, and also, according to your quote above, is designed and 'guaranteed to make us sick and crazy" as Africans are now here in Mzantsi....!
Tshikosi cited this piece from Amos Wilson:
"Success can be a type of failure. That is one reason why success does not bring the kind of personal satisfaction and peace that many people seek. And why often the individual, despite all of the material evidences of having succeeded, still feels psychologically cheated - because one can achieve for the wrong reason. So when we achieve to prove to somebody else, to show the white-folk that we can do it as good as they do it, it is a success that still is guaranteed to make us sick" - Dr.Amos Wilson
Wilson says that according to Ronald Leifer (1969) defined the ethnicization of psychotherapy "as the molding and polarization of behavior so that it conforms to prevailing cultural patterns. It is indoctrination or training for culturally specific traits, attitudes, and actions." Thus, Wilson states that "The aim of ethnicized psychotherapy is to return the deviant to "Normal", i.e., to instil in the deviant a set of particular traits, attitudes, values, behavioral orientations, and goals which when pursued or realized, support and maintain the political-economic social status quo along with its ruling elite ... Ethnicized psychotherapy, too, views any form of behavior and state of consciousness which do not conform to the norms or political-economic interests of the ruling establishment or group as, "by definition, a reflection of individual maladjustment, emotional immaturity, mental pathology, or some other negatively valued concept".
"Thus, problems which may be reflective of social and political problems are dismissed as the ailments of isolated individuals, as evidence of individual maladjustment, the epiphenomena of a distorted personality and economic forces which generate their existence from." This, according to me, according to your quote above, is designed and 'guaranteed to make us sick and crazy" as Africans are now here in Mzantsi....!
Well, Tshiks, both of us are cognizant of the fact that African people are sick and made so in a myriad ways, and we're immersed in and embedded into this oppressive ANC juggernaut and it feels like Africans are still riding the back of a tiger, and that they need to begin to learn and read about the causes of our dysfunction and sickness without being belligerent, ignorant and spiteful of each other, as we have see happen here on the Facebook.
Getting their act together is recognizing and diagnosing their social malaise, and act in the midst of the African people by affecting their suffering and creating programs and helping, without sounding of like dummies knocking against each other on the FB; and, in the final analysis, the madness, sicknesses and psychological malfunction needs to be checked, and as I have been saying throughout this year now ending- African people need to come up with better results next year and hope that will be the case-Africans of south africa are far much more better than what and where they are now.
However one uses "ENGLISH", as this issue has been raised by reactionary Africans to the upliftment of African people so long as it drives home concrete lesson and teachable moments which are so sorely needed-who cares how that "ENGLISH" is used, and the very critics use the same 'master's language to crush those they dislike', for dumb, ignorant, vindictive and regressive reasons like "how other people use 'Big English' whenever they write or post stuff on FB,they write English"- As if that's a point worth talking about in these dire times in Mzantsi. Instead of the ideas and the information this "ENGLISH" is sharing by the one using it to parlay and relay important information and organizing ideas and strategies-to elucidate(clarify) some points about the struggle of Africans here at South Africa-the opt to attack the usage of English , meanwhile they themselves use the same English to critic what they do not like!. This is part of our sickness and madness, and the sooner they recognize it as such, the better Africans will be able to combat and rectify these sicknesses, as per Wilson, and what they can see for themselves where they live(for some of those who still live in Kasi( mo-lokishini [Townships], and never left it) ...
As I have said, I join and belong to no organization, but by virtue of being an African, I have the right to my opinions and have to respect other's opinions too. With this spirit in mind, Each one Teach One; Each One Reach One...
The Music of Africa [Paperback] J. H. Kwabena. Nketi
African Music: A People's Art Paperback by Francis Bebey
Developing Talking Musical Cultural/Historical Points And Shifting the Paradigm
Any culture does not allow for stagnation; each culture manages to learn from other cultures, but keep itself unique to itself. Many races or people throughout the world perform and manifest their culture whilst maintaining this uniqueness, that which one can can discern by interrogating certain aspects of those cultures, like in the case of the Hub above, music, dance and cultural garb.
I have been posting various types of music in their specific genres, and this means that different music is sung in different languages, since the music I post is from different countries, this means that whoever is listening might not understand the language, but the music is universal(that is, the rhythm, sound melodies and the playing of various instrument and different dances), and most them have different musical style, tones and accentuation as do their languages.. But what is important and common about these musical acts and sounds, is that they are being selected from an African Centered Perspective. Were people to find time and read-upon the origins and histories of these groups, one would be struck at the similarities of experiences experienced by these musicians, in their different countries throughout their different struggles-as being the same. This is important to note.
If one were to listen to Eldridge cleaver, he issued this aphorism in the same spirit of what I had just discussed above when he informs us that:
"Until Black(African) people as a whole gain power, it's not a question of where you are geographically if you Black (African); it's a question of where you are psychologically. No matter where you place Black(African) people under present conditions, they'll still subject to the whims and decisions of white political, economic and [psychological] apparatus."
Why I am using this citation is the simple reason that Africans have to begin to understand their situation not only regionally, nationally or continentally, but look at it from a global perspective. This will help African people become more aware and sensitized to this issue of African musical culture as really Global-and if that is hard to conceive, africans cannot change or shift any existing paradigms that chain them to their colonial past and presently stifled and oppressive-drudged continued existence. The will operate with blinkers in a Globe that is Web-driven in its vastness and content, spread, depth and speed of data and metadata. Africans cannot dig in into their heels when they have to move into the 21st century and beyond. This means knowing, learning and understanding the African struggle in all its formats as it is International as much as local where it is based for each individual and nation-it is one common struggle.
In fact, some of Africans are so caught -up with trying to be very Europeans in how they imbibe or groove to the music, clothing, dances and European culture, so long it is not their local music, and not African, in many cases. This you can find all over the globe, and it is not unique to one people. But it applies to all the oppressed because most of them have not yet been liberated themselves, or psychologically and within their societies. African selves are chained, to their societies which are incarcerated in a Kraal setting..
I remember reading somewhere about Duke Ellington that he moved the music which we know as Jazz from "Jungle Music" to what we call Jazz(I guess-bleached sounds). African Music globally is not "Jungle Music", but it is human music. Imagine we have to actually say that and try to qualify and uplift it to the level of it being human-preposterous! Yet, this is what those oppressed around the world, have been sold to, bamboozled with and dry-cleaned to the extend that they ignore their music, cultures and so forth, because they are avoiding their selves and ignoring by running away from themselves-as Bob Marley sings: "YouCan't Running Away From Yourself.." This action by those Africans who indulge in it, muddies the cultural arena and leaves it with a schizophrenic reaction. It becomes dysfunctional because it vibrates and imitates the primary ruling culture at the expense of the indigenous culture.
This means that people, instead of practicing and elaborating their culture, their focus and attention has been turned askance and it behaves like a parrot and and apes and imitate to the letter or action, the European lived-life, life-style of individualism and consumerism, clothing, cars, languages, tourism and the whole bit.
Frantz Fanon writes:
But the War goes on. And for many years to come we shall be bandaging the countless and sometimes indelible wounds inflicted on our people by the colonialist onslaught. Imperialism, which today is waging war against a genuine struggle for human liberation, sows seeds of decay here and there that must be mercilessly rooted out from our land and from our minds."
It is at tis point I concur with Fanon that some psychiatric pow-wow will be in order here. Fanon informs us thusly:
"We had no control over the fact that the psychiatric phenomena, the metal behavioral disorders emerging from this was, have loomed so large among the perpetrators of "pacification" and the "pacified" poplulation. The truth is that colonization, in its very essence, already appeared to be a great purveyor of psychiatric hospitals. since 1954, we have drawn the attention of French and international psychiatrists in scientific works to the difficulty of "curing" a colonized subject correctly, in other words, making him thoroughly fit into a social environment of the colonial type.
"Because it is a systematized negation of the other, a frenzied determination to deny the other any attribute of humanity, colonialism forces the colonized to constantly ask the question: "Who am I in reality?"
The defensive positions born of this violent confrontation between the colonized and the the colonial institute a structure which them reveals the colonized personality. In order to understand this "sensibility" we need only to study and appreciate the scope and depth of the wounds attributed on the colonized during a single day under a colonial regime We must remember in any case that a colonized people is not just a dominated people. Under the German occupation, the French remained human beings. Under the French occupation, the Germans remained human beings. In Algeria, there is not simply domination, but the decision, literally, to occupy nothing else but territory. The Algerians, the women dressed in haiks, the palm groves, and the camels form a landscape, the natural backdrop for the French presence.
"A hostile, ungovernable, and fundamentally rebellious Nature is in fact synonymous in the colonies with t he bush, the mosquitoes,the 'natives', and disease. Colonization has succeeded once tis untamed Nature has been brought under control. Cutting railroads through the bush, draining swamps, and 'igoring' the political and economic existence of the 'native' population are in fact one and the same thing.
"When colonization remains unchallenged by armed resistance, when the sum of harmful stimulants exceeds a certain threshold, the colonized defenses collapse, and many of them end up in psychiatric institutions. In the clam of this period of triumphant colonization, a constant and considerable stream of mental symptoms are direct sequel of this oppression."
There are a myriad ways challenge the colonization of the African mind, culture, customs, traditions, languages, dances, traditional dress, and writing about it and putting it into the correct African perspective is another front of another 'type' of war which must be waged and decisively won. Learning, knowing, understanding, formulating ideas and actions, collating and assembling a cultural mosaic of the culture that is the culture of Africans in South Africa, is even much more demanding today,more than ever.
The mental degradation, in this case I will walk on top of Fanon's words and say :When the Cultural Colonial Wars are not challenged by Cultural awareness and consciousness, when the total amount of these offensive maneuvers succeed and 'exceeds a certain threshold', the colonized consciousness, awareness and sensitivity to his/her culture collapses and goes awol, and many of the South Africans today are not only in mental institutions, but are splintered and filtered and strewn throughout the townships. and, villages/rural and suburban entities and enclaves,houses and the flats, of which this menticide is having a devastating impact and effect on the social fabric, mores, norms and so on, and setting Back African nation-building efforts which Fanon speak about the 'indelible effect to the wounds Africans might never be able to recover from.
This is contemporary history of events that took place centuries ago, and are being pursued with such zeal and glee, that it is still a wonder why Africans are not waking up.. Or is it that these effects were complete and dominant in their being applied to the oppressed? Will the Oppressed have a collective psychological come-togeterness, to the extend that they will unchain their locked minds? Since I have confidence in the intelligence of the collective mind of Africans, as they learn and come to grasp with their present futile reality, they will work it a situation which will benefit them all.. At this learning stages, it is a matter of trying to write such Hubs to raise that awareness, sensitivity and consciousness of African From an African cultural point of view, and create a foundation for further discussions and lessons to be made possible for the African masses to learn form, and develop their own collective intelligence to achieve their desired ends. Knowing, controlling and designing one's culture is power manifold over all the attendant and rippling Culture Wars
Then there is this perception that when one plays or posts music, some complain that those doing the posting, they are not 'seriously' carrying out the struggle". That could not be far from the truth. The Music of any people is the soundtracks of their lives, culture and so on. It is to one as breathing is to our lives. They ignore music that uses a language that they do not understand, or have been conditioned in a sort of "Kraal" mind-set enclosure in one's existence through the laws, regulation, tricks, fraud, corruption and use of force that is administered to those who resiste-and those that cave in-they lose; so that, the act of brutal oppression, increased the intensity of the production of radical music as one would breath hard when fighting. Music that was being produced resonated with the masses and they identified with it. Music became the vehicle of collective action and collectively moving the struggle ahead. So, it has never been a non-issue, music, dance and so on. These have been the fulcrum and orbital or starting point of many other struggles the ensued thereafter.
Writing is just like music. One needs to compose it. In the case of writing, you compose whatever it is from social experience-as does music, in the sense and vein of the rest of this Hub-strivng to be original. When as a people you originate ideas and other mass participatory actions and collective application towards one's goals, you become more legit and real. You cannot live your life as a duplicate of a manufactured you. One cannot live a life that is not relevant to their lives-music unites people because it touches their common plight, and lives. You cannot listen to music that does not harken back to your own social experience. To ignore or refuse to acknowledge that ones music is a pathway to sanity, then, one will be left lollygagging within a mix which corrodes their inner core and souls.
African Musical systems: Notes on African sounds
Just like writing, we develop our musical talking points about music that originates from our inner sanctum and soul-as per our common experiences and commonly lived-lives. To shift paradigms is to totally change a way that is not compatible with ones well-beingness-to one that is relatable to ones existence and reality. Music appreciation is something one grows up and finds people one is born into listening or playing it.
This also means that, since then it is human music, it compels one to focus on the local motion and spread one's listening preferences to a global appreciating audience. If what we say amongst ourselves, we do not trust nor believe it, because one of the same oppressed as us is saying it, means that when we begin to listen and participate, imbibe and consume our 'high' culture, we have shifted a preset, concrete reality that was an inhibitor to our spiritual, musical, intellectual or otherwise development. We change the way we are conditioned and are made to see, think and behave, it is in this way that we will see ourselves anew and begin to see the way we are educing ourselves to.
I for one believe in the emancipation of Africans throughout the world, even music is one way of the many ways of doing it. Another way is cobbling together African musical experiences into an article such as this one to begin to expand and extend our listening range to African music we are not familiar with, which can be found in a narrow category, world-wide, and I choose to simple dub it to be African Music Systems- so as to shift gears in appreciation of this art form and recognize its African origin, commonness and one experience and humanness in the vibe and rhythms. We should 'validate' African being ourselves and not wait for someone to box us or keep us in a cage that we sit in and be satisfied with. We dare explore ourselves and sounds without let-up as part of waging our struggle for psychological liberation of a people who still have to realize that freedom.
If people gave themselves time and opened themselves to the possibility that we have a "high Culture" in music, their consciousness and actions and appreciations would change. Then the people would stop being spectators(as Biko so pithily concurred) or their daily oppression, depression, dehumanization and suppression that so disdainfully and cruelly manifested itself in their collective midst and psyche so boldly throughout their history and current reality, that in the end, they might make an attempt or serious effort at dislodging, shifting of displacing these current deadening and dumbing -down post-colinial paradigms, which, by the way, is also pressing as urgent and of critical importance - like any crucial part or point of the Struggle of african people. Our African music is powerful and soulful, we just need to listen, or take it, for its out there in the musical viral stream. (You can read my Hub titled "African Music Is High Culture: The Power of song in the Struggle for Survival."
The same with the historical lectures of Porfessor Clarke in this Hub, one needs to take time and listen to them and find the Hostoriography of Africans laid bare by the Master Teacher of African Hisotry in person. The writing of this section of this Hub as I have done above, is part of an ongoing experimentation that I have been carrying out thorughout the Hub, that of follwoing Dlarkes encouragement that we should write Africans history from an African perspective, and tis section is what I am attempting to d do, as I have done so throughout theis Hub.
Selected Writings and Speeches of Marcus Garvey (Dover Thrift Editions) Paperback by Marcus Garvey
Africana Critical Theory: Reconstructing The Black Radical Tradition, From W. E. B. Du Bois and C. L. R. James to Frantz Fanon and Amilcar Cabral [Paperback] Re
"A Better Future Is One With A Human Face"
Grasping the concept of Theory as a weapon
Here in Mzantsi, and particularly here on Facebook, There are people who are barking for revolution and cannot really wrap their heads around what they are advocating. If you really want a revolution, as I have already stated in my earlier post about history, here on this Hub, and the post I had just cited or written from Cabral, one message is consistently popping up: Africans need to learn from other revolutions and we need to READ! Also, they need to try and come up with solutions, ideas and better ways of managing their problems and their struggle; try and found or initiate more informed and organized ways of managing the media; write more articles and talk to the people about the media, history, culture, customs, etc. -and in the end putting up a human face onto the future post revolution-and it is from such activities and actions that Africans shall be able to develop a language that is infected and inflected and also spurred-on by the actions and activities of, by, with-within and through the people who are all professing to fight for and represent suffering African masses. Ideologues, demagogues, charlatans and Bullies in any struggle do not live long, and bullies are the ones who are sabotaging the struggle itself, no matter their intentions. One not only wants to rally their base, but one also wants to shape and influence international opinions about what one are struggling about. A revolutionary does not talk-down to or dress down those whom they want to help liberate, let alone berate them here on Facebook with rickety and tired slogans and obdurate and obtuse rants that are not what the African struggle is all about.
I myself do not consider myself a revolutionary in-as-much as I think and know that I am an "Mzantsian" with all what that means. I have right to agree and disagree, and not be intimidated of be bullied through the remote-FB posting of people who call for death and guns, because they are able to afford the Internet, sitting in the comfort of their big houses' and "Mercks" and "BMW", "Crackberries" and "iPods"-if not using and laden with the latest accoutrements and condiments of recently acquired material thieved wealth, and expensive sofas and the whole chakalaka.
My point is, if we are to use FB and other social mediums and media to talk revolution, we better be prepared to work and post some good stuff than can be used by the polity we are targeting. This is what Sankara, has to say about this despicable false revolutionary declarations and retorts:
"We must now move on to a much more conscious level of organization. The first days of the revolution were days of enthusiasm, euphoria - a festival. Now we must organize ourselves on a much more scientific, methodical level and make corrections every step of the way in order to go forward! Where organizations like ours have existed, there have been failures. In certain countries, reactionary forces have triumphed over these organization(A la revolutionary movements of South Africa). We must be conscious of our weaknesses (as I have touched up on some of these weaknesses below) We must never cease to struggle - to struggle and to keep in mind that the Committees for the Defense of the Revolution (CDR) signify above all, courage, political courage, the courage to live up to our responsibilities."
Sankara continues: "We are not CDR members just so that we can shout slogans, but so that we can rise consciousness, act, and produce. This is why "we should banish empty slogans - these futile and tiresomely repetitive and ultimately irritating slogans - from our demonstration(and I think Sankara would say that on the FB if he were alive). You arrive at a demonstration and someone shouts, "Homeland or Death, we will triumph!" twenty-five times. It's beginning to be a bit much, especially when there is no solid, militant explanation with it! It's just repetition ... we are just improvising slogans to fill up time, so you get "Down with thieves!" Down with liars!"
"It's not good! We should differentiate ourselves from folk theater troupes. At some shows we see crude scenes where comrades sometimes perform obscene dances. This is not revolutionary either. The revolution should have its sense of decency.
We need to be critical of the lack of organization in our demonstrations. While we have scored victories in some areas, in others we haven't! Some of our ceremonies are tiresome, and though I don't condone the frequent absence of some of our ambassadors, I understand why they might not want to come! Well, we must put a stop to this." (Sankara)
Sankara continues to enlighten us in the following manner: "We must even put a stop to certain kinds of praises that are poorly disguised and badly controlled expressions of 'feudal reflexes'. This song, for example, "Oh, CNR, Thomas Sankara may he forever be president" is not good. When you are president , you're president. When you are not, you are not. We must be clear, this is not a good song. At this rate, in one or two years we'll find ourselves in celebrations with groups that are much more trained in this and who may have nothing other than this to do.."
Sankara further adds that, "The CDRs are there to produce. Of course, if we need themes and slogans for our mobilizations, Okay! If we need images and symbols to understand the revolution, we need them, and we won't hesitate to use them. But we must not mistake the form of the revolution for its content."
The success of the revolution cannot be measured by the number of slogans, by the number of tenors and basses who chat our slogans (or, as one tends to observe on FB, by the number of 'one-liners or one or two words' slogans without giving any functional response to what the posts are about and at least either add or subtract ideas and the like). The revolution's success will be measured by other standards, by the level of production. We must produce, this is essential l(Whether it is writing articles and formulating progressive and revolutionary theories or agricultural or Industrial sectors by planting or building factories and so forth) This is why I welcome the slogan 'advanced for the million tons of grain' (or getting millions employed in newly built factories, and so on). (Thomas Sankara).
That is what we learn from Mao Tse Tung who further asserts that: "Weapons are an important factor in war, but not a decisive factor; it is the people, not things that are decisive. The contest of strength is not only a contest of military economic power, but also a contest of human power and morale. People necessarily wield military and economic power." Mao further cautions and advices that: "Be united, alert, earnest and lively. What really counts in the world of conscientiousness, and the Communist Party is most particular about being conscientious"
In the end, Mao states clearly that; 'We hail from all corners of the country and have "joined together" for a common revolutionary objective. ... Our cadres must show concern for every soldier, and "all People" in the revolutionary ranks must care for each other, love and help each other."
The weapon of theory is basic for any revolutionary endeavor. To lead and form and execute a revolution, Africans need people with abilities to mull over and wrap their heads around the common concerns of the people, invent or compose or design their approach from the feedback and the lessons, that any activist revolutionary will earn and learn from being involved in the application and manifestations of the actions need to carry-out a revolution, amongst and within and with their people. If Africans are to use FB as a vehicle to disperse and disseminate this revolution, let its form be informed and knowledgeable point of view and its use suit the needs and designs of African wishes. Respect of 'others' should be a prerequisite, and expression of one's views should be in-line with what people want, can do and accept and are willing to sacrifice their lives for its accomplishment. Hollering and ranting and being rude just to show that one is in a revolution, and also a revolutionary, or is about a revolution, won't cut it-and it is counter-revolutionary.
Stating and formulating revolutionary objectives on a social media like this, should not be done irresponsibly, because the web is global, and one does not want to alienate the international consensus, allies, support and approval. There are many people who know what the African Struggle in South Africa is all about, there is not need to make for Africans to think of themselves as a 'unique' people who are supposedly fighting a just war, but in the process alienating the rest of our allies, be they local or international. Mao addresses this point I am making above as follows:
"We must make a distinction between the enemy and ourselves, and we must not adopt an antagonistic stand towards comrades and treat them as we would treat the enemy. In speaking up, one must have an ardent desire to protect the cause of the people and raise their political consciousness, and there must be no ridiculing or attacking one's approach."
It is the duty of those who advocate revolution to be very well versed in social engineering and international affairs and the way the media or the web operates. Carelessness in action and or ignoring these fronts will needlessly lead to more confusion and no revolution, except the one be howled for on FB, and it will only end there, on FB.
Executing a revolution requires that the participant be well informed about their objectives and have a line of approach and action that is required and appreciated by those one wants to liberate, without alienating the other allies because of ignorance, carelessness and lack of discipline and leadership in understanding and knowing theory and using it as a weapon to emancipate the oppressed. This can only be developed through being active within the milieu one wants to work in, and this needs a revolutionary to learn how to be humble, compassionate and very sharp as to the in-and-outs of the struggle he/she is waging and with whom he/she is waging it for or together with.
Africans must dare themselves to invent, compose and formulate a much more better future with a human face. This is possible and doable. A clear and complete knowledge of ones history is key to national autonomy and freedom.
The Willie Lynch Letter And the Making of A Slave Paperback by Willie Lynch
Capitalism and Slavery [Paperback] Eric Williams
The Coming Of The Firm: Corporate Imperialism
Running Pell Mell Into Becoming Corporate CEOs
Corporate Firms and their History
Rodney had this to say about the European/African slave trade in Africa: "When one tries to measure the effect of European slave trading on the African continent, it is very essential to realize that one is measuring the effect of social violence rather than trade in any normal sense." The depopulation of the African communities, the decline of African agriculture and manufacturing industry, a general shift in social and state activity to slave raiding, kidnapping and fratricidal wars, which went on for over three hundred years, have had severe effects in the East, Central and Southern Africa.
"The havoc reigned upon these people, along with those in the Americas, Latin america and South America, things like conquest, plunder, forced labor, taxation, and forced specialization in an export monoculture, reversed the relative positions, and these peoples and their lands were progressively reduced to underdevelopment too. 20 million people were decimated in the Congo, physically, economically and culturally by the primitive exploitation of the Leopoldian "system." It is estimated that at least 10 million died as a result of this system in the twenty-year period between 1891 and 1911(Morel),more than the number of Jews killed in Hitler's concentration camps. The case of the Congo is but one amongst the many other such types of murderous extermination of a people, and in the meantime, these colonists made untold riches which have continued to be the foundation capital of the modern imperial corporate wealth."
From what Rodney is telling us about the cration of the Eorl economic system we now call Imperialistic Cpaitalism, we look now, below, at the emergence of the modern corporation
American and European Multi-corportionshave become the second government in America, or around the world and they utilize their influence to make sure that their interests are served to the maximum. For the corporations to maximize their profits, they have to have their feelers in all aspects of the society, and in the end take up power to further advance their interest, uninhabited, and unimpeded..
The emergence of monopoly capitalism in the petroleum, copper, and aluminum industries was marked by a number of characteristics common to all three. First, it was associated with rapid technological change in the last quarter of the nineteenth century in the capitalist countries, particularly. Such technological change had the effect of establishing these industries on a large scale; they produced essential inputs for the expanding industrial system and enjoyed a high rate of growth. Before this time, while oil, copper, and aluminum were produced, this production took place on a very small scale and at high cost, and was based largely on rich and easily worked deposits of basic material, such as surface seepages or oil and deposits of high-grade copper ores. Between the 1860s and and 1900, however, a revolution in production technology took place which made available supplies that were not only quantitatively greater but qualitatively different. The development of drilling techniques enabled subterranean oil to be brought to the surface; induced changes in the technology of refining and new methods of transport made it possible to move oil over long distances. Ores that contained so little copper that they were once considered worthless were brought into production by changes in the technology of mining and refining.Aluminum metal began to be produced in commercial qualities for the first time.
The changes on the supply side were partly the cause and partly the effect of changes on the demand side, in which technology also played an important part. In oil and aluminum, it was the break-throughs in the technology of production in the 1850s and 1880s, respectively, that stimulated new uses and the search for new markets; in copper, the rapid growth of demand for wire resulting from the emergence of the electricity industry in the 1880s sparked the drive to mine and teat low-grade ores on a large scale. Subsequently, technical changes on both the demand and the supply side interacted with cumulative effects. Thus, the automobile revolution in the early 1900s created explosive growth demands fro the products of all three industries, and this induced further technical changes on the supply side. Accompanying these changes was a revolution in economic organization which was no less significant.
By the early 1900s, the large number of small, single-stage, local firms in the petroleum and copper industries had been displaced by a small number of large, vertically integrated firms, national in scope and with oligopolistic market control. In aluminum, monopoly of metal production was a feature of the industry from the outset because of Alcoa's acquisition of the patent rights, and the company soon set about integrating itself backward into raw material extraction and forward into fabrication. It appears that the emergence of the integrated, oligopolistic firm was an inherent and possibly indispensable part of the revolution that took place in the scale of production and demand, in the level of technology, and in the quantity of capital utilized in production. With much more capital committed to production on a much larger scale, firms had to minimize the risks of investment and make sure that their facilities operated at full capacity by acquiring their own raw materials supplies and market outlets. All stages of production and marketing had to be brought as far as possible within the bounds of corporate control.
Those firms that got a head start because of strategic control over one stage of the industry or over production technology, because of capitalistic foresight and initiative, or because of a combination of all three, were able, in one way or another, were able to absorb the weaker and more vulnerable firms. This process continued until a small number of large firms faced one another, each with its own supplies of raw materials and its own market outlets. At that point, they discovered that their competitive struggles could be profitably diluted with collusive market control, that is, Cartel arrangements to maintain prices and profits by restraining output. What usually set the limit on the entry firms or provided the opportunities for new entrants was the scarcity or availability of the natural resources indispensable for profitable production. Thus, the discovery of new copper deposits in Montana in 1880s provided the basis for the new Anaconda company to break the control of the Lake Michigan producing pool; the discovery of the Texas oil fields at the turn of the century made it possible for the Texas Company and Gulf Oil to challenge the hegemony of Standard Oil. In contrast, Alcoa's control of bauxite deposits and hydroelectric resources helped effectively to prevent the entry of new companies into the United States industry until after World War II, when Jamaican deposits began to be used by Reynolds and Kaiser.
The transnational corporation embodies not only a pattern of economic relationships but also a pattern of domination, as expressed by the power relations within it. Raw materials operations have to be subjected to the absolute control of the patent firm, for they are the basis upon which rests the whole edifice of production and marketing, and hence of capital accumulation. The transnational corporation not only has tremendous resources of finance and technology, it also has an enormous flexibility growing out of the fact that its operations are based in a large number of countries. Such flexibility and the integrated nature of its operations give it a wide range of options to shift accounting profits, and ultimately new investment and even existing production facilities, from one country to another. Outsourcing of jobs from America to other countries follows this model.
Furthermore, the transnational corporation normally enjoys a close relationship with the government of its home country - which means that the center country's government will bring pressure to bear on the peripheral government in the interests of the firm. This can mean, in turn, that the government in the peripheral country will pressure the labor force in the interest of the local subsidiary of the corporation." In many cases, these subsidiaries become a government of the country wherein they are extracting or stealing raw materials, subverting locally elected governments, and this is the Corporate Imperial way.
In the case of the Koch Brothers, they are now attempting to take over the American government in a brazen act to grab power, and along with other corporations, try to take over power("reclaiming the country-taking it back"), for as we can now see, courtesy of the 2010 election, that their actions and solutions offer an even much more sinister intent. Which we still have to talk about in the case of South Africa which is really function as a siamese twin of the American and European economies, politics and ethics... If you understand the history of the firms above,it certainly is one and the same as the economy, politics and policies that are emasculating us a nation in Mzantsi.
I thought and reckoned that a short history on the corporation's creation and build-up would do to inform us as to what this is all about that we see today and want to become CEO's of. If you do not know anything, it might kill you... This history dovetails clearly with what Water Rodney has told us a bit about the creation of wealth, which I pick up as to the present product of that welath: the Corporation- which is a government in and of itself and ends up governing and controlling those countries in which they have their capital investment.
The Autobiography of Malcolm X: As Told to Alex Haley Paperback by Malcolm X
The Struggle For African's Revolution Cannot Be Achieved Through jaundiced and Jingoistic Prattles.
I know for a fact that our peoples aphorisms are relevant when they say:
"The Path Going Forward is Asked from those Who Went Before, or ahead". (A loose translation of "Tsela e botswa ho ba pele/kapa bao ba ileng ba e tsamaya".
A Short Note to Africans People
"We are not going to use this platform to rail against imperialism. An African saying very common in our country says: "When your house is burning, it's of no use beating the tom-toms. ... For us, the best or worst shout against imperialism, whatever its form, is to take up arms and fight. This is what we are doing, and this is what we will go on doing until all foreign domination of our African homelands has been totally dominated.
Our agenda includes subjects whose meaning and importance are beyond question and which show a fundamental preoccupation with 'struggle'. We note, however, that one form of struggle which we consider to be fundamental ... is the 'struggle against our own weaknesses'. Our experience has shown us that in the general framework of daily struggle, this battle against ourselves-no matter what difficulties the enemy may create-is the most difficult of all, whether for the present or the future of our peoples. This battle is the expression of the internal contradictions in the economic, social, cultural (and therefore, historical) reality of each of our countries. We are convinced that any rational or social revolution which is not based on knowledge of this fundamental reality runs grave risk of being condemned to failure.
However, we must recognize that we ourselves and the other liberation movements in general (referring here above all to the African experience) have not managed to pay sufficient attention to this important problem in our struggle.
The ideological deficiency, not to say the total lack of ideology, within the national liberation movements-which is basically due to ignorance of the 'historical reality' which these movements claim to transform-constitutes one to the greatest weaknesses of the African struggle against imperialism, if not the greatest weakness of all.... A full discussion of this subject could be useful to ma subject could be useful, and would enable the [movement] to make a valuable contribution toward strengthening the present and future actions of national liberation. This would be a concrete way of helping these movements, and in my opinion, no less important than political support or financial assistance for arms and suchlike.
It is with the intention of making a contribution, however modest, to this debate that I present here my opinion of "the foundations and objectives of national liberation in relation to the social structure."
Our refusal, based as it is on concrete knowledge of the socio-economic reality of our countries, and on the analysis of the process of development of this phenomenon of class, leads us to conclude that if class struggle is the motive force of history, it is so only in a specific historical period (I have addressed this point somewhat in my earlier post about history). It is not difficult to see that this factor in the history of each human group is the "mode of production"-the level of productive forces and the pattern of ownership-characteristic of that group. ... It therefore seems correct to conclude that the level of productive forces, the essential determining element in the content and form of class struggle, is the true and permanent motive force of history.
Thus, we see that African peoples have their own history regardless of the stage of their economic development. When they were subjected to imperialist domination, the historical process of each of our peoples (or of the human groups of which they are composed) was subjected to the violent action of an external factor: in this case, in the forms of Colonization, Corporate Imperialism and Corporate Military Industrial complexes. This action-the impact of imperialism on our societies-could not fail to influence the process of development of the productive forces in our countries and the social structures of our countries, as well as the content and form of our national liberation struggles.
But we also see that in the historical context of the development of these struggles, and that African peoples have the concrete possibility of going from their present situation of exploitation and underdevelopment, to a new stage of their historical process which can lead them to a higher from of economic, social and cultural existence and power.
Re-Inventing Africa: Matriarchy, Religion and Culture Paperback by Ifi Amadiume
Diop on African Matriarchy in African Culture:
Having listened to Clarke above in his lecture about "Black Women In History" We learn and read from Diop that:
"The Islamization of West Africa began with the Almoravidia movement in the tenth century. I can be emphasized that it introduced a sort of dividing line in the evolution of religious consciousness, first of the princes, and as a result, among the people. The traditional religion withered away little by little under the influence of Islam, as did the mores and customs. This is how the patrilineal regime, gradually and progressively became substituted for the matrilineal regime, from the tenth century onwards. The exterior reasons which led to this change can thus be grasped.
"In West Africa, the adoption of the father's name for the children seems to stem rom this same Arabic influence; as a matter of fact, we have just learnt fro Ibn Batouta that in 1253, children took the name of their maternal uncle, that is to say, their mother's brother. The children did indeed take the name of a man, but the regime was purely matrilineal; it only ceased to be so from the time when, according to Islamic custom, the name of the father was substituted for that of the uncle.
"It is important to note that, beginning with the same period, detribalization was an accomplished fact in West Africa; this is proved by the possibility of an individual bearing his own family name and not the name of a clan. In regions of the continent which are not detribalized, individuals have only a first name; when their proper name is asked for, they reply that they belong to such a totemic clan, whose name can only be borne collectively. It is only when the members of the clan dispersed that they could retain as individuals, in memory of the 'ancient' community, the name of the clan, which could them become their own family name.
"It is, however, necessary to stress a particular fashion of naming a child which seems to proceed from a dualist conception of social life. To the boy's name is added that of the mother and to the daughter's name that of the father; for instance: Cheik Fathma means the son of Fatma, Magatte Massamba-Sassoun is the daughter of Massamba-assoun. It is certain that this does not come from Arabic Influence.
"African Matriarchy existed on a continent-wide scale:
"The bearing of a son toward his mother among the Swazi (Who live in southern Africa) is a combination of deference and affection. To him, swearing, undressing, or conducting himself in an immodest manner in her presence, brings about, it is believed, direct punishment by ancestors; he will also be publicly rebuked and can be forced by the family council to pay a fine. It is expected that his mother will scold him, should he neglect his duties as a son, a husband or a father, and he must not reply to her angrily. The accent is always on the mother proper 'the mother who bore me'. Her hut is keftu - our house."
Consanguinity among the Tswana, who live in Botswana, next to South Africa, is also matrilineal:
"The maternal relatives are not involved as a rule in the situations we have just described. they cannot be rivals in property or social position and most often 'although this is not absolutely general'. They belong to another community in the vicinity. They are, in consequence, well-known to be more affectionate and devoted than the agnates. The children, when they are small, are often sent for some time to the home of their mother's relatives, who later on encourage them to come frequently to visit them. There, a warm reception and generous hospitality are reserved for them and they profit from numerous advantages. A child has a place in the home of his mother's kin, say the proverb. A maternal Uncle allied to him must, in particular, be consulted in every case, especially concerning the children of his sister; his opinion is so important that sometimes at the moment when a marriage is being arranged, his veto can be decisive... It is from his maternal uncle, more perhaps than from any other person, that a man expects disinterested advice and assistance in case of need... The relatives and sisters of the mother are commonly recognized as being more kindly and more indulgent that those of the father.
"Among the Ashanti of Ghana, descent is also matrilineal.
"The Ashanti consider the bond between mother ad child as the keystone of all social relations. They consider it as a moral relationship which is absolutely binding. An Ashanti woman will not stint in the work she does or the sacrifices she makes for her children. It is specially to feed, clothe and educate them today, that she works so hard, annoys her husband and jealously watches her bother, to make sure that he carries out faithfully his duties as the child's legal guardian. No demand is too exaggerated for a mother to meet. Although she shrinks from inflicting punishment and never disowns her child, an Ashanti mother requires from her children both obedience and affectionate respect... To show disrespect to a mother is equivalent to committing sacrilege.
"Matriarchy also governs the social organization of the 'Bantu' of Central Africa.
"Most of the 'Bantu people of Central Africa determine descent in the matrilineal rather than in the patrilineal line, and many of them practice among themselves a certain form of what is generally known under the name of matrilocal marriage. Indeed, it is this matrilineal character of the family organization which distinguishes them so clearly from the 'Bantu' of Eastern Southern Africa, and it is for this reason that the territory stretching from the West and Center of the Belgian Congo to the North-East of Northern Rhodesia(Zimbabwe) and the mountains of Nyasaland is sometimes know as the "matrilineal belt".
"It is clear from this statement that the matriarchal regime existed generally in Africa, in ancient times as well as at the present day, and that tis cultural feature does not result from an ignorance of the role of the father in the conception of the child. The phallic cult, which is a corollary of the agrarian regime (raised stones, the obelisks of Egypt, the temples of India, and phallic structure of stone in South Africa along with the buildings and pyramids) is ample proof of this; it shows that at the time when ancient humanity chose the system of matrilineal descent, it knew the role of the father in fecundaton. In none of the system described in the Southern cradle is patrilineal consanguinity systematically neglected,
"On the contrary, social conduct regarding patrilineal relatives is stricter than that regarding matrilineal relatives. With the latter, one behaves freely and easily without social hypocrisy; it is different with the former, since appearances must always be safeguarded. A maternal brother or half-brother can be left on the battlefield, but never a paternal half-brother, although he is less loved than the former, and he is more distant from him. He is a social rival, who must be outdone or at least equalled in everything, to do honor, within the bounds of polygamy, to the 'dwelling' of his mother, that is to say, to his line, his motherland."
"What is important to us today is not the legacy of warrior queens, but a thorough analysis of the primary system of social organization around an economically self-sufficient or self-supporting matricentric cultural unit and a gender free or flexible gender linguistic system, which is the legacy of African Matriarchy. We need to understand its associated goddess-foussed religions and culture which helped women organize effectively to fight the subordinating and controlling forces of patriarchy, thereby achieving a kind of system of checks and balances.
"This is basically so-called monotheistic and abstract religions of Islam and Christianity ruling Africa today subverted and continue to attack. The fundamental question to those proposing these religions as a possible means of achieving a pan-African unity or federation is this: are these religions able to accept and accommodate our goddesses and matriarchy, that is, African women's true primordial cultures in the present politics, of primordialism, manipulated by nationalists and fundamentalists?
Hinterland Africa proper which had such structures which favored the rule of goddesses, queens, etc., is indeed still present with us today. But, these systems are facing erosion, as elite African men manipulate the new and borrowed patriarchies to forge a most formidable 'masculine imperialism', yet unknown in our history.(Diop)
Somewhere else Diop observes: "Matriarchy is not an absolute and cynical triumph of woman over man; it is a harmonious dualism, an association accepted by both sexes, the better to build a sedentary society where each and every one could fully develop by following the activity best suited to his/her physiological nature. A matriarchal regime, far from being imposed on man by circumstances independent of his will, is affected and defended by him." As Diop says correctly of militant or military female contingents in Africa, 'the hatred of men is foreign to them and they posses the consciousness of being 'soldiers' struggling for the liberation of their country.'
Because Diop took on the fundamental issue of matriarchy from an Afrocentric perspective and interest, as opposed to a compromised struggle for women's rights in patriarchal systems, what scholar will match the feminism of Cheik Anta Diop? For him, matriarchy is an 'ensemble of institutions favorable to womanhood and to mankind in general. As he said, male controlled social science has only seen in this 'dangerous freedom which is almost diabolical'. One wonders why western matriarchy theorists do not cite the work of Cheik Anta Diop?
The rage against Diop by White scholars and Western self-intere has not abated. If anything, it is very often these days, parroted by a particular class of Africans themselves, who are still under their tutelage, supervision and control, and they are dedicated copycats. As for African men, they feel contended to cite only those aspects of the work of the great thinker which serve their purpose, especially reclaiming of ancient Egyptian civilization. The fundamental theses of his work, which rests on African Matriarchy, is the least given importance and applied. This is so true, because for women, they would do better if they are talking about feminism, they could do well by studying Diop's work on matriarchy, a severely ignored and underrated part of his works
In the most recent findings in Western search for human racial origins, a racist invention and concern of the West alone, Diop is vindicated time and time again as the the primary role of the African mother, whether in the bequeathing of the gene or language to the human race continues to be 'very scientifically proved'. But racist appropriation continue, even in this era of deconstruction - if these youngest of our children do not call humanity's African mother Lucy, they call her Eve! So, we see again in this, the appropriation of the nineteenth century, to even scientists, it is unthinkable that the fossil of our African mother, found on the African continent, should retain an African name! This crystalizes and symbolizes the nature of the relationship of European civilization with that of Africa. This structure of appropriation can be found in every other field of relations.
Diop had prayed, "may his work contribute to the strengthening of the feelings of goodwill which have united Africans from one end of the continent to the other and this show our organic cultural unity." He made it imperative that a full knowledge of lessons must be learnt from the past in order to 'keep one's consciousness the feeling of historical continuity essential to the consolidation of a multinational state." Like Diop, concerning African history knowledge and teaching history of colonialism, African intellectuals,if they are to be free from self-negation, must deconstruct, invalidate and reconstruct, rewrite, compose and form their history in their own image, African perspective, own, control and shape it to suit themselves as they see fit..
In this project of reconstruction, a gender and class aware social history is a priority. The racist term anthropology, which really should have been social history, must be banned altogether. We must adopt and elaborate the historiography of Cheik Anta Diop, using his multidisciplinary approach to write an African social history and enforce the teaching of [African] social history in our curriculum. Present-day African scholarship only knows the chronological history of Kings, Queens and conquest. Since in our schools and colleges, there is no [Africa]social history, nor grassroots history from the bottom and the history of African indigenous social institutions, how then can Africans begin to build an Afrocentric history and unity without this knowledge? As Diop said, "let the general commitment of intellectual activism lead to the liquidation of all colonial systems of imperialism." We also learn About matriarchy from the following quote:
Leonard Cottrell gives this information about the status of women during Cleopatra's time. To understand Cleopatra's story in great detail, it is necessary to know something about the culture and customs of her time in history:
"The high status which respectable" women enjoyed in Ancient Egypt arose i part from the matriarchal system, which on the family was based. All landed property descended in the female line from mother to daughter. When a man married an heiress, he enjoyed her property only as long as his wife lived. On her death, it passed on to her daughter and her daughter's husband. This practice was never more strictly observed than in the Royal family, which explains why so many of the Pharaohs married their sisters, or even their infant daughters.
"Often these marriages were purely formal affairs. Margaret Murray in "The splendor That Was Egypt" says: The marriage laws of Ancient Egypt were never formulated and knowledge of them can be obtained only by working out the marriages and genealogies. It then became evident that a Pharaoh safeguard himself from abdication by marrying every heiress without any regard to consanguinity, so that it the chief heiress died, he was already married to the next in succession and thus retained the sovereignty ... the throne went strictly in the female line. The great wife of the King was the heiress; by the right of marriage with her, the King came to the throne. The King's birth was not important. He might be of any rank, but if he married the Queen, he at one became King; the Queen was Queen by right of birth, the King by right of marriage."
As long as there are African men and women in this world and as long as the West persists in its history of patriarchy, racism and imperialism, there remains then a desperate and dire need to reconstruct African culture and history from an African Centered Perspective along with the edification of matriarchy as part of the protocol and prerequisite towards rebuilding and fashioning contemporary African histories, cultures and societies anew.
Urban Poverty and Party Populism in African Democracies Hardcover by Dr Danielle Resnick
Poor and Decrepit African Leadership and Mass Empowerment
On Erudition Of African Mass Potential Leadership
There is a pervasive sense of foreboding and impending doom among Africans who let themselves look reality "dead in the face". In the face of the tremendous deterioration of their quality of life: mounting unemployment, increasing poverty, crime, moral degradation; devastating miseducation and the even more devastating lack of education; overwhelming drug addiction and insensate violence, homicide, terror, prostitution, disease and corruption. In the face of children having children, social incivility, a youth culture whose raucous music speaks of nihilism, rape, robbery and murder. The degradation and venal hatred of Black(African) women, of everything Black(African); in the face of unfulfilled longings for the satisfaction of basic needs in the midst of the "affluent" - the need for food, for physical safety and security, for belonging, love, acceptance, higher self-esteem. knowledge and understanding, freedom and autonomy,, achievement, creativity and self-realization; in the face of all these unfulfilled dreams and wishes, the African community in ever-rising crescendos emits a heart-rendering cry for new leadership. Even the old leaders are calling for new leadership. The persistent call for leadership in the Black(African) community is a call for help, a call for a set of leading persons, organizations and ideas that can provide the community with a sense of unity, definition, direction, power, with a developmental plan and the wherewithal to realize its abundant human potential in their land endowed with enormous wealth.
The most persistent complaints the community makes concerning it current leadership are that they have either been co-opted by the past apartheid White ruling regime; are outdated in terms of values, goals and techniques; are not truly and deeply committed to the welfare of the people; are self-centered, self serving, egocentric, 'corrupt"; out of touch with the current and future realities; timid and cannot recognize the needs of the people or articulate those needs in ways which move the people toward their satisfaction and attainment; are intellectually inept and are not effectively educating the masses and inspiring them to realize the enormous power which lies dormant within themselves; are co-opted and put into strategic position by the ANC-led government even if they had been rejected by the communities and the African voting polity.
I won't debate or critically go into nor evaluate these complaints, for now. I believe that even if the contemporary Black(African) leadership accurately gauged and articulated the needs of African people and their communities, this would not necessarily empower the masses. The generation of social power requires appropriate 'organization', 'tactics' and 'strategies' - and a unifying vision or sense of mission-which I have partially addressed above. It requires a guiding set of ideas or an ideology whose attempted realization defines the social attitudes, relations and institutions which together can empower a people. A people are empowered or disempowered by the guiding ideologies of their leaders to whom they pledge allegiance. Though leaders recognize the needs of their followers an are at one with them in terms of their own needs, their choice of inappropriate social-political ideologies and goals may bring both themselves and their followers to despair. This is the kind of poor, weak and tired leadership that the poor masses have to deal and contend with.
This then means that as Africans are evolving in our understanding of their decrepit situation, we need to shine a brighter light on the problems that have been listed above and find out why is it so. It is here in this article I turn to Sankara for a much more sober and focused laser-like analysis to these problems and what he has to say about it which will help in making African people's lack of understanding of these issues much more clearer, and these poor people can mull on them and think them through much more clearly in a speech he gave on March 26, 1983....
Sankara runs the revolutionary rap thus:
"Who are these enemies of the people?
They are to be found here at home and abroad. At this very moment the are trembling, but you must expose them. You must drive them back into their holes. The enemies of the people are here inside the country are all those who have illicitly taken advantage of their social position and their place in the bureaucracy to enrich themselves. By means of bribery,maneuvers, and forged documents they have become shareholders in different companies. They are now involved in financing business and obtaining approval for this or that enterprise - in the guise of helping Upper Volta. These are the enemies of the people. They must be exposed. This section of the bourgeoisie must be fought against, and we will fight against it.
"Who are the enemies of the people? They are the men in politics who travel through the countryside exclusively at election time. These politicians are convinced that only they can make our country work. These enemies of the people must be exposed and combated. We will combat them with you. The enemies of are likewise those who keep us in ignorance. Under the over of spiritual guidance and tradition, they exploit the people instead of serving their real spiritual needs and their real social interests. they must be fought against and we will fight them.
"The enemies of the people are also beyond our borders. Their base is among unpatriotic people here in our midst at every level of our society - civilian and military men, men and women, old and young, in town and country alike. These enemies from abroad - neocolonialism - are among us. From its base base among these stateless men, those who have rejected their homeland,who have, in fact rejected their own people(the people Of Upper Volta (Mzantsi?), this enemy abroad is organizing a series of attacks. First will come the none-violent and the the violent stage. At this stage we are living through the non-violent stage [in the case of present-day South Africa, violence has become the norm]. This is the enemy abroad - imperialism, neo-colonialism - is attempting to sow confusion in the minds of the Voltaic people. According to their newspapers,radios,and television, Upper Volta is all fire and blood.
"You see, imperialism is wrong. But Imperialism is a bad student. Even though its been defeated,though it's been sent out of the classroom, it comes back again. It's a bad student. Imperialism never draws lessons from its failures. Its down in South Africa cutting African throats - just because Africans there are thinking about freedom, as you are today.
Imperialism is everywhere, making us think like it, submit to it, and go along with its maneuvers by spreading it culture (cultural Imperialism), far and wide with the help of misinformation and other shenanigans. We must bar the road to this imperialism. As I said,it will proceed to a violent stage. It is imperialism that landed troops in certain countries we know. Imperialism armed those who are killing our brothers in South Africa. Imperialism again is the assassin of the Lumumbas, Cabrals, Kwame Nkumahs, Machels..."
Need I say more. All I can add at this point is that practical application is needed, after writing such a pieces about ideas of "Leadership' and What its made of and is doing at present, will be added on. The readers can make up their own mind about they have read here- the fact this remains an ongoing research project from which we will be posting ideas that are practical and helpful for Africans of South africa will be pursued doggedly. The piece above gives and intelligent view of the mass mind in a simple form, the second part are the ideas of Sankara reinforcing the call for action, practice and tactics from an African collective perspective.
The next post will put all these in a digestible context for all to use. We need to talk about these issue of leadership so as to sharpen our Critique and Anti-Critique of it... It's strange how power, society and leadership are still an on going conversation in the African communities on the Continent and in the Diaspora, and Sankara, in 1983, captured its essence and was evolving ideas how to really deal with it. What African South africans can do with this material is to make sure they read it, and pass it on to as many people as people as possible-and help making it a reality.
An updated and educated masses is the most feared weapon by imperialism. The task of Africans in South Africa today is to see to it that they educate and inform the masses- This is the leader Africans should be looking forward and toward in the future tactics, strategies and social engineering using(As Mao noted above), implanting and embedding new formations, attitudes and ways of doing for the poor like has never been done before.. I will be adding to this topic at length in the near future....
J.A. Rogers: World's Great Men of Color, Volume I:
The Essentials of the Nguni/Bakone Cultures, Traditions, Customs and Practices
We must always Turn To Ourselves; Our Writers; Our Literature
What Kind Of Culture, Custom, Tradition and Practices Were Under Siege?
The Cultures, Customs, Traditions, Histories, Practices, Sacred Rites, Languages and Traditional Dress of Africans have been experiencing a sustained and serious Cultural War Total Onslaught from the colonizers since their landing in the Cape in the 1600s. We have learned from this Hub how the survivors of the Stavinesse gave accounts of the nature, condition, and reality of the culture of the Zulus they came across after wrecking their sip in the Port of Natal in the 11th century. I will only give an example of one culture of the 11 (eleven)people of South Africa just to give some concrete manifestation of this culture I have been talking about above.
Above I was discussing the Diop Perspective and historical prognosis of the regime of Matriarchy, we learnt that the lineage of families and the bearing of the last name was with that of the side of the mother, and the role of the maternal uncle in having his last name be the name of his sister children, not the father-and the cultural and tradition and customary reasons for such rules and laws.
In spite and despite the claims of the colonizers writing about the history of African as being backward and inconsequential, the present-day Africans are the generation that should now be laying ground and writing a corrected history of Africans from an African people's perspective. I assert in this Hub that African societies were not dysfunctional, despite what the European historians say or write about Africans and their history. One thing certain, there was, and there exists remnants of this culture today, attest to the fact that African society in South Africa was well-organized and functioning just like any other human culture around the world from antiquity to the present-and will still functioning in the future, beyond the 21st century. Biko has pointed out to the fact that African culture in South Africa has taken a huge bashing, but its original outlines and essentials remain intact to date. In other instances it has been altered, has morphed or changed into something else that meets and fits the lives and existential realities of Africans in different given times in their history and existence under segregation, separate development and Apartheid, and now, under the gendarme ANC-led government, in South Africa today.
"Africans think and do certain things in a different way," so says Prof Clarke. Africans live in a "We" Society(the totality, collectiveness of the whole society, whilst Africans live from the meanness of the individual-created world of Africa. The folklore and folktales of Africa are not told and put down for individuals, but for the totality of Africa. "If you do not know where you going, the road will take you there", said by an African told by Dr.Clarke. The video below, the coming of the Europeans, to the world, was disastrous. Yet the assumption is that his coming was the coming of the light. Yet he brought no civilization or light in the world.. this all can be heard in its entirety in the tape below, because Clarke says they came as the 'civilizer' and as 'conquerer'.
Now, what Clarke is saying is that as Africans we should know these truths and what they forebode to African culture. The culture of the Basotho of South Africa are more the same, like and one with the other cultures of the other 10 other peoples of South Africa, which I had begun to cover in my Hub, "South African Culture, Customs and Practices Write Large_ Re-Morphed Cultural Renaissance against Dysfunctional Existence". The hub I have just mentioned is still a work(but published) in progress and with still more material to be added to it. In it I discuss the Culture, Tradition, Custom, Languages, Sacred Rites and Practices of the Basotho, in their own language(with English interpretations)
What Clarke is saying in the paragraph above remains true to this day. It is at this juncture that we begin to look at this supposedly non-existence of the culture of Africans of South Africa. Before I talk about the Culture, customs, traditions and practices of the Basothos, I would point the reader to look up my article called "South African Music & Dance's Struggle Against Culture Wars: A View Of The Music and Dance Of Africans of South Africa." These two Hubs I have mentioned, tie-in and dovetail well with this section and the Whole Hub in an effort to raise the importance and power of the culture, customs, traditions, sacred rites, music, dances and practices of Africans of South Africa to the human and World History levels.
A Brief Look At the Culture, Customs, Traditions, Practices, Sacred Rites of the Basotho
We now llok briefly and summarilly at the the Customs, Traditions, Rites and Practices of the Basotho people:
The Nguni people of South Africa had an organized system of life guided by their ancient customs,traditions, customs, sacred rites and their practices from time immemorial.They had practices, custom and traditions along with customs of Lenyalo(Marriage; they types of cows for what is now know as lobla(and thesehad names like, Dikgomo tsa pehelano(sort of loosley, lay-bye), Digomo tsa bohadi(Cows for the brides' people), and the cows which are the first offering prior to those requested by the bridesmaid people((Kgomo tsa Selelekela); The behavior and comportment of the bridegroom at the bridesmaid people((Mokgwenyana Bohweng); Melao ya dingwetsi(Laws for the bridesmaids; the sacred customary rites for newborns(Dikanelo tsa Masea) and so forth;
The had laws customs and traditions for the boys who go to the school of custom for circumcision(, and for girls(Lebollo la Bashemane le Banana); the were traditional healing and prayers for the deadly sick(Bababi Le Lefu); the were customary rules and regulations for relations between a person and his elderly people(as in they boy and his elders; the reltions ofthe nephew and his uncle); special planting and harvesting of wheat and grain for a special different seasons.
There was also, Dipheko, Ho Upa,jwalo-jwalo(Sickness and other maladies, etc.); Tsa Dinyopa(Those who cannot bear children);the were ways and customs for those Women who bear girls only(Basadi ba belehang Banana feela), there were traditional cures and customary, traditional sacred rites associated with that. Laws, rules and customs of taking care of bodily dirt(Ditsila tsa mmele); how to exhchange gifts and other special things; the panting fileds and the reaping of the corn, and wheat; how and why is home -made beer done-for what and which occassions; the laws governing Kings(Melao ya Marena); community and personal wealth(Cows, their skins; different trades and skills; iron works; vows and names of the elderly old people; the Basotho's Wealth and accrual thereof-(Leruo La Basotho Le mesebetsi e meng).
Rules and laws governing War(Ntwa[War]
We also have "Maeto": Kamohelo ya baeti (How to treat visitors); what to do and how to behave when one traveller meets another traveler in the way/road or their travels); Dithoko, Metjeko, Dipapadi (Praises and Poems, Dances and Games); Dipapadi Tsa Bana(Children's Games); and the ways of the shepherds and herd boys.
This is a shortened and truncated version of a very interesting diverse culture, and each category can be broken into so many pieces and explains a lot that this culture has set for itself and its people One can read more about this in my Hub titled: "South African Culture, Customs and Practices Writ Large: Re-Morphed Cultural Renaissance Against Dysfunctional Existence.". This is a culture that the colonists have said does not exist, is backwards and Barbaric; also, they painted it as inconsequential.
But if one were to look much deeper into it, one begins to see that this was a very organized and vibrant culture that had its own intricacies and ways of being without any influence form anything European. The coming of the European, in their belligerency and aggression tried all they could to wipe off the culture from the face of the earth, but if the reader checked out the hubs I mentioned above, one would see that it is still existing and going on strong, besides the vicissitude of the harsh cultural wars of attrition foisted upon it.The reader can go back to the top and re-watch Dr. John Hendrik Clarke's "The Necessity of returning To African Customs" in this Hub.
Dr. Ben Jochannan: Black Man of the Nile Paperback
African History Was Never Unimportant-Even If Europeans Pretended It Was Underdeveloped And Backward
In adding and elaborating up to the Video above about the lecture of African resistance, I will conclude the entry above about Customs, traditions and customs of Africa, that, knowing them well is a path towards resistance for African people. If you know something, and it is the truth, it will never change. This is emphasized in many ways by Clarke as I will cite him below wherein he writes:
"An african World Revolution, might sometime sound like a fantasy, but please bear in min that sometimes the fantasy of today is tomorrow's reality. In addition to a need for a total reconsideration of Pan-Africanism, a cultural revolution is needed within the whole of the African world. The most important aspect of this revolution will occur within the geography of the continent of Africa, which is almost 12 million square miles, endowed by nature with some of the greatest mineral wealth in all the world.
"I believe the technical and scientific aspects of this revolution will begin with Africans living outside of Africa who have been exposed, through education, to the kind of technological education that Africa needs in order to renew its old societies and make them workable within the modern world. It is important for us to learn who our friends are and who our enemies are and how to make the best use of both of them. The principal concepts of nation structure, nation formation, and nation building have been taken away from us as well."(Sankara had as much to say about this 'enemy' in the midst of African people, so did Mao, who I cited above)What I have tried to to do in giving the outlines of the culture of the Basotho, which too has been under siege, by the Apartheid cultural War which sowed seeds of confusion and amnesia amongst the Africans, that most have now forgotten or dismissed, as I have noted above in this Hub. What I have given as the Basotho culture, often dismissed as irrelevant, not modern, and does not function nor fit in the times we live in today. But Clarke cautions and teaches us that:
"The ability to examine our adversaries, to move among them, and still to advance while learning something of their technique has also been taken away from us. We have been rather naive in our interaction with people and we have overlooked too many items in relationship to our freedom. We have not developed a technique for dealing with our own traitors. But if we cannot do anything else, we can at least isolate them."
So that, in order for us to move the writing of our history by ourselves, we must delineate some facts about Africans and their meeting with Europeans as to what happened in that interaction, and why did it happen.
"When the Europeans discovered the African presence in the world for the second time, the first time being during the Greco-Roman period, their attitude toward African people had changed. to understanding this change, we must deal with the reshaping of the European mind in the years between 1400 and 1600. In their religious and political wars many Europeans lost all sentimental attachment to themselves.
"They had emerged from the Middle Ages people poor, land poor, and resource poor. A large number of the population had been lost to plagues and famines, and the Crusades had awakened Europe t the world beyond its shores and the many creature comforts that had not at that time reached Europe. They were beginning to regain the lost concept of Longitude and Latitude and re-discovering Maritime skills mainly from the information preserved by Africans and Arabs at the University of Salamanca in SpainKnow as the Moors- of which I wrote a Hub about the Moors I titled: "The History And The Age of The Moors In Spain: How the Moors Civilized Europe - The History Of Africa."
"The best of this information had come to them form China, the leading Maritime nation of that day. Europeans, were also, at that time, searching for a route to mainland Asia in order to obtain the sweets and spices, some legendary, some real, that they needed for the European food of that day, which was often unpalatable.
"In a recent paper Professor Keith E. Baird calls attention to how and why Africa was lost from the respectful commentary of history. Until quite recently, it was rather generally assumed, even among well-educated persons in the West, that the continent of Africa was a great expanse of land, mostly jungle, inhabited by savages and fierce beasts. It was unthought of that great civilizations could have been born in might and wisdom over vast empires.
"It is true that there were some notions current about the cultural achievement of Egypt, but Egypt was conceived as a European land rather than as a country of Africa. Even if one takes a look at an Atlas or Globe, both showed Egypt to be in Africa. Then popular thought immediately saw in the Sahara desert a formidable barrier and a convenient division of Africa into two parts: one, north of the Sahara, was inhabited by a European-like people of 'high culture and noble history'; the other, south of the Sahara, was inhabited by a 'dark-skinned people who had no culture, and were incapable of having done anything in their dark and distant past that could be dignified by the designation of 'history'." Such ideas, of course, are far from the truth, and unfortunately, still persist in one form or another in the popular mind.
"The concept of "darkest Africa" refers to the comparative ignorance of Europeans regarding that continent and its people over the last four centuries. Jonathan swift made a sharp but witty comment on his fellow Europeans' lack of knowledge of Africa when he wrote"
Geographers in Africa Maps
With Savage pictures fill their gaps,
And o'er uninhabitable downs
Paint elephants instead of towns.
"There is another reason why the people of Africa, with the notable exclusion of Egypt, were depicted as uncivilized and lacking in cultural attainments. A number of pious people in Europe would have been struck in horror if they knew of the cruel and blood acts of their country men in the course of the inhuman slave-trade. Ruthless European adventurers promoted the hunting down of men, women and children like beasts, and the destruction of complete villages in order to capture the inhabitants and sell them like cattle. Therefore, slave traders would invent fantastic tales of savagery about the Africans so that their capture and their transportation to labor on the plantations of the Americans would appear to be acts of Christian concern and high minded enlightenment."
Clarke cites Richard B. Moore who who wrote:
"The significance of African history is shown, though not overtly, in the very effort to deny anything worthy of the name of history to Africa and the African peoples. This widespread, and well nigh successful endeavor, maintained through some five centuries, to erase African history from the general record, is a fact which of itself should be quite conclusive to thinking and open minds. for it is logical and apparent that no such undertaking would ever have been carried on, and at such length, in order to obscure and to bury what is actually of little or not significance."
"The prime significance of African history become still more manifest when it is realized that this deliberate denial of African history arose out of the European expansion and invasion of Africa which began in the middle of the fifteenth century. The compulsion was thereby felt to attempt to justify such colonialist conquest, domination, enslavement, and plunder. Hence, this brash denial of history and culture to Africa, and, indeed, even human qualities and capacity for "civilization" to the indigenous people of Africa".
If we understand Clarke well, there was a conscious effort to delete and obfuscate the historical memory of Africans from the mid-fifteenth century up to today, in the age of the Web and Internet, where posts are made to the same effect of trying to deny and distort African history: to deny Africans their cultural history and humanity. It is how to the present latter-day generation of historians will do to put the record straight, tread on the footsteps of the Master Teachers, and begin to compose, rework, re-write and re-invent African History as we move forward into the 21st century.
Marcus Garvey and the Vision of Africa Paperback by John Henrik Clarke
Professor John Hendrik Clarke: African History Lesson
African History In African Perspective
This Hub is about the writings and lectures of Prof. John Hendrik Clarke. It is also an experiment in writing African history of South African a the history of Africa(although not much was really covered on the history of the whole of Africa), but it was used wherever possible, to illustrate and highlight the history of Africans of South africa.
My reasons for writing about Clarke is because he was a Master Teacher both inside the Classroom and outside the classroom,. in lecture halls and the stoops and corners of Harlem. His other theme running the gamut of his video lectures was the fact that he wanted to "restore African which was lost from the respectful commentary of history", into a respectable discipline with its own Historiography presented from African point of view. We catch up with Clarke wherein he writes:
"Until quite recently, it was rather generally assumed, even among well-educated persons in the West, that the continent of Africa was a great expanse of land, mostly jungle, inhabited by savages and fierce beasts. It was unthought of that great civilizations could have been born in the might and wisdom over vast empires. It is true that there were some notions current about the cultural achievement of Egypt, but Egypt was conceived as a Europe land rather than as a country of Africa.
"Even if a look on an atlas showed Egypt to be in Africa, then popular thought immediately saw in the Sahara desert a formidable barrier ad a convenient division of Africa into two parts: one, north of the Sahara, was inhabited by European-like people of High Culture and noble history: the other, south of the 'sahara, was inhabited by a dark-skinned people who had no culture, and were incapable of having done anything in their dark and distant past that could be dignified by the designation of "history." Such ideas, of course, are far from the truth, as we shall see. But it is not difficult to understand why they persisted, and, unfortunately, still persist in one form or another in the popular mind.
"The significance of African History is shown, though not overtly, in the very effort to deny anything worthy of the the name of history to Africa and the African peoples. This widespread, and well nigh successful endeavor, maintained through some five centuries, to erase African history from the general record, is a fact which of itself should be quite conclusive to thinking and open minds. For it is logical and apparent that no such undertaking would ever have been carried on, and at such length, in order to obscure and to bury what is actually of little or no significance
"The significance of African history becomes still more manifest when it is realized that this deliberate denial of African history arose out of the European expansion and invasion of Africa which begun in the middle of the fifteenth century. The compulsion was thereby felt to attempt to justify such colonialist conquest, domination, enslavement, and plunder. Hence, this brash denial of history and culture to Africa, and, indeed, even of human qualities and capacity for "civilization" to the indigenous peoples of Africa."
Clarke Telling His Life told In His Own Soulful Oratory Historical Diction
"I have often been asked what led me to begin my researches on what I will call [African] History. As I look back on it now, I think it really began in my early childhood when it was firmly impressed on me by the ruling classes that African people were inherently inferior and that their sole reason for being was to be servants to white people and the lighter-colored mulattoes. The Africans, I was told, had never accomplished anything in all of history, which of course began "with Adam and Eve in the Garden of Eden," and that such signs of civilization they now showed were due to the benevolence of Christian Whites who had dragged them from Africa and cannibalism, thereby plucking as 'brands from the burning' of hell and eternal torment.
"The Christian Africans themselves said 'amen' to this and joined in spreading the doctrine. My Sunday School teacher, an almost unmixed 'negro'[African will be used henceforth), told us that African people were cursed by god and doomed to eternal servitude to White people because "Ham" had laughed at his drunken father, Noah. to clinch his argument, he read to us from the Bible, which we were taught was infallible. Doubt but a single, try to change but a title, and you were doomed to burn in hell forever and ever. The slave-masters and kidnappers had indeed done their work well. They had so incorporated their iniquities with the Christian religion that when you doubted their racism, you were contradicting the Bible and flying in the face of God Almighty.
"As for the devout Christian African who taught us, so great an impression did he make on my mind that I still remember his features and his name though nearly half a century has passed. Of course it was understood that if one had a mixture of "White blood," which was true in my case, one's future was not so entirely hopeless. Still, one could never reach the heights of intelligence and accomplishment of an unmixed white person, for any visible degree of African strain immutably consigned one to be "lower than the angels," that is, the Whites.
"This eternal inferiority included me. However, even at the risk of eternal torture, I could not swallow this sincere, but gullible, tool of the master class was telling me. There was a streak of logic in me that prevented it. I had been told that God was good.Why, then, I asked myself, had he doomed millions and millions of people to such an ignominious fate simply because their 'ancestor' thousands of years ago had laughed at his father because the father had been acting like a pig. Was God so much in favor of drunken fathers?
"I had further more noticed that one of the brightest of my schoolmates were unmixed Africans and some of them were were more brilliant than some of he White ones. The principal of the school, too, was a mulatto. I also saw around me 'black'(African) physicians and lawyers, all graduates of the best English and Scottish universities. It the African strain were inherently inferior, why had these African people been able to accomplish these things and be more advanced than some of the barefooted White adults I knew? Still I did not contradict the Sunday School teacher. I was not supposed to. My business was to swallow what I heard.
"One word of doubt and I would be promptly dubbed an "infidel," which was at bottom worse than being a criminal because a criminal could be saved and go to heaven while special torment in hell, a la Dante, was reserved for deliberate unbelievers.(Bantu Biko addressed the 'fire and brimstone' religion parcelled to Africans in the early days of settlers' colonialism-whereby the Africans were told of hell and burning eternal fires if they did not believe in a God who had wrath to dish out).
"If you did not swallow all the good things the existing order told you, including the yarn about the whale swallowing Jonah, and Moses turning his stick into a snake, you were not only not a good Christian, but also not a good citizen. I distinctly recall two individuals I have been especially taught to look down on: one was a man who used to argue with my father about the miracles of the Bible, which he called "rubbish"; the other was a relative, a light mulatto who had married a 'black' woman. Race, prejudice, religion, and good citizenship went together.
"Of course, the above will seem an exaggeration to many. Well, we cans still find plenty of it in any English-speaking land. Millions of White in the South, what H. L Mencken called "the Bible belt," pin their faith on the Ham story. One thing that I have learned from my travels, especially in civilized lands, is that stupid beliefs and superstition never die no matter how mechanical progress advances.
"Even some of the world's great intellectuals find strength and comfort in the superstitions about race. [B. Berry "names many of the stupid beliefs still held even by many educated people. Especially is tis so in the matter of physiognomy. You will find, he says, some of those listed in Who's Who and American Men Of Science "who will not balk for a moment at the theory that kinky hair and black skin reveal low intelligence and musical temperament and that blond hair and blue eyes reveal intellectual and spiritual excellence."
"Jim Crow and upright Christian living are held to be indivisible by millions of Whites, especially in the United States and the British colonies and dominions ... As I grew older, I revolted more and more at this asininity concocted by the "master race" but I had no books at hand to contradict it, nor knowledge of any kind. To make matters worse, I had from an African friend of mine, a book in which this alleged inherent inferiority was stressed, and which, ironically, had been given to him as first prize for the best essay in which White children had also competed. Years later, to make it still worse, I read Thomas Dixon's The Classman, a highly emotional novel in which all but the Uncle Toms were painted in a most horrible light and which said that if one had but a "drop" of "Negro(African) Blood" he was damned intellectually forever.
"There were also books on Africa, 'darkest Africa," by Stanley, and works of missionaries in which Africans were painted either as faithful dogs or horrible savages. Occasionally, I heard a newly returned missionary from Africa, who, at a Sunday service, would paint a most pitiable picture of what he called the "heathen," and preach how we should all contribute, and put into the collection plate "the feathers that would make the gospel fly."
"Incidentally, when I did go to Africa, I saw natives lived who better than a large number of Whites in Europe, especially in England and Italy, and who, unlike the Whites, could not even read the Bible. As for the poorer Africans, I venture to say that their huts of grass, sticks, and clay were no worse than the slums I saw in the East End of London.
"... But after these experiences, I began to search for some world figures that were of African ancestry. However, There was not a single one to be found, so carefully had they been expurgated by the Masters. Alexander Dumas was one of my favorites, but not a single word was there is his African strain. Literature, religion, education had all been carefully bleached.
"At last I did hear of one great mulatto whose "race" could not be id because I knew people who had seen him, and who was then in the world news-General Antonio Maceo, Cuba's greatest military leader. However,it was not until years later that I found in Chicago a friend who introduced me to books in which I found names of several great men of African ancestry, past and present. In my spare time, and with no thought of writing a book, I began too collect some of these names. That was about 1911.
"About a year later, however, I had a setback from an entirely different quarter. I belonged then to a racial economic group composed of Whites and Africans. When during a discussion at one meeting, I mentioned great Africans and how I had been collecting their names, there was a general howl of disapproval from the Whites and most of the Africans. They called me "chauvinist" and said that I was suffering from an inferiority complex.
"Who were these great Africans I was digging up? Tools of the capitalist order or they wouldn't be in capitalist books. In short,, I was one of the most despicable of all creatures. : an African who was a capitalist hero-worshiper. Furthermore, they said, such work as I was engaged in would be useless when "the industrial revolution" came and color differences mattered no more. That. a true radical would be studying Marx, Engels, and La Fargue, and preparing for the workers' utopia, which was just around the corner.
"With my enthusiasm dampened by this rebuff, I allowed much time to pass without doing any research on great Africans. However, I noticed that books alleging inherent African inferiority continued to appear And Dixon's Clansman had now been made into a flaming attack on Africans in a motion picture, The Birth Of A Nation." All of these, I felt, should be answered not with sentiment, as I noticed certain White friends of the African and Africans themselves were doing in the the Chicago press, but with facts.
"It seemed to me, too, that if the new order was going to be all that my radical friends said it would be, then one of its aims would be not to exclude or ignore the cultures of minorities but to conserve them, as a knowledge of other peoples and their art, literature, and accomplishments helps to produce that variety necessary for a High state of civilization. I decided also that those who were really interested in righting the African's wrongs in a concrete way ought to welcome any knowledge that would equip them with the means of refutation of African inferiority.
"About this time, I also made what was to me an important discovery, namely, that the recital of the deeds of the great or the worthy was instinctive in humanity. I found that all peoples-English, French, Germans, Spaniards, Italians, Americans, Chinese, Jews, Moslems-had lists of their great and noted men. And more than that, even states of the union, cities, and small towns had their list of greats," as well as doctors, scientists, lawyers preachers, engineers, and almost every professional group. Why, even the radicals who had called me a chauvinist had their own heroes whom they were forever extolling and whom they worshiped as blindly as the conservatives did theirs.
"What the radicals really wanted was that I should worship at their own particular shrine, eschewing all others. Moreover, I felt that if I were the victim of an inferiority complex, I certainly had a host of illustrious company dating back to Plutarch with his Lives of Illustrious Greeks and Romans.
"Another thought that decided me to continue my researches was that man's chief knowledge of himself was what has been done by man.; that the good and the evil that others have done were our sole guide through life's wilderness. And was not the recital of great and stirring deeds the most gripping of all dramas? To bring out the best in ourselves (and at times the worst, too0 a study of the lives of the great of all races, ages, and climes, is a necessity. Biography will ever be the highest and most civilizing form of literature. That is why Plutarch is still a best seller after two thousand years.
"As regards "race," a concept that was thrust upon me ) I had never felt otherwise than as a member of the human race), I realize that the further back the African's past could be pushed, the more ridiculous would appear the old slave-holding dogma of African "inferiority." I saw, also, that the White overlords to inflate the ego of their own group had reached back to claim the cola-black Ethiopian, the mulatto Egyptian, the black Hindu, the Negroid Polynesian, not to mention certain individuals of African ancestry such as Aesop, Terence, Cleopatra, and Mohammed, white.
"Later, I saw Mussolini trying to prime his people by telling them of their great Roman past; and Hitler puffing up his by calling them Aryans and claiming that the Ancient Egyptians were really Teutons. In short, African history was only a rebuttal of this braggadocio of the White master. Let me say here that I feel emphatically that any boasting by Africans about their history is just as nauseating. Furthermore, those individuals who work themselves up to a state where they talk as if the deeds of an ancestor were actually done by themselves will probably go no further than that in doing something worthy themselves. One of the world's greatest needs has ever been unboastful, unbiased history.
"I noticed too that there was an urge not only to delve into national and "racial" history, but into individual ancestry also. I thought of the great genealogical societies, of the immense number of books tracing genealogies even here in America, and of the money paid out by the newly-rich and others for a family tree and a coat-of-arms. I was especially struck by one magazine founded in 1809, The Mayflower Descendants. the minutely traced living Americans to the Mayflower, even though such strain after more than 300 years is extremely attenuated. Yes, it does appear that a past is necessary to man as roots to a tree.
"It is undeniable that a knowledge of ones ancestors does have a certain psychological value, especially if such ancestors are worthy. Especially for youths would this be an inspiration. In short, as with almost everything else, ancestry is what you make of it. I reasoned now that since so many other groups and individuals were tracing their past, why should the objection be so strong when the African did so? Was not such objection but another manifestation of the White superiority complex, even in the case of the White economic radicals?
"Something now about the research itself. That was not easy since the story of the contacts of Whites and Africans is usually told from the White angle. to get the material I had to browse through an immense number of books and other printed matter in the libraries of america, Europe, and North Africa, as well as search long and persistently through museums, old bookshops, churches and private collections. I knew for instance, that the Africans had been important in Portuguese history, but I sought in vain, at lest in books of English text, for the name of a single great Portuguese African. It was not until I went to Portugal that I did learn of some.
"This brings me to what is usually meant by "Negro" ancestry. What most scientists and sociologists call a "Negro" (When achievements are being spoken of) is a highly specialized and very 'primitive' type that has been isolated in central Africa or New Guinea for thousands of years, as isolated as were the savages Julius Caesar saw in Britain. Of this type there are, at most, but a million and a half, too few in number to have built up a civilization at any time.When, however, it is a question of what is not very creditable, the African variety is made to include hundred of million of Individuals, some of whom are Nordic in color and features than many Whites
"The Scientists are as divided on who is a "Negro" as he theologians are on who is God. the ethnologists certainly cannot say because ethnology is but a mass of conflicting opinions based on the opinions of observers who were subject to many influences and made pronouncements according to their personal likes and dislikes of this or that people. What ethnology has to say on the alleged inferiority of certain people reminds one of the Haitian proverb, "When the rooster and the cockroach come to court, you don't have to guess which will win." What ethnology needs most is emancipation from an exploiting capitalism-a complete divorce from the slave master's legend of Ham.(Clarke has touched on this above on tis section, when talking about his being indoctrinated in Sunday School and so on).
"As certain individuals who I know positively are of "Negro"(African) ancestry, but are fair enough to "pass" for something else will say that they are of Indian, Spanish, os south american ancestry, so do certain anthropologists in the case of evidently 'negroid'(African) peoples as the Egyptians, Moors, Ethiopians, and some Asiatic and Polynesian peoples, the entire idea in both cases being to duck admission of "Negro")African) ancestry. Even in the case of those paleolithic men whose "Negro"(African) characters were evident they use such phrases as "Proto-Negroid."
"Ones ancestry does not come out of the air. Every "atom" of our ancestry could be accounted for. Many, many millions of individuals over vast centuries-individuals who lived and breathed even as ourselves-built it up as surely as insects build up a coral reef. Had thee been the tiniest break in our ancestral line we could not be the individuals we now are. In fact, we might never have been born at all. No matter how proud one may be of his ancestry, no matter how far back he may trace it to great kings and chiefs who lived, he reaches inevitably a point of obscurity as dark as the darkest depths of the ocean. To talk, therefore, of a "pure" race or a "pure" ancestral line is abysmal ignorance.
Hundreds Of Years Of African Warrior Nationalists Resistance
"For a period of more than a hundred years, AfricanWarrior nationalists, mostly Kings, who had never worn a store-brought shoe or heard of a military school, out-maneuvered and out-generaled some of the finest military minds of europe. they planted the seeds of African independence for another generation to harvest.
Prof. Clarke discusses the biographies of Ethiopia's last golden age to leaders of the resistance movements against the Europeans in the nineteenth and early twentieth century, as to how, in brief, the held off the European invaders and this was transferred down to the later revolutionaries of the 1940s to 1980's revolutionaries who worked just as hard to liberate and give Africa its present post-neo colonial city state as we know of them today. Clarke informs us this way as to the resistance in the 19th and 20th century resistance:
"The southern origins of North African civilizations have been established; here alluding to some proof.
"Sir E. A. Wallis Budge writes: "The prehistoric native of Egypt, both in the Old and New Stone Ages, was an African, and there is every reason for saying that the earliest settlers came from the South." There are many things in the manners and customs and religions of the historic Egyptians that suggest that that the original home of their prehistoric ancestors was in a country in the neighborhood of Uganda and Punt. (The biblical land of Punt was in the area now known as somalia).
"My reason for emphasizing the indigenous southern African origin of the ancient Egyptians, who were equally, "Africans," is based upon historical message extracted from the highly respected "Papyrus of Hunefer" found in the Egyptians' and other Nile Vale indigenous Africans' Book of the Coming Forth by Day and Night;
"We came from the beginning of the Nile where the God Hapi dwells, at the foothills of the mountain of the moon. (Kilimanjaro-between Kenya and Tanzania, or Rwenzori in Uganda).
"The civilization of Egypt lasted longer than any other civilization known to man-about 10,000 years. this civilization reached its height and was in decline before before Europe was born.
"Until near the end of the nineteenth century the African freedom struggle was a military struggle. This aspect of African history has been shamefully neglected. I do not believe the neglect is an accident. Africa's oppressors and Western historians are not ready to concede the fact that Africa has a fighting heritage. the africans did fight back and they fought exceptionally well. This fight extended throughout the whole of the nineteenth century.
"The fight was led, in most cases, by African Kings. The Europeans referred to them as 'chiefs" in order to avoid equating them with European Kings. But they were Kings in the truest sense of the word. Most of them co