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Lithium & Lithium Ion Battery (Structure, Function and Recharge Process)

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Hey, It's Taiful B. A blog writer. Prefer traveling, story writing and so on.


We have heard about Lithium battery. In modern times, lithium batteries or lithium ion batteries are widely used in various electronics devices such as laptops, watches, cameras, etc. because they are light and easy to recharge. Lithium batteries are not rechargeable but lithium ion batteries are rechargeable. In this lesson, we will learn, its structures, work function, uses, advantages & disadvantages.

Features of lithium battery

  • Its electromotive force is 3.6 - 3.6 V
  • Its relative capacity is 250 – 340 W/Kg
  • Its relative strength is .38 - .95 MJ/Kg
  • Its power is three times that of a nickel-cadmium battery.

Names of lithium ion batteries & uses

  • Lithium cobalt oxide (LiCoO2) Used in Mobile, Laptop, Camera
  • Lithium Iron Phosphate(LiFePO4) Used in Transport, Health treatment items
  • Lithium manganese oxide(LiMn2O4) Used in Transport, health treatment items

Structure of lithium battery

Like other electrochemical cells, lithium ion batteries have three important functional components or components. Anode, cathode and electrolytic material. Lithium ion batteries use lithium saturated carbon (graphite) as anode. The anode undergoes oxidation as a negative electrode. Lithium compound (LiCoO2, LiMn2O4, LiSO2 etc. ) is used as the cathode. The cathode is the positive electric field where the reducing reaction takes place. An existing salt in an organic solution is used as an electrolytic in lithium batteries. Dimethyl carbonate, diethyl carbonate, thionyl carbonate, ethylene carbonate etc. are used as organic solvents. Among the salts used in lithium batteries are lithium perchlorate, lithium hexa fluoro phosphate etc.

The function of lithium ion storage cells is discharging

The name of the lithium ion battery indicates that lithium ions are attached to this cell. Lithium-ion transfer occurs between the anode and the cathode in the lithium-ion storage cell. During charging, lithium ions are released from the lithium metal oxide used as the cathode, pass through electrolysis, and pass through a semipermeable screen to take up internal space, known as Intercalation. During discharging, lithium ions are added from the anode of a lithium atom bound in two graphite sheets, i.e. lithium ions are added, pass through electrolysis, pass through a semipermeable screen, go to the cathode and accumulate without charge. Which is marked as deIntercalation. That is, the reaction that occurs during discharging is the opposite of the reaction that occurs during charging


The reactions that occur during discharging

Oxidation reaction at the anode(-): nLi+ + ne + C = nLiC6 -----(1)

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Reduction reaction at the cathode(+): LiCoO2 = Li(1-n)CoO2 + nLi+ + ne ------(2)

Full cell reaction: Adding (1) & (2) we get,

LiCoO2 + C = Li(1-n)CoO2 + LinC


Reactions that occur during recharge

The cell reaction occurs in reverse during recharge.

LinC + Li1-nCoO2 = LiCoO2 + C

Advantages of lithium ion batteries

  • Lithium ion batteries are light in weight and small in size, making them easy to carry and widely used in electronics.
  • It has high voltage power
  • Lithium ion batteries are binding and do not require maintenance
  • Lithium ion batteries are durable
  • It is added to comparatively less in soil. So environmental pollution is less
  • Lithium ion batteries are effective at higher temperatures
  • Can be recharged in small range
  • The battery does not have to add chemicals occasionally
  • Can be charged quickly

Disadvantages of lithium ion batteries

  • Leak in a lithium battery while an electrical device is in use causes the electrical device to overheat and ignite.
  • Due to charging, water falls inside the electrolysis. This impedes ion transport
  • When the lithium ion battery is completely discharged, it is completely destroyed
  • Expensive
  • Preparation materials are not readily available
  • Accidents can happen at any time as the electrolysis is kept at high pressure
  • Explosion will occur if thrown into the fire after use
  • Heat sensitive

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