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1642 - 1727 Ad
English mathematician, physicist, astronomer, theologian and author. Considered to be the most influential scientist of history and one of the greatest scientists of all times. Whose extraordinary genius reshaped the entire scientific world of his time. Whose personal life contains more unknown facts than he revealed about the world himself. Who is often viewed for his egotistical brilliance in his field, But it was his mad genius actually that made his name to be unforgettable in the history and future of science.
Newton was born on 4 January 1643 at a farmer's house, Hamlet of Woolsthorpe, England. His father (also named Isaac newton) being passed three months before of his birth, made newton a premature born. Even though being an usual physicality level, as a newly born child, it was hard for newton to even survive with the physique he was born with. His mother Hannah asycough herself reported that he was able to be fit inside even a small mug. But maybe it was newton's destiny for achieving greatness that made him defeat it.
At the age of three, Hannah remarried and leaved newton in the care of his materal grandmother. Newton hated his stepfather and came across disliking his mother for marrying him. In his list of sins until the age of 19, he even mentioned "Threatening my mother and father for burning them and their house" as a sin of him. Though newton never made any close connections with his mother and family that much in the future. Hannah had three children Mary, Benjamin and Hannah from her second marriage.
Newton studied at The king's school, Grantham, from the age of twelve to seventeen. At start, he wasn't a good student and often a target of student bullies cause of his different appearance. It made him spent his time being alone, making complex machinical structures like sundials and clocks, thinking about the things happening around him etc. At 1659 he was removed from the school by his mother, who got widowed again and decided to make him a farmer, something that newton always disliked. Although the principal of the school convinced his mother for sending newton back for studies. And this time, in order to take revenge from a student bully, Newton studied hard and became one of the top ranking students of the King's school.
In 1661, on the recommendation of his uncle Rev William Asycough, Newton went to Trinity college, Cambridge. Newton was on his own now, so for paying his study fee, Newton started to perform valet duties until he was awarded a scholarship in 1664. The teaching method at the college was usually based on the work of Aristotle, but newton was attracted to the concepts of modern philosophers like Descartes, Galileo and especially Kepler. He was seeing difficulties and flaws in previous theories about universe and it's methods of working. So Newton's curiosity led him start developing his own concepts. And for this, newton went on developing the structure of mathmatics itself.
On 1665 due to the great plague, the University was temporarily closed and newton went back to Woolsthorpe. At this two year time at woolsthorpe, he did his famous contributions.
Contributions and controversies
On the time at Woolsthorpe, Newton developed his concepts of calculus, motion, optics and the theory of gravity. At 1667 he went back to Trinity, where he was rewarded with a fellowship Of The Royal Society. Newton was carrying great ideas, but was feared of criticism and controversies against them. Although Issac barrel, a professor at Trinity, viewed newton's talent and helped him publish some of his important work like the binomial theorem.
The real problem came at 1684, when German mathematician Gottfreid Leibniz published his paper on differential calculus. And next year, published his paper on integral calculus. It was an impact on newton's authority, even if he hadn't published his work at that time. But after being encouraged by his friend and astronomer Edmond Halley, Newton decided to publish the full volume of his work. After a continuous effort of eighteen months, In 1687, the men published his famous scientific book "philosophiae naturalis principia mathmatica" (Mathematical Principles Of Natural Philosophy). Where he mentioned his famous contributions including the concepts of differential and integral calculus, theory of gravity and laws of motions. It was a historical moment in the evolution of science. This started a long controversy between Newton and Leibniz on the authority over calculus. Which was remained until the death of Leibniz. But it has been considered that the method Leibniz used was way far different and more convenient than newton's method. And now it has been accepted that both of them invented calculus independently.
But how could a newly appeared genius possibly be secured from unexpected events this easily? Newton involved in another controversy with another great figure of the time, English scientist Robert Hooke. It was a controversy on the authority over the method that led newton to prove his theory of universal gravitation. When newton published the theory in his book pricipia, Hooke intruded by claiming that he was the one to told the method that elliptical curves made by planetary orbits are results of a centripetal force which is inversely proportional to the square of radius known as the "inverse square law". The controversy stayed long through letters and applications and was remained until Hooke's death. Which made him appear as a great rival of newton at that time.
Newton's other famous scientific work includes the binomial theorem, optics of light, invention of the first reflecting telescope, the corpuscular theory of light, newton's method, classics of mechanics and the dispersion of light. He was once called as "the last of the magicians" for these revolutionary contributions of his.
After Life And Death
After his famous discoveries, Newton became the president of the Royal Society. He was also having interest in religion and believed that there are understandable messages hidden behind ancient religious documents. He sent numerous applications on the literal and symbolic interpretation of texts written in the Bible. It's even a surprising but true fact that Newton had written more books on religion than he ever did on science.
He also became a member of the parliament of England. It's pretty known that after making various contributions on mathematical and natural sciences, Newton got attracted to the field of alchemy and became an alchemist. He was having beliefs that, with pure alchemical experiments it's possible to create mythical elements like the Philosopher's Stone. He dragged himself into various alchemical experiments on substance like mercury and noted them into his notes of alchemical experiments. But cause of being connected with harmful elements, Newton's mental health and relation with his friends and colleagues became depressed and down. At the end of the day, he resigned from his duties as the president of the Royal Society and got sifted to London.
However, after contributing his entire life to science and investigation, Newton rested in his sleep on 20 march 1727 in London. It was a normal day for a normal person, but a night for the world of sciencem. After his death, newton's hair was examined and was found that there was a presence of mercury, probably from his alchemical experiments. So Mercury poison can pretty much explain the changes in his behavior in his last days, but as an infamous property of the past, we don't know the happened as whole.