Nyamweya is a Kenyan scholar who has done many years of research on a diversity of topics
1.0 Introduction and Background
In the past years, global higher learning has increased. The private higher learning institutions are funded privately while the public higher learning institutions also depend more on the payment of tuition fees rather than the government aid. The private universities, both for-profit and non-profit keep on increasing their enrollment rates hence filling the gap in the marketplace which cannot be met by various governments (Gruber et al, 2010).
Even though government policies on the privatization of higher learning differs from country to country, the private institutions are witnessed to rise and thrive at a higher rate in most countries, for example, In India, Brazil and Southeast Asian countries (Newman et al, 2010). Some countries, for example, India prohibits for-profit higher learning institutions apart from a trust structure, whereas Brazil's regulations are far more lenient when it come to for-profit higher learning education. In spite of the differences in regulation, the global trend is distinct as there is an increase in the demand for the higher learning services (Altbach& Knight 2007).
Deusto University is a private University located in Spain, owned by the Society of Jesus. The mission, vision, and value of Deusto University are linked to the core principles that guide the mission and identity of the Society of Jesus University centers.Thecore mission of DeustoBusinessSchool is to train responsible professionals, capable of promoting and leading sustainable business projects in a global context, towards a more prosperous, fairer and more inclusive society. Deusto has pioneered the training of Business leaders at its two previous faculty departments: La commercial, part of the Bilbao campus since 1916 and ESTE, created in 1956 at the San Sebastain Campus.
At the moment Deusto Business School have seven Master programs:
Table 1.1 Deusto Business School, Programs
Name of the program
Language of the program
Price of the program
Period of the program
Master´s Degree in International Business
Master´s Degree Competitiveness & Innovation
Master´s Degree in European and International Business Management
( English, Spanish, Franch )
One year and a half
Master´s Degree in Management
One year and a half
Master´s Degree in Marketing
Master´s Degree in Human Resources
Master´s Degree in Finance
Internalization is the multinational activities carried out by an institution so as to increase its programs out of the country or to add an international element to its home campus (Altbatch& Knight, 2007).The school's board of directors is made up of members who lead in the economic and business community in Spain. The business school also networks with almost one hundred companies and more than three hundred experts supporting each other in both development and training. The institution has international connections with sixty different countries, and it attracts over 700 students yearly, from all over the world (Johnes& Salas-Velasco, 2007). Deusto is well known for its research activities having around one hundred and fifty research projects done each academic year. In general, Deusto has over 10,000 students enrolled in more than 100 postgraduate courses and 25 degree courses. The university was ranked for its voluminous results as well as productivity during the 2015 rankings of the Spanish University System held by IVIE and BBVA (Lopez-Pastor et al, 2013). When it comes to internationalization, Deusto Business School upholds significant agreements as well as strategic alliances with various best business schools and institutions worldwide. The programs are taught either jointly or intensively using modules conducted at well-known centers abroad. The study seeks to find ways in which Deusto School of Business can attract students from the Middle East as well as North Africa to study master programs at Deusto Business School.
Table 1.2 SWOT ANALYSIS
- Technology & innovation acumen
- Innovative culture
- Quality services
- Strong management
- Unique products
- Weak brand
- Weak marketing strategy
- Lack of scale
- Limited financial capacity
- New markets
- New products
- Emerging markets
- New services
- High level competition
- Mature markets
Description of the Targeted Geographical Area
The Middle East and North Africa form a vast region stretching from the Atlantic Ocean to the Arab- Persian Gulf. Countries found in these two regions share a common identity formation in that they have Islam as their main religion and Arabic as their common language.
Socio Economic context of Middle East and North Africa
This section provides a detailed description of most important economic, demographic and social factors building in many countries of the MENA region for several years.
Countries in the MENA region share several cultural, historical and geographical traits but also many marked differences. MENA economies can be classified in three main groups:
1. Resource rich, labour abundant countries are producers and exporters of oil and gas and have large native populations which represent almost the totality of their residents. This group of countries includes Algeria, Iraq, Syria and Yemen.
2. Resource rich, labour importing countries are producers and exporters of oil and gas and have large shares of foreign or expatriate residents which represent a significant percentage of the total population and even the majority in some cases. This group of countries includes the Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC) members (Bahrain, Kuwait, Oman, Qatar, Saudi Arabia and the UAE) and Libya.
3. Resource poor countries are small producers or importers of oil and gas. These countries comprise Djibouti, Egypt, Jordan, Lebanon, Mauritania, Morocco, Tunisia and the Palestinian Territories (Roderic, 1960).
As used in this report, the term “country” is used mostly to designate a territorial entity for which statistical data are maintained on an independent basis. The term does not necessarily refer in all cases to a state as understood by international law and practice.
2 Based on the World Bank’s denotations of resource-poor, labour-abundant countries; resource-rich, labour-abundant countries; and resource-rich, labour-importing countries
3 Syria is classified by the World Bank as a resource rich, labour abundant country and by the IMF as an oil importing country. This report follows the World Bank’s classification even though Syria’s oil production (at 250 thousand barrels per day) and proven oil reserves (2.5 billion barrels) are low compared to other resource rich countries.
MENA Economic Outlook Database, April 2017:
GDP / U.S. dollars
GDP per Capita / U.S. dollars
Islamic Republic of Iran
United Arab Emirates
Source :World Economic Outlook Database, April 2017
Real GDP growth rate in the MENA region, 2000-2016 Contributions to Real GDP Growth
(annual change, in %) (Percentage change)
Source: OECD Economic Outlook - January 2015;Source: Country authorities and IMF.
IMF Regional Economic Outlook: Middle East
and Central Asia.
Middle East and North Africa Forecasts
(annual% change unless indicated otherwise) Est. Forecast
GDP at market prices (2010 US$)
Egypt, Arab Rep.
Fiscal year basis (Egypt)
Iran, Islamic Rep.
United Arab Emirates
Source: World Bank.
According to the above economic statistics, we currently see the best market to target in Gulf countries, Lebanon and Jordan.
Education system in Middle East and North Africa
Most of the universities in Middle East and North Africa offer Master´s programs in MBA, Finance, Management, International Business and Accounting and those programs taught in English and the duration and fees of the study differ from the university to other university. Some examples are shown in the table below:
Name of the master program
Name of the university
Location of the University or College
Language of the program
Price of the program
Period of the program
Masters in Finance (MFIN)
American University of Beirut
Hult International Business School
UAE - Dubai
Master of International Business (MIB)
Hult International Business School
UAE - Dubai
Master of International Marketing (MIM)
Hult International Business School
UAE - Dubai
University of Northampton
United Arab Emirates
18 - 60 months
Strathclyde Business School
Sultan Qaboos University
MSc in Management
Cass Business School, City University
ESA Business School- ECOLE SUPÉRIEURE DES AFFAIRES
MSc in Banking and International Finance
Cass Business School, City University
Master in International Business and Languages
Paris-Sorbonne University Abu Dhabi
12 month -24 month
Master of Global Business (MGB)
SP Jain GlobalSchool OfManagement
Executive Master of Business Administration
University of Wollongong in Dubai
Master of Professional Accounting
Courtesy of (masterstudies.com)https://www.masterstudies.com/Masters-Degree/Business-Studies/Middle-East/
IE University is among the top private universities in Spain. It has campuses in Madrid, Leon, Castile, and Segovia and many other parts of the Middle East. Its programs are offered in Spain and English and comply with the standards of the European Higher Education Area. The institution has a very active student life because of the various activities organized by the university such as clubs, outings, rallies, science contests etc and campus residence. Students are allowed to choose whether to reside in the campuses or hire their own houses (ie University, 2017).
The IE is one of the universities that have been able to record a significant level of success in the Middle East. The source of this immense success has been attributed to partnership with the local public and private institutions of higher learning in academic, social and cultural aspects. For example, the institution has been cooperating with King AbdulAziz University in organizing competitions by SCIEF. This provides an opportunity to connect with the academic and business community, investors and other stakeholders with financial innovation approaches (Earrison, 2016). Consequently, the image of the institutions within these stakeholders is enhanced thus also boosting the awareness of potential clients.
ESADE Business School is a graduate college in Barcelona, Spain. The university is part of ESADE has programs mainly in Spanish and is associated with LIull University. The school has also campuses in Buenos Aires, and Madrid and other parts of the Middle East. The institution adheres to a teaching approach which is based on the development of managerial and professional skills. The school is among the best globally and the Wall Street Journal listed it as the world’s best business school in 2007. Likewise, the Financial Times ranked it as the best 3 among 80 top business schools in the world in 2013 (Esade, 2017).
The ESADE Business School segment has also been able to achieve success in the Middle East due to a number of factors. Analysis reveals that the institutions offers scholarship awards to high performing candidates who wants to study MBA programs. Funds for these scholarships are made possible from school’s funds, alumni contribution and donations from well-wishers. The aim is to identify and motivate talented candidates to apply to ESADE (ESADE, 2017).
The Escuela de Administración de Empresas (EAE Business School) is an international institution of higher learning which specializes in management. The college has over 50 years of history and operates as a business school. Currently, the college has campuses located in Madrid, Barcelona, Peru, Mexio, Colombia and parts of Middle East. The school has links in Latin America where it runs cultural, academic and professional exchange programs with other business and academic institutions.
The institution, which has also been highly successful in the Middle East has partnered with more than 100 local and international institutions of higher learning and business schools in over 25 nations across the world. Furthermore, the college has more than 3,500 partnership agreements with international and national companies, enabling them to arrange employment for students and internship opportunities for them. This makes the university to be quite popular among the students who are assured of employment and internship opportunities once they graduate (topmba.com, 2017).
1.1 Statement of the problem
Taking into consideration the global competition of high quality and decent higher learning institutions, and at this time facing constraints from governmental funding because of the financial crisis experienced across many countries, most universities have not been able to face the challenge and advocate for a cross institutional approach to advance the multidisciplinary education and research project. Therefore, there is a need to increase internationalization by taking into account the legal processes required and making it possible to admit foreign students into the universities.
Table 1.2 presents statistics of students from Gulf nations studying master programs abroad in 2012 to 2014
a) Middle Eastern Students in the United States
Middle Eastern Students in the US
Based on data from Open Doors 2014, IIE
Country of origin
b) International students in the United Kingdom
International Students in the UK
Based on data from the HESA Student Record
Region of domicile
Other European Union (EU) countries
C) Middle Eastern Students Abroad
Middle Eastern Students Abroad
Based on UNESCO data (2012)
Country of origin
Number of students abroad
% of all mobile students
Top destination countries
US (33,066); UK (9,773); Australia (5,392); Jordan (3,295); Canada (3,168)
Malaysia (8,170); US (6,763); UK (3,372); UAE (3,167); Italy (2,975)
Saudi Arabia (6,627); UAE (4,360); Jordan (1,990); France (1,828); Germany (1,570)
Jordan (7,337); UAE (3,875); Saudi Arabia (3,687); Qatar (840); Malaysia (376)
UAE (4,604); Saudi Arabia (3,453); US (1,997); Ukraine (1,943); UK (1,394)
Saudi Arabia (7,610); Malaysia (3,090); UAE (2,223); Jordan (843); Qatar (694)
Jordan (2,959); UAE (2,386); Malaysia (1,782); UK (1,251); India (957)
Jordan (2,876); US (2,412); Italy (1,619); Germany (1,533); Republic of Moldova (1,433)
France (4,567); UAE (1,326); US (1,308); Saudi Arabia (1,189); Italy (793)
US (3,605); UK (1,816); Jordan (1,722); UAE (1,053); Saudi Arabia (671)
United Arab Emirates (5,258); UK (1,202); Jordan (1,079); US (521)
United Arab Emirates
UK (3,089); US (2,031); Australia (1,133); India (748); Canada (255)
UK (1,112); Jordan (673); UAE (535)
UK (1,252); US (948); UAE (434)
This study seeks to determine the ways of attracting students from the Middle East and North Africa to pursue their Master programs at Deusto Business School.
1.2 Significance of the Study
The study will be important to the higher learning institutions which seek globalization as the findings from the study will be able to provide a competitive advantage to such institutions over their competitors and raise their share in the market. The study is also important as it analyses the relationships between an increase in the number of students in the institutions with various factors such as advertisement of the institution's programs, the language used in the institutions and the prices of the programs offered by the institution. The findings from the study will also guide the institution's management in formulating policies which will give a positive feedback after implementation.According to (Brown, 2010) education empowers people, affects the economic progress of a nation as well as enriches its democratic ideal. This study will, therefore, assist not only the students from various countries, but it will also help their country at large. Finally, the study is an important addition to the existing literature in its attempt to describe the appropriate marketing techniques for higher learning institutions.
The main purpose of this research proposal is to increase the number of students who will undertake their Masters Program at Deusto business school. This paper would also like to explore the possible ways to target students from North Africa and the Middle East due to perceived potential in those areas. Besides, the study will look at how the following factors; advertisement, language used to teach programs and the prices of programs offered in the institutions have an effect on the students choice to enroll in an institution.
1.4 Research questions
The study seeks to obtain responses to the following questions:
1. Is there a relationship between the type of advertisement used and the number of students enrolling at Deusto Business School?
2.Is there a relationship between the Language used for the programs and the number of students enrolling at Deusto Business School?
3. Is there a relationship between the price of the programs and the number of students enrolling at Deusto Business School?
Hypotheses of the study
- There is no relationship between the need to increase the number of students from the Middle East and North Africa students and the advertisements of the institution's programs.
- There exists a relationship between the need to increase students from the Middle East and North Africa students and the advertisements of the programs.
- There is no relationship between the need to increase the number of students from the Middle East and North Africa students and the language used for programs in the institution.
- There exists a relationship between the need to increase the number of students from the Middle East and North Africa students and the language used in the institution.
- There is no relationship between the need to increase the number of students from the Middle East and North Africa students and the prices of programs offered in the institution.
- There exists a relationship between the need to increase Middle East and North Africa students and the prices of the programs offered.
The theory surrounding the subject is marketing theory. The application of marketing theory in higher learning institutions offers a possible solution to enhance the system's effectiveness and efficiency. The role of marketing is analyzed both from the services and social outlook so as to explain its use to individuals, the institutions of higher education and the community at large. According to the nature of education services, the higher learning institutions are encouraged to utilize a collection of seven marketing mix tools in designing their market relationship an integrated manner (Ho & Hung, 2008). The seven marketing mix tools include; program, price, place, promotion, processes, physical facilities, and people. Marketing mix theory gained popularity in the world of academics in 1964 the publication of its article by Neil Borden "The concept of the marketing mix." The premiere version of the mix contained a variety of components including, program, place, price, process, promotion, people and physical facilities (Nicolescu, 2009).These seven components were later categorized by McCarthy to form the four main components widely known as the 4Ps (Nicolescu, 2009). The 4Ps include; price, product, place, and promotion. The 4P enables the managers in different institutions to take charge of both external and internal business environment constraints. Higher learning marketing strategies mostly begin with identifying the needs of the consumer concerning the type of programs offered and the structure (Nicolescu, 2009). The identity of a university is based on the quality and nature of its learning programs and the level of variation in relation to what other academic institutions offer (Maringe& Gibbs 2008). When the product element is applied in Deusto Business School, the focus will be on its rank compared to other institutions, its academic performance as well as the quality of services it offers. Since educational services areexperiences, the distinguishing factor can be determined by program attendance. In higher learning price is usually connected to tuition fees which are a necessary source of revenue for many universities. The application of price element in Deusto Business School will be the amount charged for the offered programs. The place element is associated with the accessibility and availability of the institution regarding the geographical distribution and time of learning and teaching. The place element focuses on the accessibility of Deusto Business School to its target population. Promotion is utilized to preserve a constant dialogue with the employers, professors, students and other pertinent stakeholders. Process refers to the way events occur in an institution, for example; management process, teaching process, and sporting activities. Physical facilities aids to enhance the institution’s tangibility and it involve every component associated with the technical infrastructure, buildings, equipment, course books and more.
2.0 Literature Review
2.1 Relationship between increasing the number of students and advertisement programs
There are various definitions of advertising in today's world. It is important to recognize that the definitions, as well as the practices, have evolved over the years; in 1923, Starch defined advertisement as the "selling in print" (Flew, 2007). His definition was narrowed to the print media because at that time the only available media was the print media. Other forms of media did not exist at that time. The definition was then changed by various authors who perceived advertisement from its functional outlook hence referred to it as a paid, public communication which utilizes a variety of media by non-profit organizations, business firms and persons who are in various ways recognized in the advertising message and who look forward to persuade and inform members of a specific audience (Ivy, 2008). The main purpose of advertising is to make known the availability of an idea, product or services on offer to the target population. An advertisement is meant to have an influence on the target populations' attitude, awareness as well as buying behavior. Private institutions of higher learning, therefore, advertise to build the awareness of their potential customers, the students together with their parents about the academic programs being offered in the institutions (Healey, 2008). The advertisement also seeks to persuade the students and to inform them about various benefits they would acquire from when they enroll in that particular institution. Such actions are meant to make the student avoid enrolling in other institutions which offer the same courses. According to (Flew, 2007) both radio and television advertising have provided evidence to be specifically effecting in assisting the higher learning institutions to build their image as well as visibility, particularly in individual geographical areas. A survey carried out by (Gruber et al, 2010) on the overview of current marketing programs by the institutions of higher learning revealed that most of the majority of the institutions utilize multimedia for advertising through the direct mail, print media, outdoor banners, posters and billboard, email advertising as well as online advertisements to make their institutions and their programs known to the target population. For colleges and universities to stand out so as to attract a lot of students in their institutions, they need to employ various advertisements methods to be able to quickly reach the target population (Flew, 2007). Most students do not know the institutions they want to learn in, and so they begin online searching using a non-branded term (Brown, 2010). A lot of students utilize social media platforms to search for school choices, and a large percentage of social media users get influenced by the decisions they make. Other students look at the school's website to get to know the various programs offered by the institution. The use of social media and school website to gather information about a learning institution is more accessible to students since they use their mobile devices which nearly all students own in this era (Bok, 2009). Therefore, it is important to consider where to put the advertisement so as to attract the target population. Use of websites and social media is effective and efficient as the information reaches a huge number of people within a short duration of time (Friesen & Lowe, 2012). On the other hand, using magazines and fliers will only reach a limited population, and it is also not effective.
2.2 Relationship between Higher Education Marketing and Language used For Programs
During the marketing process, language is one critical factor which should be considered. There is need to collaborate with language schools so as to utilize multi-language content to enhance effectiveness and efficiency. The use of multi-language during marketing helps to reach a diverse audience globally (Altbach& Knight 2007). Besides, utilization of multi-language helps to produce more and high-quality inquiries from students, using different languages to advertise also makes the institution to be ranked high on the search engines. The use of a variety of language helps to access international students, and it also enhances the participation on the social media networks (Varghese, 2008). On the other hand use of a particular language will rule out those who do not understand that particular language and hence they will search for other institutions which can incorporate them. Communication is very vital in all organizations as it makes the members of the organization feel like they own the organization and besides it also helps in the interaction between the members (Varghese, 2008). Therefore, if an institution advertises its programs in multi- languages and teaches in different languages, it will increase its chances to attract more students.
2.3 Relationship between Higher Education Marketing and Prices
When looking for schools, the price of tuition fee is one factor considered by many. Everyone wants to receive quality services but at a less costly price.Despite the fact that lower prices have a high potential to encourage lower income students to enroll in a university, such prices may also act as an indication that the education offered in a certain institution is of lower standards and hence discourage other potential students who are in need of a higher quality education (Ivy, 2008).
A high price combined with infrastructures of high quality as well as highly skilled faculty members is bound to result in high-quality outlook on the part of the rating agencies and the students (Healey, 2008). On the other hand, trials to increase the price without an equivalent increase in the perceived quality on the side of the potential students may lead to a situation of elastic demand where the increase in price will result in a significant decrease in the demand for education in that particular institution, thus resulting in a dramatic decrease in revenue (Wilkins et al, 2013).
Nowadays many people go into the public higher education as the fee burden is subsidized by some amount paid by the government through the ministry of education and also the students are granted loans which enable them to meet their school fee needs. Higher learning institutions which demand costly tuition fees are likely to eliminate most of the students who desire to study in those institutions yet are incapable of meeting the required costs (Gruber et al, 2010). Students put the pricing of higher education into consideration before enrolling in an institution. Usually, a higher price is seen as an indicator of quality, but only when it comes along other measures of quality. Therefore, a higher learning institution which intends to gain a higher quality reputation must not only increase the prices but should first consider raising the quality of the faculty members, the infrastructure and other noticeable measures of quality (Ivy, 2008).
To achieve a sustainable competitive advantage, the institution's management should be able to come up with favorable fee structure which would benefit both the institution and the students. According to the study carried out by (Wilkins et al, 2013), they suggested that the attendance of both college and universities was more dependent the social class as well as the level of education of the parent than the price of enrolling in the institution. In these studies, the price of the programs offered in an institution was not viewed as the main determining factor of choice. Other aspects such as the supposed quality must have had an influence in the student’s criteria of choice.
This chapter contains information about the research design, sampling methods, data collection instruments and how the data will be analyzed. A research design is a structure that has been produced toassist in finding the solutions to the research question (Creswell, 2013).The study type, in this case, is a descriptive study. Under this study design, the research is a case study and a survey; it is a case study because the case that is being studied here is the learning institution, the Deusto Business School.The strengths of case study research include; the capability to obtain a lot of details and the case studies can assist the researcher to get used to ideas and come up with hypotheses that can be tested later. The weaknesses of case study in this research are that the data gathered cannot be generalized to the rest of the population. A case study is also bound to information bias as they are done on an individual or company. The study is also a survey because there will be a sample of the population included in the research study who will give information using various tools such as interviews. The research is also a survey study because it focuses on marketing research survey. Marketing research survey is the systematic collection, entering and analyzing of both quantitative and qualitative data on matters related to the marketing of both products and services (Ritchie et al, 2013). The advantages of a survey study are; high capabilities to represent a large population, survey studies are less costly, and they are of good significance in statistics. The disadvantages of survey studies are; surveys are not appropriate for conducting issues which are controversial in nature, there is a possibility of having inappropriate questions in surveys, and lastly, the survey design is inflexible and cannot be changed throughout the data collection process (Yin, 2013).
The research illustrated in this paper is based totally on qualitative research methods. During data gathering, the choice and design of methods are constantly modified based on ongoing analysis. Interviews were carried out among the current students and the alumni students to ascertain areas or strategies that had given them competitive advantage/disadvantage. The study employed the use of the qualitative approach to get the answers to the research questions. A qualitative research helps to have an understanding of fundamental reasons and opinions (Gill et al, 2008). Qualitative research provides a view of the problem and helps to come up with ideas or hypotheses for a possible quantitative research. Qualitative data collection methods vary independently of unstructured and semi-structured techniques (Palinkas et al, 2015). This research employed the following methods for qualitative data collection. There were individual interviews conducted with those students who gave consent to participate in the interview; the study also conducted a focus group discussions with a sample of the management members of the institution. Also, there were designed questionnaires which were distributed to the selected sample which includes the alumni and current students of the college. The questionnaire contained three sections whereby in the first section respondents were required to give their demographic information while the other sections encompassed the research questions. The inclusion of one's name was meant to be optional, and the other two sections contained questions on the subject, market entry strategy for attracting students from the Middle East and North Africa.
All individuals who gave consent to participate in the study were included. However, those individuals who did not consent to participate were excluded from the study. The study site was the institution of higher learning (Deusto) which has a very large population, and only a sample of the population was obtained to participate in the study.The study sample contained 6 students where 3 were female (A, D and E) and 3 male (B, C, and F). Out of the 6, 3 of them were current students, students AB and C while the other 3 were alumni, students DE and F. Students A and D enrolled for Master's Degree in International Business, students B and E enrolled for Master's Degree in Competitiveness and Innovation, and students C and F enrolled for Master's Degree in European and International Business Management. 4 of the chosen sample, students A, B, D, and F were international students while students C and E were native students. This sample was obtained using the simple random sampling technique.
The analyzed data utilized content analysis. Content analysis critically observes the degree of strength with which specific words have been used (Vaismoradi et al, 2013). It is a method used for making assumptions and conclusions by objectively and systematically establishing the characteristics of information and using the same to make a correlation to trends. Content analysis systematically explains the content or form and spoken material (Kripperndorff, 2012). According to (Elo&Kyngas, 2008), content analysis entails the analysis of the content of documentary materials for such as magazines, books, newspapers as well as the contents of various other verbal materials that can be either printed or spoken. It is a method for coming up with inferences by objectively and systematically identifying a particular trait of a message and utilizing the same trait to relate to the trends.
Ethics in research entails a study in which human participants give information on unique and complex legal, social, ethical and political issues (Kaiser, 2009). Research ethics are particularly concerned with analyzing the ethical issues brought up when people are engaged to contribute in research (Richie et al, 2013). The aim of research ethics is to guard the participant and to ensure that the research is carried out in a manner that it serves the welfare of the person. The intention of the study was clearly explained to each respondent. Confidentiality and privacy of the information obtained were assured. The respondents were given an alternative to include the names or not. The permission to carry out the study was sought from the institution's management and other relevant authorities. The information obtained during the study will be used to enhance the marketing skills of the Deusto University.
4.0 Data Analysis and Interpretation
This chapter presents the analysis of data, interpretations as well as the discussions of the findings from the research study. The purpose of the study was to increase the number of students from the Middle East and North Africa who will undertake their Master's program in Deusto Business School . The study also determined how various factors such as advertising, language, and price affect the students' entry into the universities. Primary data was collected from the six students who were obtained as samples. Secondary data was also utilized to second the data from the interview.
Relationship between attracting students and advertising programs
One of the intentions of this study was to determine the relationship between attracting students from the Middle East and North Africa and the advertising programs used. The information was collected through the interview guide and student A, B, D and F confirmed having known about the institution through the internet and various platforms of the social media. The four students are international students, and that is why they had to use the search engines to find the institutions of their choice. The other two students, students C and E were native students and had heard information about the school plus the offered programs from the television and radio announcements. Student A said thought that the institution was working hard in terms of creating awareness. Student C revealed that the announcement on the radio and television were made in Spanish. Student E confirmed that even after having information about the school from television and radio advertisement, she still went further to the website of the school to gather more information, for example, the position of the school compared to other institutions, the school's culture and more. Students A, B, D, F, and E confirmed using the universities’ website to get to know more on their potential learning institution. In the websites information on the mission and vision of the institution is found as well as other historical information concerning the university. Student D, pointed out that there is a need for Deustoto initiate bilateral agreements or fairs with other institutions of higher learning across the world in order to popularize its image. The website also contains information on various programs offered by the university and also the performance of the university as a whole and its position when ranked to various other universities. Apart from the website, students A, B and F reported the use of social media services and they specifically mentioned twitter and Facebook to get to know if the institution has discussions on such platforms. Apart from getting to hear about the institution from the radio and television, Student C also reported knowing about the institution through the newspaper which is a form of traditional methods of advertising. Other traditional methods of advertising are the use of notices, fliers, and magazines. Marketing strategy begins with identification of the market. In this case, the market comprises of youths, and nowadays majority, almost all of the youths have access to internet services as well as social media platforms. Many of the potential students to higher learning institutions are already passionate users of the technology (Bok, 2009). This is a call for the universities’ admission offices to meet their target audience online. About ninety-five percent of university admissions offices utilize at least one form of social media (Maringe& Gibbs, 2008). A study of social media adoption conducted by (Friesen & Lowe, 2012) confirmed that admissions and recruiting department greatly depend on social media platforms to communicate with younger people. Facebook and Twitter are among the common social media platforms used by many youths all over the world. Traditional marketing methods were disadvantaged since they only facilitated one-way communication. Social media, on the other hand, provides institutions with the opportunity to engage in two-way interaction with audiences. Taking note of communication, social media has the ability to ensure effective dialogue among groups of people who would not be conversing with each other easily (Bok, 2009). This group of people includes parents, both current and prospective students, and the alumni. The utility of social media is also effective and efficient as it reaches a large number of the population within a short time. Students A, B, and E also reported that they were attracted to enroll in Deusto Business School by the institution's buildings which are displayed on the website. From the findings given by these student samples, it is evident that the internet through the website and social media play a major role in influencing a student’s choice of enrolling in an institution. The findings reveal that although one has access to information of an institution through traditional ways, the modern ways serve a great purpose to inform an individual further as they offer room for discussions. Even though social media greatly differs from the previous marketing tools used by higher education institutions, it exhibits a great possibility to be one of the most effective mechanisms to engage students, increase enrollment as well as retention and above all establish the basis upon which strong alumni relations exist (Flew, 2007).
Relationship between attracting students and the language used for programs
The study also sought to determine from the respondents if the language used to teach various programs in the institutions influenced their choice of enrollment. All the students confirmed putting language used to teach programs into consideration before enrolling in the institution. DeustoBusiness School only offers two programs in English, that is, Master’s degree in International Business and Master’s degree in competitiveness and innovation. Students A, D, B, and E, confirmed undertaking the two courses because they could understand English very well. On the other hand, those who wanted to pursue either of the two programs and did not understand English had to make decisions between changing the program to the one whose language they could understand and enroll in other institutions of learning. There is only one program, master’s degree in European and International Business Management that is taught in trilingual. Students C and F confirmed undertaking this program since they both had an understanding of one of the three languages used in teaching the program. Where, student E who is aInternational student complained of his desire to want to enroll for Master's Degree in Management; he could not enroll in the program because it is taught in Spanish only. The student was then forced to choose Master's Degree in competitiveness & Innovation since the program is taught in English, one of which he perfectly understands. Student C confirmed his dissatisfaction due to lack of adequate language diversity in the institution. Other students who seconded him in expressing lack of language diversity in the institution are students A,B,D and E whose programs were taught in non-other language than English. Student F, an international student, commended the institution for having its programs advertised using various languages that is English and Spanish. Students A, B, and D, however, revealed that the languages used for advertising the institution's programs are not sufficient enough to attract more international students, especially those from the Middle East and North Africa. Apart from only advertising in multi-language, the three students suggested that the institution should also offer its programs in multi-language so as to accommodate diverse students all over the world. Deusto Business School markets its program mainly two program full English and rest of program in Spanish. This already rules out its target population from the Middle East and North Africa. The findings from the study revealed that the advertisement strategies are not very effective and that they should be enhanced so as to attract a diversity of students.
Also, International students cannot avoid the cultural shock they experience when they study in a foreign country (Varghese, 2008). International students experience difficulties not only in the classroom but also in their social life (Varghese, 2008). They get isolated by classmates and besides, get surprised by the native people's culture, beliefs, and values. Students A, B, D, and F who were the international students explained their experience in the institution. They all felt difficult to adapt their self, they could not relate to the new culture, they were forced to adjust to the communication patterns, symbols and signs of social contact as well as relationship patterns that the native community is used to.
Also, the findings reported that the language diversification in the institution is not sufficient enough to attract students from other parts of the world. Student F reported satisfaction from undertaking his course in DeustoBusiness School. Students A, C, D, and F were least satisfied, and Student E was totally dissatisfied due to the culture shock. Those who were disappointed probably had the problem of adjusting due to the dislike of the native people's way of life (Varghese, 2008). These groups of students also had an inherent trait of being conservative and had too much love for their own culture. Those who were least satisfied, with their experience in the institution like students A, C, D, and F complained of low retention rates in the institution as the institution lost students to other universities. Some of the students who shifted to other schools could have probably been their friends, and no one feels good being separated from his or her friends.
Relationship between attracting students and the price of programs offered
The research also aimed at determining the relationship between attracting students to enroll in Deusto University and the price at which the university’s programs are offered. All the respondents confirmed looking at the price of the programs offered in the institutions. Students only enroll in institutions which their parents and guardians are able to afford. Besides, everyone wants to get quality services at a lower cost. Students A, D and E reported looking at the financial support offered by the university.
Since Deusto University is a private institution, the tuition fee was supposed to be met fully by the student; there is no financial aid which comes from the institution. One of the international students, student D who is also an alumnus, confirmed having been sponsored throughout her learning in the university because she could barely afford the required tuition fees. If it were not for the aid given to him by the sponsor, student D could never have studied in DeustoBusiness School . Also, student A revealed looking at the tuition fee and coming up with her assumptions of the quality of education offered in Deusto. She confirmed having perceived the education in the institution as one which is of high quality considering the fact that the pricing was quite high. She further explained that her perception alongside other factors made her enroll in the university. While student A felt that Deusto University offered quality education.They even made it clear that the tuition fee charged by the institution did not correspond to the quality of education offered. This was confirmed by student C who said that it would be better to raise price it if all meant better and quality services. He said, “the price is not at all important if you can find a place to study with all the necessary services”. Student B even mentioned, without giving names that some lectures never worked hard to ensure completion of the syllabus on time while others always came to class late and with no apologies. This was supported by all the other students. Student B felt that the institution did not treat the students fairly. Student F also confirmed his perception of higher quality education offered in the institution by looking at the price of the programs. Student E who wanted to undertake Master’s Degree in Management but could not due to the language factor was forced to study in the same institution and undertake a different program because to him the prices of the programs were quite friendly as compared to other institutions. The findings, therefore, confirmed that the price of the offered programs is an important factor considered by students when choosing to enroll in an institution. Public universities have the advantage of assisting their students’ financial needs through the support given by the government (Ivy, 2008). The study's main aim is to attract students from the Middle East and North Africa. The two areas are known for not being rich in terms of the economy. This means that majority of people in these areas range in the middle class. Financial support, in terms of school fees, will then be a requirement for most students coming from these areas so that they may be able to enroll in the institution.
This chapter presents the conclusions drawn from the findings of the study as well as the recommendations to help solve the problem. The study aimed at finding ways to attract students from the Middle East and North Africa to undertake their master’s studies in the Deusto Business School. According to the verdicts of the study, the following conclusions were drawn based on the objectives of the study.
The study found out that the methods used to advertise programs offered in an institution influences choice on whether to enroll in an institution or not. There are two categories of advertisement; the traditional methods of advertising and the modern methods of advertising. The traditional methods of advertising involve the use of the print media only. Advertisements tools in traditional method were posters, magazines, fliers, and newspapers. The study found out that the traditional methods of advertising programs only enabled a one-way communication. Modern methods of advertising involve the use of internet through the websites, social media platforms and radio and television advertisements. The modern methods of advertising, especially the use of social media and website have the advantage of involving the participants in a two-way communication (Flew, 2007). The participants are able to discuss and make inquiries unlike in the traditional methods. The study found out that most of the youths nowadays have access to the internet and social media through the use of their mobile phones. The target of the study was to attract students to enroll in Deusto Business School, most students if not all range within the youth age. The study found out that DeustoBusiness School does not utilize effective advertising strategies to attract its target population based on the following findings. The study discovered that most potential students have access to social media and therefore in order to attract them to an institution, the institution had to employ the modern methods of advertising especially the social media where they can engage in discussions with the students and even answer their questions. Also, the study found out that in order to attract international students to enroll in an institution, the institution had to ensure that the advertisement programs utilize multi-language for example; using the Arabic language would attract the students from both Middle East and North Africa since the people living in these areas are mainly Arabic speakers. The use of a variety of language in advertising would help the institution to be highly positioned in the search engines as well as encourage high-quality inquiries from the potential students. The study discovered that advertising in multi-language would further enhance social media participation among international students and enhance the chances of them enrolling in the institution. The study further found out that so as to attract international student, like in this case students from the Middle East and North Africa, the advertisements should incorporate some cultural aspects of the target population to make them feel recognized and appreciated. This act would further increase their possibility of enrolling in the institution.
The study also found out that the enrollment choice of a student is also influenced by the language used to teach programs in the institution as well as the language used for advertising programs offered by the institution. The findings from the study revealed that Deusto Business School does not employ adequate language diversification. DeustoBusiness School offers seven master’s degree programs out of which two are taught in pure English and one in trilingual and the rest in Spanish .This makes the institution record a low number of international students. The study found out that having programs in multi-language will enhance the number of international students who enroll in an institution. Also, the study discovered that the use of a particular language rules out a good number of potential students from enrolling in an institution. The study found out that language influences the interaction process of students and most international students who fail to understand the native language feel isolated. Also, language affects the academic performance of the student, and therefore students choose to enroll in institutions which utilize the language that they can correctly understand so that they may be able to perform well (Wilkins et, al 2013). The study also found out that international students suffer culture shock and they have problem adjusting so as to fit in the native’s culture. The study found the need for higher learning institutions to embrace diversity in all aspects to be able to attract a large number of potential students globally. The study further found out that high rate of student turnover is experienced in institutions which lack language diversification. This is because the student feels dissatisfied and decides to seek other institutions.
The study also found out that most students consider the prices charged on programs before enrolling. In higher education, the price is in terms of tuition fees paid by the student to be able to learn in an institution. The study found out that the price of the programs offered by Deusto Business School was not adequate to attract students from the Middle East and North Africa to enroll in the institution. Most nations in the Middle East and North Africa are ranked between second and third class countries. This shows that majority of the population in these countries fall in the middle class. Therefore, in order to attract a good number of students from these countries, the institution should ensure that programs are put in place to help subsidize the tuition fees of the students. The study found out that most students get attracted to enroll in institutions which offer their programs at an affordable price. The study also discovered that students relate the price factor to the level of quality offered by the institution. An institution which has its programs offered at a lower price is likely to be viewed as giving low-quality education. This kind of perception is bound to rule out a lot of students who would like to acquire high-quality education. The study also found out that an institution which offers its programs at an expensive price is likely to be viewed as one that offers high-quality education. Such an institution also has the potential of losing a good number of prospective students who cannot be able to meet the required school fee. Also, the study found out that students seek to find if the potential learning institutions offer financial assistance to help them reduce the burden on tuition fee. The study found out that most public institutions offer loans to students as well as pay a certain amount of their tuition fee to reduce the fee burden. In private institution, a student has to pay all the school fee individually unless the person has a private sponsor. The study found out that an institution which offers its program at a higher price is expected to have high-quality faculty members, sufficient and quality resources for example books and classrooms and above all provide high-quality education. An institution which has plans to increase the fee for programs so that it could be perceived as a high-quality institution should first of all work hard on improving its infrastructure; acquire highly skilled faculty members and other quality indicators considered by the students (Ivy, 2008 ). The study found out that if an institution increases the amount of fee without a corresponding increase in the quality of other indicators, then there will be stretchy demands whereby the institution will report a decrease in education demand hence decrease in revenue. The study also found out from the review of other literature that the price of the programs offered by an institution of higher learning is not perceived as the primary determining factor of one's choice to enroll in an institution. Various aspects such as the perceived quality ought to have an influence in the decisive factor of a student.
In respect to the conclusions made from the research study, it is evident that Deusto Business School utilizes inadequate marketing strategies to attract its target population, that is, students from the Middle East and North Africa. Therefore, various actions should be put in place by the institution so as to enable it to acquire more international students. The following are recommendations to help DeustoBusiness School to attract and retain more international students especially from the Middle East and North Africa.
v DeustoBusiness School could be able to combine both traditional methods of advertisement use of the print media only such posters, magazines, fliers, and newspapers and the modern methods of advertisements use of internet through the websites, social media platforms and radio and television advertisements so that the advertisement can be able to reach a large number of the target population. Combining the two methods help to ensure the efficacy of the advertising program (Bok, 2009).
v Deusto Business School should ensure that the advertisements reach the public using multiple languages. This will attract a lot of potential students for example; in the Middle East and North Africa, they should have the advertisements in the Arabic language. This will help to create a feeling of appreciation among the target group (Friesen & Lowe, 2012).
v DeustoBusiness School could recognize the fact that the world is changing and currently social media platforms are being utilized by many youths to acquire different kinds of information. The institution should, therefore, employ extensive use of social media platforms such as Facebook and Twitter to advertise its programs (Flew, 2007).I suggest opening New Facebook and twittering special for Middle East and North Africa Students.
v Apart from mentioning the mission and how the university is ranked compared to other institutions in the website, DeustoBusiness School could have images of its infrastructure put on the website to help attract students. Pictures of the library, classes, and even Housing would serve as an attraction for potential students to study in the institution (Nicolescu, 2009).
v The institution could also ensure that various aspects of culture are included in the advertisement to attract the target group, create a sense of appreciation of their culture as well as make them feel at home (Bok, 2009). For example the advertisement can mention that the institution has a mosque where Muslim learners can pray and we have culture celebration day for International students.
v Deusto Business School could embrace language diversification by recruiting employees who speak diverse languages. The institution should also ensure that it enrolls students who speak a variety of languages.
v Deusto BusinessSchool could initiate another English program as soon as possible. My suggestion in this isa master´s degree in management because it is desirable especially in the Middle East and North Africa. The institution should then set up plans to open another programs in English according as per its financial capability.
v The institution could also ensure that it offers quality services so that it may be recognized as a highly reputable institution (Healey, 2008). This can be accomplished by making sure that the faculty members are highly skilled and ensuring that the resources such as books and classrooms are adequate and in a good state.
v Deusto could provide special accommodation near the University campus for students and separate the accommodation so thatthere separate housing for girls only and private housing for boys. This accommodation should be under the supervision of the University with reasonable and acceptable prices. This way, it will be able to attract a large number of student from Middle East and North Africa more particularly girls. This will also be good for girls since as per our culture, girls should not be mixed with boys.
v Deusto Business School could consider providing free Spanish language courses for students from Middle East and North Africa so that they can find it easy to live among the Spanish society.
v Deusto could partner with the universities and Ministries of higher education in Middle East and North Africa and sign agreements with them to attract students by them.
v Deusto could participate in exhibitions of institutions of higher education held in Middle East and North Africa to promote the programs.
v The institution should also have a written procedure for faculty members as well as regular assessment of faculty members so as to gather information on areas that needs to be corrected as well as to monitor the job performance of the member (Maringe& Gibbs, 2008). This would also help to retain the faculty members because nowadays there is a problem of faculty turnover which destroys the reputation of the institution and affects the students learning process.
v Deusto Business School should come up with measures to reward the faculty members who are hardworking and are productive. This would assist in motivating those members who are less productive so that they too may be rewarded. Instructors who are less productive pose a threat to the reputation of a particular learning institution which in turn affects the number of student’s enrollment and retention rate (Newman et al, 2010).
v Deusto Business School should come up with financial aid programs to help subsidize the cost of school fee that the students should pay. For example any two brothers studying in the same university you will get discount 20% from the fees .Another example, the institution can organize job placements for students in the university part time to help the student to pay the fees since many other universities have applied this strategy. This would attract a large number of students from the middle-class families to enroll in the institution.
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