Learning is a primitive adaptive trait of all living things in the animal kingdom, which can be found in more developed states in the higher evolutionary level. Adaptive traits can be habituation, response, reactions etc. The learning styles, in human beings, are the tendency to receive, analyze and experiment ideas and concepts. How human beings learn, has been a subject of study since ancient times. Ancient Greek philosopher Aristotle (384-322 BC) has extensively written about learning.
Thinkers, theorist, psychologists and educationists have researched on learning and developed many learning theories. Carl Jung is one of the influential theorists of learning styles. He has categorized eight types of learning styles. Modern day learning styles and theories are more or less based on Jung’s learning styles.
Integrated Learning Styles
Mastery Learning Styles
understand ideas thoroughly
Understanding Learning Style
form conceptions and perceptions based on reason and logic
Self-Expressive Learning Style
to understand ideas and concepts with sense organs
Interpersonal Learning Style
contemplate on others ideas and give importance to social values
What is Analytic Psychology?
Psychologist Carl Jung’s theories of analytic psychology are elaborated in his books like Collected Papers on Analytical Psychology (1916) and Two Essays on Analytical Psychology (1928).
Jung, in his analytic psychology, differentiated personal unconscious with collective unconscious. Personal unconscious is an individual’s unconscious, and collective unconscious is the unconscious inherited from his/her ancestor. Jung defined unconscious as the combination of personal unconscious and collective unconscious.
The collective unconscious is made up of archetypes. Archetypes is instinctive patterns, with universal character, in human beings. Archetypes are expressed in human behavior and images.Archetypes include the persona, the anima/animus, the divine child, the great mother, the wiseman/woman, the shadow, and the trickster.
Psychologist Carl Jung
During his clinical observations in 1980s, Austrian psychologist and theorist Sigmund Freud developed psychoanalysis. In response to psychoanalysis, another notable psychologist and theorist Carl Gustav Jung (1875-1961) propounded analytic psychology. Swiss psychologist Carl Jung’s personality theories, symbol analysis, dream interpretation, learning styles, and Electra Complex have tremendous impact on human behavior, arts, literature, psychology, religion, anthropology etc.
Jung gained reputation as a theorist when he published his concepts in Psychological Types in 1921 (English edition was published in 1923). Sometimes Jung is branded as a Nazi sympathizer because he had presented his highly contested views on Hitler’s Nazism. However, Jung’s contribution to modern day psychotherapy is immense.
Carl Jung proposed two types of attitudes in human beings.
Introverted: Introverted people prefer to think, work in solitude and keep thoughts inside. They are depended on their inner world for beliefs, concepts and understandings.
Extroverted: Extroverted people prefer to talk and work in groups. They are dependent on the outer world for their perceptions and understandings.
According to Jung, people are dominated by introversion and extroversion, and sometime these both attitudes exist in human beings but in hierarchy. He also categorized four functions of personality.
Carl Jung believed that the persona is dominated by one or more than one functions. He developed eight personality types by combining two attitudes and four functions of personality.
Carl Jung’s Personality Theory
Carl Jung’s Learning Styles are based on his personality theory. Before we learn about Carl Jung’s Learning Styles, it is necessary to understand personality types. According to Jung’s Personality Theory, there are eight personality types, and more than one personality types usually dominate a person.
Introverted Thinking: People belonging to this personality type are contemplative, discovering, theoretical, and seek self-knowledge. They develop ideas and concepts through their own internal understandings. Philosophers and artists have introverted thinking personality.
Extroverted Thinking: People belonging to this personality type are analytical and strategic. They organize others, and base their ideas according to the understandings of other people. Scientists are extroverted thinking personality.
Introverted Feeling: People belonging to this personality type are self-centered, and look inward for inspiration. They form ideas on their personal belief, often ignoring socially accepted concepts. Literature and art critics have introverted feeling personality.
Extroverted Feeling: People with extroverted feeling personality base their ideas on facts and socially accepted concepts. They are sociable, usually seeking personal and social success.Politicians have extroverted feeling personality.
Introverted Sensing: When people are motivated by their own internal understanding and do not give importance to objective reality, they have introverted sensing personality. People interested in classical arts have introverted sensing personality. They are intense, obsessive, and detached from social reality.
Extroverted Sensing: People belonging to extroverted sensing personality see things as they really are. They are not motivated by subjective or objective judgment. They are practical and hard-headed.
Introverted Intuitive: When people are motivated by their unconscious, they tend to have introverted intuitive personality. They are visionary, idealistic, even mystical.Psychics have introverted intuitive personality.
Extroverted Intuitive: Extroverted intuitive personality type forms his/her perception based on objectivity, and do not give much importance sensory understanding. This personality type is innovative and seeks change. Inventors have extroverted intuitive personality.
Learning Styles: Jung's Learning Styles
Carl Jung combined two types of attitudes (Extroverted and Introverted) and four functions of personality (thinking, feeling, sensation and intuition) to categorize eight personality types. From the theory of personality, he developed eight learning styles.
Introverted Learning Style
People with introversion are introverted learners. They usually do not rely on others and tend to form ideas on their own. People with introverted learning styles perform internal reflections and brainstorming to understand the things the way they are. They love to explore on abstract ideas and enjoy solitude.
Extroverted Learning Style
People with extroversion attitude have propensity towards extroverted learning style. These kinds of people are comfortable interacting with the outside world, and base their opinions and understandings according to other people. They are compatible with community and enjoy social interactions.
Thinking Learning Style
People who base their ideas on logic and do not give importance to emotions have thinking learning styles. They contemplate on rights and wrongs, and information and facts. More males are thinking learners than the females.
Sigmund Freud and Carl Jung
Between 1907 and 1912, Carl Jung worked in tandem with Sigmund Freud, and contributed immensely to psychoanalysis. When Freud was contemplating to make Jung his heir, Jung began differing with him. Freud believed mental health is entirely depended on childhood experience and libido whereas Jung gave more importance to immediate conflicts. Jung’s differences with Freud are evident on The Psychology of the Unconscious (First published, 1912; English edition, 1916).
After his disassociation with Freud, Jung developed analytic psychology where he proposed the theory of collective unconscious and the theory of archetypes. Most of Jung’s ideas are burrowed from Freud. However, like Freud, Jung did not believe the unconscious was animalist, and libido, violence and instinct were not always the driving force behind an individual.
Freud and Jung were very intimate, but when Jung deferred with Freud, he compared Jung with Oedipal myth. Freud was Jung’s mentor, even like a father figure. When the friendship began, Freud was 51 and Jung was 31.
Feeling Learning Style
When people perceive life and living based on their entirely personal feelings and emotions, they have inclination to feeling learning style. These people base their ideas and concepts, likes and dislikes, on their feelings. They are not only interested in analyzing their personal feelings and emotions but also about how other people feel. They give importance to their immediate emotional response. Comparatively, more females have feeling learning style than males.
Sensing Learning Style
People with sensing learning styles believe on objective facts. They give emphasis to common sense and practical way of generating ideas. They are interested in the outer world, focus on persent, and quickly adapt to social environment.
Intuitive Learning Style
People who generate ideas from intuition, and are interested in known and the unknown are intuitive learners. They love daydreaming and usually contemplate on abstract concepts. They comfortably handle challenges, but normally do not complete task at once.
Perceiving Learning Style
People who develop ideas suddenly, and often change their concepts have perceiving learning style. They are not organized, but can be adaptive to environmental changes. They love to multitask but do not care about finishing their works.
Judging Learning Style
Judging learners have clear conscience, they are firm in their opinions, and move according to plans and schedules. People with judging style don’t nurture ambiguous ideas but work according to set rules. They have strong opinions.
The Red Book by Carl Jung
During 1914-30, Jung recorded his own experience of imaginations, fantasies, dreams, and hallucinations. He began taking notes on his beliefs after disassociation with Freud. These confrontations with his own unconscious were collected in The Red Book. However, the manuscript remained unpublished. The Red Book by Carl Jung was published in 2009. Working title of The Red Book was The New Book. The name Red Book refers to the red leather cover in the manuscript. The Red Book contains 53 images drawn by Carl Jung.
The Beginner's Guide to Jungian Psychology by Robin Robertson, Nicolas-Hays, Inc. 1992
Collected papers on Analytical Psychology by Carl Jung, Ulan Press, 2012
Encyclopaedia Britannica Ultimate Reference Suite, 2011
Peggy Woods from Houston, Texas on March 21, 2013:
Psychology is so very interesting! Jung definitely influenced many people regarding his theories. Enjoyed reading this informative hub. Good video at the end. Up and interesting votes.
Vinaya Ghimire (author) from Nepal on March 08, 2013:
Jung's learning theories have inspired a generation of educationists and psychologists. Thanks for your inputs.
Dianna Mendez on March 03, 2013:
Jung is highly revered in the early childhood industry and teachers do use the methods to maintain a good learning center. Very well done and researched. Voted up!
Vinaya Ghimire (author) from Nepal on March 02, 2013:
@DDE, thanks for sincerely following my works. I appreciate your comment.
@Pooja, people are not entirely dominated by one attitude. Extroversion and introversion exist in different magnitude in the same person. Perhaps, scientists are dominated by extroversion, and have some amount of introversion.
poojasd7 from India on March 02, 2013:
Very informative article. Carl Jung is my favorite.
Just one doubt: Are scientists really extroverted? Does their thinking depend upon other people's understanding? Their thinking is of course strategic and analytical. But I doubt that makes them extroverted.
Devika Primić from Dubrovnik, Croatia on March 02, 2013:
New theories of learning on Learning Styles Jung's Learning Styles is an excellent thought.
Vinaya Ghimire (author) from Nepal on February 22, 2013:
You are funny. Thanks
Have a wonderful weekend.
mckbirdbks from Emerald Wells, Just off the crossroads,Texas on February 22, 2013:
Hello Vinaya, you are presenting so much informatio on so many diverse subjects. Your followers are going to expect Advanced Degrees when finished with your teachings.
Vinaya Ghimire (author) from Nepal on February 22, 2013:
@Faith, I agree our age makes us who we are, I'm so different for the teenage part of my life, and will be different when I will be in the 50s. Thanks for sharing your thought.
@Manahil, thanks for being here.
@Mhatter, thanks for having faith in my work
@Arun, thanks for stopping by.
@Tillsontitan, thanks for sincerely following my works. I try to write on the subject that I find interesting and have some knowledge on it.
@Angel, thanks for being a loyal reader.
@Sandra, thanks for stopping by. Cheers
@Radha, thanks for sharing your thought.
@Martie, depending on circumstances I also become introvert and extrovert. Thanks for sharing your opinion.
@acaetnna, I'm just a learner. Thanks for your comment.
@whonunuwho, true, Freud is controversial, but Jung is clean.
@always exploring, I think I' dominated by introvert attitude. Thanks for sharing your thoughts.
@Ruchira, thanks for reading and commenting. Cheers
@Alastar, I remember your comment. Jung's theories have never been in controversies but Freud is a controversial man. Thanks for appreciating my work. Cheers
Alastar Packer from North Carolina on February 22, 2013:
Believe I mentioned in an early hub of yours that Jung was may fave of the early innovators in the subject field here. This article has refreshed the memory on some Jung info and added to my knowledge, thank you friend Vin.
Ruchira from United States on February 19, 2013:
I enjoyed this well researched hub. There were many points, I was not aware of. The video made me realize I am an introvert.
Ruby Jean Richert from Southern Illinois on February 19, 2013:
I enjoyed this very much, after watching the video, i think i am an introvert thinker. I tend to internalize feelings and being alone is ok..Thank you Vinaya
whonunuwho from United States on February 19, 2013:
Jung was someone to admire. Enjoyed this article very much, my friend. whonu
acaetnna from Guildford on February 19, 2013:
Goodness this is such a comprehensive hub, you certainly know the learning styles! A fascinating and very informative read, thank you as always.
Martie Coetser from South Africa on February 19, 2013:
Very interesting hub about Jung and his theories. I am a great admirer of his work. But honestly, I am just as much an introvert as I am an extrovert, depending on the circumstances and even on the time of the day.
Voted up and well-presented.
radhapriestess on February 19, 2013:
Excellent article on the topic. I studied Jung in college as part of my social work training. I am an Extroverted Introvert Feeling Intuitive.
Sandra Busby from Tuscaloosa, Alabama, USA on February 19, 2013:
Vinaya, such a comprehensive hub on Jung's psychological types and how they are applied to learning styles. Very interesting. Voted up and shared.
Angelme566 on February 19, 2013:
This is very comprehensive... The man up there said it very correctly , you have written this hub with art that will not really bore the reader.
Very brilliant writer .. Hats off ! Voted alL !
Mary Craig from New York on February 19, 2013:
You really are amazing. No matter what subject you tackle you do it with style and cover it from beginning to end! This was very interesting and contains so much information. Your pictures are "picture perfect" and showcase not only your writing but your photography style!
Voted up, useful, awesome, and interesting.
Eiddwen from Wales on February 19, 2013:
So very interesting indeed and thank you for sharing.
ARUN KANTI CHATTERJEE from KOLKATA on February 19, 2013:
Thanks for the interesting hub.
Martin Kloess from San Francisco on February 19, 2013:
I hope more people stop by. You did an excellent job on this. Thank you
Manahil Shah from Pakistan on February 18, 2013:
wow so beuatiful
Faith Reaper from southern USA on February 18, 2013:
Wow, what a great extensive and interesting hub here on the various learning styles and personality theory. I believe I have a combination of both now, but as a child, I believe I had Introverted thinking. After the age of 30, it seems, I certainly changed, as those who know me now, would never believe me to have been introverted at any time. LOL
Love your photo . . . so very cute! And that video is hilarious, and I enjoyed watching it. Thanks for the great hub.
Voted up +++ and sharing
God bless, Faith Reaper