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The Parmar dynasty was a dynasty of medieval India. The authority of this dynasty was till Dhar and Ujjayini kingdoms. They ruled from the 9th century to the 14th century. The Parmar dynasty was started by Upendra or Krishnaraja in the Malwa (ancient Avanti) region north of the Narmada river in the early ninth century. The rulers of this dynasty ruled from 800 to 1327 AD. The Parmar dynasty rulers of Malwa were probably similar to the Rashtrakutas of Pratiharas.
History of Parmar Dynasty:
Parmar (Panwar) is the name of a dynasty, which became important in the early medieval period. It is mentioned in the tales as a gotra of the Rajput caste. Padmagupta Parimal, the court poet of Parmar Sindhuraj, has narrated a story in his book 'Navasahasankacharit'. Sage Vashishtha created a brave man from the fire pit of Bhabu Parvat, whose ancestors were Suryavanshi Kshatriyas, to get help in the war against Rishi Vishwamitra. This brave man was named Parmar, who became the founder of this dynasty and the dynasty was named after him. This story has been recounted even later in the inscriptions of Parmar. Due to this, some people started to understand that the original abode of the Parmars was on Mount Abu, from where they settled in neighboring countries. But an ancient record of this dynasty shows that the Paramaras were the successors of the Rashtrakutas of the south.
A branch of the Parmar dynasty ruled over Mount Abu, with Chandravati as its capital, from the end of the 10th century to the end of the 13th century. The second branch of this dynasty ruled in the princely states of Vagad (present-day Banswara) and Dungarpur in the state of Uthtuk Banswara, the capital of the present Arthuna, from the middle of the 10th century to the middle of the 12th century. Two more branches of the lineage are known. One ruled in Jalore, the other in Binmal from the last part of the 10th century to the end of the 12th century.
Important facts about the Parmar dynasty:
The early rulers of this dynasty were Upendra, Vairasingh I, Siyak I, Vakpati I, and Vairasingh II.
The initial capital of the Paramaras was at Ujjain, but later the capital was shifted to Dhar, Madhya Pradesh. The first independent and majestic king of this dynasty was 'Siyak or Sriharsha'. He freed his dynasty from the subjugation of the Rashtrakutas. There were eight kings in the Parmar dynasty, of which the seventh Vakpati Munj (973 to 995 AD) and the eighth Munj's nephew Bhoja (1018 to 1060 AD) was the most prolific.
Munj fought with the Chalukya kings of Kalyani for many years and was killed in the battle in 995 AD. His successor Bhoja (1018-1060 AD) was killed in a battle with the combined forces of the kings of Gujarat and Chedi. With his death, the glory of the Parmar dynasty was destroyed. Although the Parmaras ruled as local kings until the beginning of the thirteenth century, they were eventually torn down by the Tomars. The Parmar kings, especially the Vakpati Munj and Bhoja, were great scholars and patrons of scholars and poets.
It is said that the capital of present Madhya Pradesh, Bhopal was settled by Raja Bhoj, then its name was Bhojpal Nagar, which later became Bhupal and then Bhopal. Raja Bhoj had built a sea-like pond near Bhopal Nagar, which went to the east and south to the huge Shiva temple of Bhojpur. Raja Bhoj was very brave and majestic as well as being a great scholar and virtuoso. He wrote many books on many subjects. He was a very good poet, philosopher, and astrologer. Many texts like Saraswatikanthabharan, Shringaramanjari, Champuramayan, Charucharya, Tattvaprakash, Vyasasamuchaya etc. are said to have been written by him.
The literal meaning of Parmar is the one who kills the enemy. Initially, the rule of the Paramaras was confined to the areas around Abu. After the decline of the power of the Pratiharas, the political power of the Paramaras increased.
This content is accurate and true to the best of the author’s knowledge and is not meant to substitute for formal and individualized advice from a qualified professional.
Swati Sharma (author) from India on July 09, 2021:
Thank you so much for your beautiful comments.
Umesh Chandra Bhatt from Kharghar, Navi Mumbai, India on July 09, 2021:
A good glimpse from the Indian History. Nice work.
MG Singh emge from Singapore on July 09, 2021:
Interesting stuff, good you wrote this article