The First Industrial Revolution began in the 18th century with the development of the steam engine which replaced animal power. New inventions and machinery made light work for fewer hands. Printed material became more easily accesible and science and rational thought replaced the authority of religion.
The 19th century inventions of useable electricity, steel and petroleum led to a second Industrial Revolution. Railways grew and steam ships became faster. It was an age of machine tools that made parts for other machines leading eventually to assembly line manufacturing.
Inventions of the 18th Century
- 1701 Jethro Tull invents the seed drill.
- 1705 Steam piston engine was invented by Thomas Newcomen.
- 1709 Bartolomeo Cristofori invents the piano.
- 1710 Rene Anttoine Ferchault de Reaumur invented the thermometer.
- 1711 John Shore, an Englishman, invents the tuning fork.
- 1717 Edmond Halley invents the diving bell.,
- 1722 French C. Hopffer patents the fire extenguisher.
- 1724 Gabriel C. Fahrenheit invents the first mercury thermometer.
- 1745 E.G. von Kleist invents the leyden jar which is the first electrical capacitor.
- 1761 John Harrison an Englishman invents the marine chronometer or navigational clock.
- 1767 The spinning jenny was invented by James Harreaves.
- Joseph Priestly invents carbonated water (soda water).
- 1768 Richard Arkwright patents a spinning frame.
- 1769 James Watt developed the Steam engine.
- 1774 George Louis Lesage patents the electric telegraph.
- 1775 Alexander Cummings invents a flush toilet.
- Jacques Perrier invents a steamship
- 1776 A submarine is invented by David Bushnel.
- 1780 Benjamin Franklin invents yet again - bi-focal eyeglasses.
- 1783 Jean Pierre Blanchard invented a parachute.
- Benjamin Hanks patents a self-winding clock.
- Englishman, Harry Cort, invents a steel roller used in steel production.
- A hot air balloon was invented by the Montgolfier brothers.
- The quillotine is invented.
- 1790 William Pollard of Philadelphia receives first US patent for his machine that roves and spins cotton.
- 1791 A steamboat was invented by John Fitch.
- John Barber invents the gas turbine.
- 1792 William Murdoch invents gas lighting.
- First ambulance introduced.
- 1794 Eli Whitney patents the cotton gin.
- Ball bearings are invented by Welshman, Philip Vaughan.
- 1796 François Appert invents food preserving jar.
- 1797 Edward Jenner creates the smallpox vaccine.
- 1798 Vaccination was invented by Edward Jenner.
- First softdrink invented.
- Aloys Senefelder invents lithography.
- 1799 Alexandro Volta invents the battery.
Read About American Inventions Of The Eighteenth Century
Inventions of the 19th Century
- 1804 Richard Trevithick invented the locomotive.
- Gas lighting is first patented by Fredrick Winzer.
- 1809 Humphry Davy invents the first electric light (arc lamp).
- 1810 An improved printing press is invented by the German Frederick Koenig.
- Peter Durand invents the tin can.
- 1814 Steam locomotive invented by George Stephenson.
- First plastic surgery performed in England.
- Joseph von Fraunhofer invents the spectroscope which performs chemical analysis of glowing objects.
- Joseph Nicéphone Niépce took the first photograph using a camera obscura. It took 8 hours to take the picture.
- 1816 Stethoscope was invented by Rene Theophile Hyacinthe Laennec.
- Humphry Davy invented the Miner's safety lamp.
- 1819 Samuel Fahnestock patents a soda fountain.
- 1820 The first mass-produced calculator, the Arithmometer was invented by Charles Xavier Thomas de Colmar.
- 1821 Electric motor invented by Michael Faraday.
- 1822 First mechanical computer designed by Charles Babbage.
- 1823 Charles Mackintosh invents a raincoat (the Mackintosh).
- 1824 First toy balloon was invented by Michael Faraday.
- 1825 William Sturgeion invents the electromagnet.
- 1826 Joseph Nicephore Niepce invents photography.
- 1827 John Walker invents modern matches.
- 1830 Lawn mower was invented by Edwin Beard Budding.
- 1832 Charles Wheatstone invents the first patented steroscope.
- 1834 Louis Braille invents braille.
- Hiram Moore invents the combine harvester.
- Refrigerator invented by Jacob Perkins.
- 1835 Morse code was invented by Samuel Morse.
- The revolver was invented by Samuel Colt.
- Henry Talbot, an Englishman, invents calotype photography.
- Solymon Merrick patents the wrench.
- The propellor is invented by Francis Pettit Smith.
- 1838 Electric telegraph was invented by Charles Wheatstone and Samuel Morse.
- 1839 Charles Goodyear invents the vulcanization of rubber.
- Hydrogen fuel cell is first conceived by Welshman Sir William Robert Grove.
- 1840 The blueprint is invented by Englishman John Herschel.
- 1841 The stapler is patented by Joseph Dart.
- 1842 Anaesthesia was invented by Crawford Long.
- 1843 Charles Thurber invents the typewriter.
- 1846 Sewing machine was invented by Elias Howe.
- Rotary printing press was invented by Richard M. Hoe.
- 1847 Hungarian, Ignaz Semmelwies, invents antisceptics.
- 1848 Edwin Chadwick wanted to improve the lifestyle of the poor but his priorities were a constant supply of fresh and clean water, toilets in homes and a sewage system that would carry sewage from the cities out to rural areas where it could be treated. One of his innovations was the use of glazed earthenware pipes for sewage, which reduced the contamination of drinking water. Shallow drinking wells were replaced by a main water supply.
- 1849 Safety pin was invented by Walter Hunt.
- 1850 First patent for the dishwasher was given to Joel Houghton.
- 1852 Jean Bernard Léon Foucault invents the gyroscope.
- 1853 George Cayley invents a manned glider.
- 1854 Principles of fibre optics demonstrated by John Tyndall.
- 1856 Louis Pasteur invents pasteurization.
- 1858 Rotary washing machine patented by Hamilton Smith.
- Jean Lenoir invents an internal combustion engine.
- 1861 Elisha Otis patents elevator safety brakes, creating a safer elevator.
- Linus Yale invents the Yale lock (cylinder lock).
- 1862 Richard J. Gatling invented the revolving machine gun.
- Mechanical submarine was invented by Narcis Monturiol i Estarriol.
- Alexander Parkes invents man-made plastic.
- 1866 Dynamite was invented by Alfred Nobel.
- George Westinghouse invents airbrakes.
- Robert Mushet invents tungsten steel.
- J.P. Knight invents traffic lights.
- 1870 Stock ticker was invented by Thomas Alva Edison.
- 1872 J.S. Risdon patents the metal windmill.
- 1873 Joseph Glidden invents barbed wire.
- 1876 Daimler invented the gasoline carburator.
- Alexander Graham Bell invents the telephone.
- Nicolaus August Otto invents a well-working four-stroke internal combustion engine.
- Melville Bissel patents the carpet sweeper.
- 1877 Phonograph was invented by Thomas Alva Edison.
- Eadweard Maybridge invents the first moving pictures.
- Emile Berliner invents the microphone.
- 1878 William Crookes invents the cathode ray tube.
- Sir Joseph Wilson Swan invents a longer-lasting electric lightbulb.
- Englishman John Milne invents the modern seismograph.
- 1880 Alexander Graham Bell invents the photophone.
- 1881 Alexander Graham Bell invents the first metal detector.
- David Houston patents roll film for cameras.
- 1884 George Eastman patents paper-strip photographic film.
- Charles Parson patents the steam turbine.
- 1885 Motor cycle was invented by Gottlieb Daimler and Wilhelm Maybach.
- Harim Maxim invents the machine gun.
- Karl Benz invents the first car powered by an internal-combustion engine.
- 1886 John Pemberton invents Coca-Cola.
- Gottlieb Daimler builds the first four-wheeled motor vehicle.
- 1888 Nikola Tesla invents the AC motor and transformer.
- 1889 Sir James Dewar and Sir Frederick Abel co-invent smokeless gunpowder - Cordite.
- 1891 Zipper was invented by Whitcomb L. Judson.
- 1893 Nikola Tesla invented wireless communication.
- American W.L. Judson invents the zipper.
- 1895 The diesel engine was invented by Rudolf Diesel.
- Lumiere Brothers invent the Cinematographe, a portable motion-picture camera. They are the first to show a projected motion picture to a group.
- Guglielmo Marconi invented radio signals.
- 1898 Remote control was invented by Nikola Tesla.
- John Thurman patents the motor-driven vacuum cleaner.
Invention In The Nineteenth Century
© 2011 Teresa Coppens
Teresa Coppens (author) from Ontario, Canada on July 18, 2012:
I'm glad aseem khan that it was helpful. That was my intention. Good luck in whatever homework assignment you were working on!
angry aseem khan on July 18, 2012:
this helps me in doing my homework
Theresa Ast from Atlanta, Georgia on December 23, 2011:
Excellent Hub. I love time-lines, and I especially love yours. Great work. Have a great Christmas.
Penelope Hart from Rome, Italy on December 19, 2011:
Well Teresa C, how impressive? Mr E C was a wonderful man wasn't he? And what an HONOR you went off and did all that research!!!! What a lot of fun this is.
Reflecting back on those two centuries is incredible; there were so many many incredible changes and innovation, so many inventors on both side of the Atlantic(thanks to the prodding data in your fabulous Hub).
Teresa Coppens (author) from Ontario, Canada on December 19, 2011:
Goodlady, I checked into Edwin Chadwick and have added an entry in his honor in this hub. Thanks for the tip. Have a read, I put in a more lengthy entry as his contribution was especially beneficial for the health of the very poor labourers of mid-19th Century London.
Teresa Coppens (author) from Ontario, Canada on December 17, 2011:
Thanks for commenting Goodlady. Glad you enjoyed. I'll have to look up Mr. Chadwick. That's the beauty of Hubs. There's always room for improvement and change.
Penelope Hart from Rome, Italy on December 17, 2011:
What incredible research! Good Hub. Thanks for the Timeline, makes for interesting reading and contemplation.
There was Edwin Chadwick too...didn't he invent the sewerage pipes in London, so that the old wooden ones could be removed? (just showing off. I really don't know so much; remember him from studying at school a long time ago). Always admire the times of the Industrial Revolution and before. I also feel great sadness that so much of what was so dearly fought for (social rights - The Tolpuddle Martyrs 1830's...trade unions) has gone by the wayside since our globalized non regulated world.