I heard behavior modification [now called applied behavior analysis or ABA] might be helpful to autistic children, and I subsequently visited UCLA, where psychologist Ivar Lovaas was pioneering this method. "It's amazing," Lovaas tells me. "All these years we've known how well it worked for Helen Keller, but no one thought to try it on autistic children."
— Afterword by Dr. Bernie Rimland in "Let Me Hear Your Voice" (1993) by Catherine Maurice
Early intensive behavioral intervention (EIBI) is a treatment approach that is based upon the principles of applied behavior analysis (ABA) and the research of Ivar Lovaas and colleagues at the UCLA Young Autism Project... Influenced by theories of learning and motivation, practitioners of EIBI refer to it as "the science of teaching."
— Susan Hepburn, 2013, Springer Link
Behavior analysis is the scientific study of behavior. Applied behavior analysis (ABA) is the application of the principles of learning and motivation from behavior analysis, and the procedures and technology derived from those principles, to the solution of problems of social significance.... Specifically, ABA refers to a systematic approach to the assessment and evaluation of behavior and the application of interventions that alter behavior.
— Center for Autism and Related Disorders (CARD), Inc.
The late Drs. Ivar Lovaas and Bernie Rimland transformed the way we view and treat autism today.
The late Drs. Ivar Lovaas and Bernie Rimland transformed the way we view and treat autism today, passing away in 2010 and 2006, respectively.
Lovaas proved Behavior Modification, now called Applied Behavior Analysis (ABA), to be an effective teaching tool for children with autism at the University of California, Los Angeles (UCLA) in 1987, where he utilized the technique for a number of years.
His early work with this population of children and their parents led to the formation of the Autism Society of America—which, at the time, was called the National Society for Autistic Children—that he co-founded with Bernie Rimland, whose book Infantile Autism: The Syndrome and Its Implications for a Neural Theory of Behavior first published in 1964 changed the mental health community's perspective on autism by doing rid with the "Refrigerator Mother" theory that the condition was somehow triggered from poor parenting styles.
Not only did Dr. Rimland happen to detect autism in his own son, Mark—who was a client of Lovaas' at the UCLA Young Autism Project, but his son also partially served as the basis for Dustin Hoffman's lead role in the film Rain Main (1988), considered one of the very first—and among the most memorable—to shed light on the condition.
Lovaas earned his Ph.D. in clinical psychology at the University of Washington, where he studied under Don Baer, Todd Risley, Mont Wolf, Sidney Bijou, Jim Sherman, and Jay Birnbrauer, all of whom moved to the University of Kansas to establish the Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis (JABA) in 1968.
That's not to imply that ABA started with JABA, or the researchers from the University of Kansas. While Systematic Desensitization—officially replacing "Flooding" Desensitization as a first-line approach—was initially applied to the clinical treatment of phobias in 1958, other faculty from the psychology department at the University of Washington, including Bill Hopkins practiced ABA in the form of Organizational Behavior Management (OBM). Lindsley (1956) and Ayllon & Michael (1959) even used it for adults with the psychotic features of schizophrenia, and Goldiamond (1965) implemented ABA for children who stuttered.
By the 1980s, ABA also expanded to classroom behavior management with the use of Positive Behavior Support (PBS) systems in schools nationwide, as well as interventions geared toward counseling, such as Acceptance and Commitment Therapy (ACT) and Functional Analytic Psychotherapy (FAP).
Over the years, the term "Applied Animal Behavior" was coined to refer to the science being used for the training of animals, and recent research in JABA had amounted so substantially to include other evidence-based clinical procedures, particularly Pediatric Feeding Therapy and Voucher-Based Contingency Management (CM) for substance abuse.
But, it was at the Indiana University School of Medicine where Charles Ferster (1961), who co-founded the Journal of the Experimental Analysis of Behavior with B.F. Skinner at Harvard University, was the first to use ABA—or more specifically, Errorless Learning*—to teach children who had infantile autism, serving as the basis for Lovaas' groundbreaking—but sometimes initially harsh—work.
Throughout the late 1960s and '70s, Lovaas and colleagues implemented aversive consequences, such as electric shocks and spanking, to stop a child's aggressive and self-injurious behaviors. They even yelled "no!" if answering inaccurately and also rewarded—or reinforced—correct responses and when otherwise behaving properly. Further, the antecedents and consequences were presumed to change behavior. But, as time passed, such linear approach to behavior management was discontinued.
According to Mace (1994) in the Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, we were beginning to move "beyond behavior modification" with "a return to behavior analysis" in the mid-1980s (also see, i.e., Walsh, 1997; Pelios, Morren, Tesch, & Axelrod, 1999; Mace & Critchfield, 2010).
Applied Behavior Analysis (ABA) is an evidence-based approach to learning that initially relies on a functional analysis of behavior by analyzing historical consequences and previous behavioral responses to antecedent stimuli before attempting to change the contingencies in the current environment. That way, the practitioner can accurately determine the causes and function of the behavior (including attention-seeking, escape/avoidance, sensory stimulation, or tangible access to an item or activity), as well as anticipate the procedures that will work most efficiently (this is often accomplished through data collection, functional behavior assessments, and behavior intervention plans).
While ABA is broadly studied for a variety of diagnoses in a number of other situations, board certified behavior analysts (BCBAs) tend to work exclusively with children on the autism spectrum.
Early Behavioral Intervention (EBI) is a sub-discipline of ABA that encompasses several proven teaching strategies (both structured and play-based) for children with autism and other developmental disabilities under the age of 5 and implemented at an intensity of 25-40 hours per week. EBI is typically practiced within the family's homes, as well as in agencies, such as schools and clinics.
Lovaas' intensive therapy, known as Early Intensive Behavioral Intervention (EIBI, or 40 hours per week of what he called, "Discrete Trial Training" (DTT)), involves highly-trained behavior analysts instructing repeated and structured techniques of teaching by visually cueing eye contact, modeling and manually prompting a wide array of fine and gross motor exercises, vocally or orally prompting speech, and rewarding correct responses with praise and child-preferred reinforcers. Once the child has acquired stimulus control, such prompts are faded out, and tact (expressive label) training, as well as Incidental Teaching (also called Natural Environment Training or NET)—which relies on mand ("request") training—are employed so that generalization will take place.
As opposed to the old days, we now know from cutting-edge research that if the child has higher receptive language skills—also called listener behavior—and do not get distracted from their natural environment, the child will learn more rapidly from Pivotal Response Treatment (PRT), which differs from NET in that PRT exclusively uses mand training to elicit vocalizations.
PRT also encompasses Social Responsivity (sometimes called Reciprocal Imitation Training) that consists of using the child's interests and lead into play (i.e., singing a song, playing with a toy train or car, etc.) as natural reinforcers before expanding their play repertoire to engage them, and so the child forms a meaningful relationship with their caregivers and therapists.
Drawing back to 1987, Lovaas and colleagues at UCLA proved in a study that after 40 youngsters with autism obtained structured EIBI for three years, 47%—9 out of 19 children in the experimental group—obtained "normal educational and intellectual functioning" (Lovaas, 1987) and were independently mainstreamed in regular classrooms. 89% also progressed in their IQ, oral language, and daily living skills. Further, by the time the 'best outcome' children reached early adolescence, a follow-up study in 1993 indicated that 8 of them (or 42%) fully recovered to the point where they no longer "showed signs of emotional disturbance and demonstrated adequate development [in] adaptive and social skills within the normal range" (McEachin, Smith, & Lovaas, 1993, p. 368).
Several federal organizations within the United States, including the American Academy of Pediatrics, National Research Council, New York State Department of Health, and Surgeon General, all acknowledge the validity of early ABA-based therapies for teaching children with an autism spectrum disorder (ASD). In addition to being the only approach "well-established" in the research literature (Rogers & Vismara, 2008; Smith & Iadarola, 2015), structured EIBI has proved to be highly effective throughout countless single-subject design studies for over 50 years.
According to a report on mental health made by the Surgeon General in 1999, "Thirty years of research have demonstrated the efficacy of applied behavioral methods in reducing inappropriate behavior and in increasing communication, learning, and appropriate social behavior." He also acknowledged that Lovaas' 1987 study was "well-designed."
By 2007, Pediatrics—the official journal for the American Academy of Pediatrics—even stated that "The effectiveness of [structured] ABA-based intervention in ASDs has been well documented through 5 decades of research by using single-subject methodology, and in controlled studies of comprehensive early intensive behavioral intervention programs in university and community settings. Children who receive early intensive behavioral treatment have been shown to make substantial, sustained gains in IQ, language, academic performance, and adaptive behavior, as well as some measures of social behavior, and their outcomes have been significantly better than those of children in control groups."
The same journal published in 2020, "Most evidence-based treatment models are based on principles of ABA... ABA interventions vary from highly structured adult-directed approaches (eg, discrete trial training or instruction, verbal behavior applications, and others) to interventions in natural environments that may be child led and implemented in the context of play activities or daily routines and activities and are altered on the basis of the child’s skill development (eg, pivotal response training, reciprocal imitation training, and others). To determine what intervention is most appropriate, the behavioral clinician works with the family and child to determine which skills to target for development and maintenance and what goals are appropriate... A comprehensive ABA approach for younger children, also known as early intensive behavioral intervention, is supported by a few randomized controlled trials (RCTs) and a substantial single-subject literature... Children younger than 12 years receiving more hours per week of ABA were found to be more likely to achieve the individualized goals identified in their programs. In retrospective studies, more intense ABA therapy was associated with achieving optimal developmental outcomes."
While Lovaas went on to establish The Lovaas Institute—an organization in Los Angeles, California that he headed since its foundation in 1993 until his death, most of his graduate students have become quite flourished professionals in the field (many of whom formed their own practices).
Some graduate students of Lovaas' in the 1970s included Drs. Laura Schreibman and Robert Koegel. Together, they pioneered Pivotal Response Treatment (PRT) with Koegel's wife, Lynn, a speech pathologist and educational psychologist. The Koegels' also co-founded the Koegel Autism Center at the University of California, Santa Barbara (UC Santa Barbara, or UCSB) while Schreibman directs the Autism Intervention Program at the University of California, San Diego (UCSD).
Drs. Tristram Smith and Doreen Granpeesheh were Lovaas' senior supervisors in the late 1980s. Smith even co-authored the 1993 follow-up study alongside Lovaas and colleague Dr. John McEachin, who went on to co-found the Autism Partnership with another graduate student, Dr. Ron Leaf, and their main office is located in Seal Beach, California.
In 1990, Granpeesheh founded and currently runs the Center for Autism and Related Disorders (CARD), Inc., the nation's most enormous agency providing EBI services for children with ASD, which is headquartered in Los Angeles, California.
Shortly before becoming a big-name scientist in the field of ABA at the University of Rochester Medical Center (URMC), Smith designed the first replicated study—and only randomized control trial—on structured EIBI in 2000, which he conducted with Drs. Annette Groen and Jacquie Wynn, who were Lovaas' clinic supervisors during the time of the 1987 study, and Wynn now directs the Center for Autism Spectrum Disorders at Nationwide Children's Hospital in Columbus, Ohio. The study's experimental group was, however, limited to 25 hours per week instead of the original 40 hours implemented in the 1987 study; this most likely explains why the children's progress was restricted to 27% striving in mainstream classrooms.
Even though there has yet to be any other randomized control trial on structured EIBI, it was not until the second replicated study by Sallows and Graupner (2005)—which, similar to the 2000 study, it at least managed to randomly assign the participants, but contrasted drastically, as this study's experimental group consisted of 35 hours per week—that the outcomes first made evident by Lovaas (1987) were successfully validated. The research verified once again that, when treated with structured EIBI, 48% of the experimental group were striving in mainstream classrooms, with most of the other children progressing in their IQ, verbal communication, and daily living skills.
Four non-randomized comparison studies (Eikeseth et al, 2002, 2007; Howard et al, 2005; Waters et al, 2018) even revealed that children who received structured EIBI outperformed those undergoing non- ABA-based 'eclectic treatments,' including—but not limited to—traditional speech therapy (Myers & Johnson, 2007; Waters et al, 2018).
However, because it is such an expensive treatment and there have only been three studies that used random assignment, a number of states—to the exclusion of Vermont, Connecticut, Wisconsin, and possibly others—view the research design limitations on EIBI as though it were a drug treatment (see Keenan & Dillenburger, 2011), and therefore, refuse to fund the necessary hours or treatment all together.
To add, many families—who cannot afford to pay the rather high costs of $60-$70 thousand annually—still have to win lawsuits against their school districts through the Individuals with Disabillities Education Act (IDEA), and even though the Federal Department of Education currently provides up to 40 hours per week of EIBI, many states do not cover either the treatment or necessary hours, where families are expected to pay for an attorney. Because of this, some are now relying on their health insurance plans, such as Medicaid, to obtain such services.
With regards to fully recovery from autism, such outcome occurs in approximately 25% of individuals (see Helt et al., 2008). Studies also reveal this 'optimal outcome' to occur among children who received 40 hours per week of EIBI as opposed to other modalities (see Dawson et al., 2012; Orinstein et al., 2014).
While some children do fully recover from the autism spectrum after a varying length of time—which is evident among individuals who were diagnosed at an early age by many well-trained clinicians before they no longer met any criteria for the disability (but continue to often have co-morbid attention issues and/or anxiety), it is crucial for parents to focus more on their child's learning potential.
Since there is no guarantee of fully overcoming ASD *(see note below), most individuals will continue to have the disability but gain new skills as they grow older—with some becoming quite flourished as adults (take Drs. Temple Grandin and Stephen Shore, as well as the young college student Jake Barnett, for example).
Nevertheless, it should be noted that some parents look at—and become involved in—treatment modalities outside of the ABA realm which lack scientific evidence and can be inefficacious as well as potentially fatal because of it (see Sinha, Silove, & Williams, 2006). The staff from these organizations often try to sell you their books and free parent testimonial videos and make false claims about their success rates and even guarantee 'miraculous cures' (i.e., see Williams & Wishart, 2003; Association for Science in Autism Treatment, 2010; Mruzek, 2012; Moran, 2014).
This is why parents—especially when they find themselves being emotionally vulnerable—should be cautious of such interventions and have their children involved in therapies that are vigorously studied and empirically validated. To date, high-quality ABA-based procedures are the only set of interventions with such reputation and evidence.
*Errorless Learning is a form of Discrete Trial Training (DTT) in which prompts and prompt-fading are used to prevent errors from occurring.
*Mand Training is a Verbal Behavior (VB) training procedure based on the verbal operant mand, or having the child request for something. It serves as the basis for such naturalistic ABA-based teaching procedure as Pivotal Response Treatment (PRT, sometimes branded as Incidental Teaching or Natural Environment Training).
*The term "fully overcome" (or sometimes "cure" or "recovery")—as written here—is used to describe the individuals who fully overcame the social communication and learning challenges without any changes occurring their physiology. For more information, see the Fein et al. (2013) study from the University of Connecticut.
 Maurice, Catherine. Let Me Hear Your Voice: A Family's Triumph Over Autism. New York: Ballantine Books, 1993.
 Hepburn, S. (2013). "Early Intensive Behavioral Intervention." In F. R. Volkmar (Eds.), Encyclopedia of Autism Spectrum Disorders. Accessed on Springer Link.
 Center for Autism and Related Disorders, Inc. (n.d.). Services - ABA Resources: Introduction.
 Center for Autism and Related Disorders, Inc. (n.d.). About Us - Approach - About: The CARD Approach.
 Mace, F. C. (1994). The significance and future of functional analysis methodologies. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 27(2), 385-392.
 Lovaas, O. I. (1987). Behavioral treatment and normal educational and intellectual functioning in young autistic children. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 55(1), 3-9.
 McEachin, J. J., Smith, T., and Lovaas, O. I. (1993). Long-term outcome for children with autism who received early intensive behavioral treatment. American Journal on Mental Retardation, 97(4), 359-372.
 U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. "Mental Health: A Report Of The Surgeon General." Rockville, MD: U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration, Center for Mental Health Services, National Institutes of Health, National Institute of Mental Health, 1999.
 Smith, T., Groen, A. D., and Wynn, J. W. (2000). Randomized trial of intensive early intervention for children with pervasive developmental disorder. American Journal on Mental Retardation, 105(4), 269-85.
 Sallows, G. O., and Graupner, T. D. (2005). Intensive behavioral treatment for children with autism: Four-year outcome and predictors. American Journal on Mental Retardation, 110(6), 417-438.
 Eikeseth, S., Smith, T., Jahr, E., and Eldevik, S. (2002). Intensive behavioral treatment at school for 4- to 7-year-old children with autism: A 1-year comparison controlled study. Behavior Modification, 26(1), 49-68.
 Eikeseth, S., Smith, T., Jahr, E., and Eldevik, S. (2007). Outcome for children with autism who began intensive behavioral treatment between ages 4 and 7. Behavior Modification, 31, 264-278. 24 May 2016.
 Howard, J. S., Sparkman, C. R., Cohen, H. G., Green, G., and Stanislaw, H. (2005). A comparison of intensive behavior analytic and eclectic treatments for young children with autism. Research in Developmental Disabilities, 26(4), 359-383.
 Waters, C. F., Amerine, D. M., Thurston, S. W., Lu, X., and Smith, T. (2018). Sustainability of early intensive behavioral intervention for children with autism spectrum disorder in a community setting. Behavior Modification.
 Helt, M., Kelley, E., Kinsbourne, M., Pandey, J., Boorstein, H., Herbert, M., and D. Fein (2008). Can children with autism recover? If so, how? Neuropsychology Review, 18, 339-366.
 Hyman, S. L., Levy, S. E., and Myers, S. M. (2020). Identification, evaluation, and management of children with autism spectrum disorder. Pediatrics, 145(11).
 Smith T., and Iadarola, S. (2015). Evidence-base update for autism spectrum disorder. Journal of Clinical Child and Adolescent Psychology, 44(6), 897–922.
 Dawson, G., Jones, E. J. H., Merkle, K., Venema, K., Lowy, R., Faja, S., ... S. J. Webb (2012). Early behavioral intervention is associated with normalized brain activity in young children with autism. Journal of American Academy and Child Adolescent Psychiatry, 51(11), 1150-1159.
 Orinstein, A. J., Helt, M., Troyb, E., Tyson, K. E., Barton, M. L., Eigsti, I. M., ... D. A. Fein (2014). Intervention for optimal outcome in children and adolescents with a history of autism. Journal of Developmental and Behavioral Pediatrics, 35(4), 247-256.
 Sinha, Y., Silove, N., and K. Williams (2006). Chelation therapy and autism. The BMJ, 333(7571), 756.
 Williams, K. R., and J. G. Wishart (2003). The Son-Rise Program intervention for autism: An investigation into family experiences. Journal of Intellectual Disability Research, 47(4-5), 291-299.
 Williams, K. R. (2006). The Son-Rise Program® intervention for autism: Prerequisites for evaluation. Autism, 10(1), 86-102.
 Association for Science in Autism Treatment. ASAT's Open Letter to Son-Rise Program®'s Raun Kaufman. Association for Science in Autism Treatment. ASAT, 20 Sept. 2010.
 Mruzek, D. W. (2012). Focus on science: 'Verification' and the peer review process. Association for Science in Autism Treatment, 9(3), 18-19.
 Moran, K. (2014). Review of: Promoting Child-Initiated Social Communication in Children with Autism: Son-Rise® Program Intervention Effect. Association for Science in Autism Treatment, 11(1), 23-24.
 Myers, S. M., and Johnson, C. P. (2007). Management of children with autism spectrum disorders. Pediatrics, 120, 1162-1182.
 Fein, D. A., Barton, M., Eigsti, I. M., Kelley, E., Naigles, L., Sschultz, R. T., ... K. Tyson. (2013). Optimal outcome in individuals with a history of autism. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 54(2), 195-205.
 National Research Council. Educating Children with Autism. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press, 2001.
 New York State Department of Health, Early Intervention Program. "Clinical Practice Guideline Report of the Recommendations for Autism/Pervasive Developmental Disorders." Albany, NY: New York State Department of Health, 1999.
 Tarbox, J., Dixon, D. R., Sturmey, P., and J. L. Matson (2014). "Handbook of Early Intervention for Autism Spectrum Disorders: Research, Policy, and Practice." Autism and Psychopathology Series. New York: Springer. 30 Aug. 2017.
 "About Behavior Analysis." BACB. Behavior Analysis Certification Board, Inc. Web. 31 Aug. 2014.
 Madden, Gregory J. "APA Handbook of Behavior Analysis." APA Handbooks in Psychology 2nd ser: 1-1174 (2012). APA. American Psychological Association, Aug. 2012.
 Austin, John, and James E. Carr. "Handbook of Applied Behavior Analysis." Oakland, CA: Context Press, 2000. Print. 30 Aug. 2017.
 Fisher, Wayne W., Piazza, Cathleen C., and Henry S. Roane. "Handbook of Applied Behavior Analysis." New York: Guilford Press, 2011. Print. 30 Aug. 2017.
 Cooper, John O., Timothy E. Heron, and William L. Heward. "Applied Behavior Analysis: Second Edition." Applied Behavior Analysis. New York: Pearson, 2007. 15 Jun. 2016.
 Pierce, W. David, and Carl D. Cheney. "Behavior Analysis and Learning: Fifth Edition." New York: Psychology Press, 2013. 15 Jun. 2016.
 Mayer, G. Roy, Sulzer-Azaroff, Beth, and Michelle Wallace. "Behavior Analysis for Lasting Change, Third Edition." New York: Sloan Educational Publishing, 2013. Print. 1 Nov. 2016.
 Baer, D.M., Wolf, M.M., and Risley, T.R. (1968). "Some current dimensions of applied behavior analysis." Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 1 ser: 91-97 (1968). PMC. PubMed Central. 31 Aug. 2014.
 Pierce, W. D., and Epling, W. F. (1980). "What happened to the analysis in applied behavior analysis?" The Behavior Analyst 3(1): 1-9. PMC. PubMed Central. 29 Oct. 2015.
 Baer, D.M., Wolf, M.M., and Risley, T.R. (1987). "Some still-current dimensions of applied behavior analysis." Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 4 ser: 313-327. PMC. PubMed Central. 12 Sep. 2014.
 Walsh, P. (1997). "Bye-bye behaviour modification." In K. Dillenburger, M. F. O'Reilly, & M. Keenan (Eds.) "Advances in Behaviour Analysis" (pgs. 91-102). Dublin: University College Dublin Press. 16 Jun. 2016.
 Pelios, L., Morren, J., Tesch, D., and Axelrod, S. (1999). "The impact of functional analysis methodology on treatment choice for self-injurious and aggressive behavior." Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis. 32(2): 185-195. PMC. PubMed Central. 17 Mar. 2015.
 Leslie, J. C. (2000). "Steps towards the wider use of behavior analysis in applied psychology." European Journal of Behavior Analysis. University of Ulster at Jordanstown. 31 Aug. 2014.
 Dillenburger, K., and Keenan, M. (2009). "None of the As in ABA stand for autism: Dispelling the myths." Journal of Intellectual & Developmental Disability. (1): 1-3. 31 Aug. 2014.
 Carr, E.G., Dunlap, G., Horner, R.H., Koegel, R.L., Turnbull, A.P., et al. (2002). "Positive behavior support: Evolution of an applied science." Journal of Positive Behavior Interventions. 4(1), 4-16.
 Hanley, G. P., Iwata, B. A., and McCord, B. E. (2003). "Functional analysis of problem behavior: A review." Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis. 36(2): 147-185. PMC. PubMed Central.
 Catania, A. C. (2003). "B. F. Skinner's science and human behavior: Its antecedents and its consequences." Journal of the Experimental Analysis of Behavior 80(3): 313–320. PMC. PubMed Central. 22 Feb. 2015.
 Mace, F. C., and Critchfield, T. S. (2010). "Translational research in behavior analysis: Historical traditions and imperative for the future." Journal of the Experimental Analysis of Behavior 3rd ser. 93. 293-312. National Institutes of Health. U.S. National Library of Medicine, May 2010. 31 Aug. 2014.
 Dixon, D. R., Vogel, T., and Tarbox, J. (2012). "A brief history of functional analysis and applied behavior analysis." Functional Assessment for Challenging Behaviors. 3-24. 4 Nov. 2014.
 "Guidelines: Health Plan Coverage of Applied Behavior Analysis Treatment for Autism Spectrum Disorder." BACB. Behavior Analyst Certification Board, Inc., 2012. PDF. Web. 31, Aug. 2014.
 Harris, Sandra L., and Mary Jane Weiss. "Right from the Start: Behavioral Intervention for Young Children with Autism." Right from the Start: Behavioral Intervention for Young Children with Autism. Bethesda, MD: Woodbine House, 2005. 1-171. Amazon Books. Web. 31 Aug. 2014.
 Maurice, Catherine, Green, Gina, and Richard M. Foxx. "Making a Difference: Behavioral Intervention for Autism." Making a Difference: Behavioral Intervention for Autism. Texas: Pro-Ed, 2001. Print. 11 Dec. 2015.
 Maurice, Catherine, Green, Gina, and Stephen C. Luce. "Behavioral Intervention for Young Children With Autism: A Manual for Parents and Professionals." Behavioral Intervention for Young Children With Autism: A Manual for Parents and Professionals. Austin, TX: Pro-Ed, 1996. 1-400. Amazon Books. Web. 19 Sep. 2014.
 Keenan, Mickey, Henderson, Mary, Kerr, Ken P., and Karola Dillenburger, eds. "Applied Behaviour Analysis and Autism: Building a Future Together." Applied Behaviour Analysis and Autism: Building a Future Together. Philadelphia: Jessica Kingsley Publishers, 2006. Print. 29 Oct. 2015.
 Keenan, M., and K. Dillenberger (2011). "When all you have is a hammer...: RCTs and hegemony in science." Research on Autism Spectrum Disorders, 5, 1–13. 10 Jul. 2016.
 Sundberg, Mark L., and James W. Partington. "Teaching Language to Children with Autism or Other Developmental Disabilities." Teaching Language to Children with Autism or Other Developmental Disabilities. California: AVB Press, 2010. 12 Jan. 2017.
 Leaf, Ron, and John McEachin. "A Work in Progress: Behavior Management Strategies and a Curriculum for Intensive Behavioral Treatment of Autism." A Work in Progress: Behavior Management Strategies and a Curriculum for Intensive Behavioral Treatment of Autism. New York: Different Roads to Learning, 1999. 30 Aug. 2017.
 Lovaas, O. Ivar. "The Autistic Child: Language Development Through Behavior Modification." New York: John Wiley & Sons, Inc., 1977. Print. 14 Nov. 2017.
 "Lovaas Institute." Benefits. Lovaas Institute, 2005-2012. Web. 29 Sept. 2012.
 Leaf, J. B., Leaf, R., McEachin, John, Taubman, M., Ala'i-Rosales, Ross, R. K., Smith, T., and Weiss, M. J. (2015). "Applied Behavior Analysis is a Science, and Therefore, Progressive." Journal of Autism and Developmental Disabillities, 46(2): 720-31.
 Ferraioli, S., Hughes, C., and Smith, T. (2005). "A Model for Problem Solving in Discrete Trial Training for Children with Autism." Journal of Early and Intensive Behavior Intervention, 2(4): 224-246. 27 Oct. 2017.
 Cohen, H., Amerine-Dickens, M., and Smith, T. (2006). "Early intensive behavioral treatment: Replication of the UCLA model in a community setting." Journal of Developmental & Behavioral Pediatrics, 27(2), 145-155. 26 Sep. 2014.
 Smith, T. (2013). "What is evidence-based behavior analysis?" The Behavior Analyst 36(1): 7-33. Association for Behavior Analysis International. Web. 29 Oct. 2015.
 Slocum, T. A., Detrich, R., Wilczynski, Susan M., Spencer, T. D., Lewis, T., and Wolf, K. (2014). "The evidence-based practice of applied behavior analysis." The Behavior Analyst, 37(1): 41-56. 28 Aug. 2016.
 Larrsson, E. V. and Wright, S. (2011). "O. Ivar Lovaas (1927-2010)." The Behavior Analyst, 34(1): 111-114. 2 Dec. 2016.
 Smith, T. and Eikeseth, S. (2011). "O. Ivar Lovaas: Pioneer of applied behavior analysis and intervention for autism." Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 41(3), 375-378.
 Bowman, R. A. and Baker, J. (2014). "Screams, slaps, and love: The strange birth of applied behavior analysis." Pediatrics, 133 (3): 364-366. 13 Dec. 2015.
 Green, G. (2001). "Behavior analytic instruction for learners with autism: Advances in stimulus control technology." Focus on Autism and Other Developmental Disabilities, 16, 72-85.
 Tsiouri, I., Simmons, E. S., and Paul, R. (2012). "Enhancing the Application and Evaluation of a Discrete Trial Intervention Package for Eliciting First Words in Preverbal Preschoolers with ASD." Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 42: 1281-1293.
 Paul, R., Campbell, D., Gilbert, K., and Tsiouri, I. (2013). "Comparing Spoken Language Treatments for Minimally Verbal Preschoolers with Autism Spectrum Disorders." Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 43: 418-431.
 Steege, M. W., Mace, F. C., Perry, L. and Longenecker, H. (2007). "Applied behavior analysis: Beyond discrete trial teaching." Psychology in the Schools, (44): 91-99. 27 Sep. 2014.
 Mohammadzaheri, F., Koegel, L. K., Mohammad R., and S. M. Rafiee. (2014). "A randomized clinical trial comparison between pivotal response treatment (PRT) and structured applied behavior analysis (ABA) intervention for children with autism." Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 44 (11), 2769-77. 5 Oct. 2015.
 Koegel, R. L., Bharoocha, A. A, Ribnick, C. R., Ribnick, R. C., Bucio, M. O., Fredeen, R. M., and L. K. Koegel (2011). "Using individualized reinforcers and hierarchical exposure to increase food flexibility in children with autism spectrum disorders." Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders. 42(8), 1574-1581.
 Koegel, R. L., Shirotova L., and L. K. Koegel. (2009). "Brief report: Using individualized orienting cues to facilitate first-word acquisition in non-responders with autism." Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 39 (11): 1587–1592. 5 Oct. 2015.
 Koegel, L. K., Koegel, R. L., Shoshan, Y., and E. McNerney. (1999). "Pivotal response intervention II: Preliminary long-term outcome data." Journal of the Association for Persons with Severe Handicaps, 24(3), 186-198. 11 Dec. 2015.
 Koegel, L. K., Koegel, R .L., Harrower, J. K., and C. M. Carter (1999). "Pivotal response intervention I: Overview of approach." Journal of the Association for Persons with Severe Handicaps, 24(3), 174-186. 11 Dec. 2015.
 Koegel, R. L., O'Dell, M. C., Koegel, L. K. (1987). "A natural language teaching paradigm for nonverbal autistic children." Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 17(2), 187-200. 19 Nov. 2017.
 Koegel, Robert L., and Lynn K. Koegel. Pivotal Response Treatments for Autism: Communication, Social & Academic Development. Baltimore: Paul H. Brookes Publishing Co., Inc., 2006. Print. 11 Dec. 2015.
 Eldevik, S., Hastings, R. P., Hughes, J. C., Jahr, E., Eikeseth, S., and S. Cross. (2009). "Meta-analysis of early intensive behavioral intervention for children with autism." Journal of Clinical Child & Adolescent Psychology, 38, 439-450. 4 Sep. 2015.
 Eldevik, S., Hastings, R. P., Hughes, J. C., Jahr, E., Eikeseth, S., and S. Cross. (2010). "Using participant data to extend the evidence base for intensive behavioral intervention for children with autism." American Journal on Intellectual and Developmental Disabilities, 115, 381-405. 4 Sep. 2015.
 Granpeesheh, D., Tarbox, J., Dixon, D. R., Carr, E., and M. Herbert (2009). "Retrospective analysis of clinical records in 38 cases of recovery from autism." Annals of Clinical Psychiatry, 21, 195-204. 3 Feb. 2016.
 Kelley, E., Naigles, L., and D. Fein (2010). "An in-depth examination of optimal outcome children with a history of autism spectrum disorders." Research in Autism Spectrum Disorders, 4(3), 526-538.
 Granpeesheh, Doreen, Tarabox, Jonathan, Najdowski, Adel, and Julie Kornack. Evidence-Based Treatment for Children with Autism: The CARD Model (Practical Resources for the Mental Health Professional). Waltham, MA: Academic Press/Elsevier, 2014. 1-646.
 Dawson, G., Rogers, S., and J. Munson, et. al. (2010). "Randomized, controlled trial of an intervention for toddlers with autism: The Early Start Denver Model." Pediatrics 125(1): 17-23. Web. 9 Oct. 2015.
 Rogers, S.J., Hayden, D., Hepburn, S., Charlifue-Smith, R., Hall, T., Hayes, A. (2006). "Teaching Young Nonverbal Children with Autism Useful Speech: A Pilot Study of the Denver Model and PROMPT Interventions." Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 36(8), 1007-1024.
 Siegel, Bryna. "The World of the Autistic Child: Understanding and Treating Autistic Spectrum Disorders." The World of the Autistic Child: Understanding and Treating Autistic Spectrum Disorders. New York: Oxford University Press, 1996.
 Rimland, Bernard. "Infantile Autism: The Syndrome and Its Implications for a Neural Theory of Behavior by Bernard Rimland, Ph.D." Infantile Autism: The Syndrome and Its Implications for a Neural Theory of Behavior by Bernard Rimland, Ph.D. Ed. Stephen M. Edelson. 2nd ed. Philadelphia: Jessica Kingsley Publishers, 2015.
 Grandin, Temple. "Thinking in Pictures: And Other Reports from My Life with Autism." Thinking in Pictures: And Other Reports from My Life with Autism. 2nd ed. New York: Vintage Books, 2006. 11 Dec. 2015.
 Temple Grandin. Dir. Mick Jackson. Perf. Claire Danes. 2010. HBO, 2010. Film.
 Discovery Science Channel. "Dr. Lynn Koegel on the Discovery Science Channel's Ingenious Minds: Temple Grandin." YouTube. KoegelAutism Channel, 2 Nov. 2011. Web. 13 Dec. 2015.
 American Broadcasting Company. "Communication: Lynn Koegel on 'Supernanny'." YouTube. The Gevirtz School, University of California, Santa Barbara, 22 Dec. 2014. Web. 14 Dec. 2015.
 Shore, Stephen M. "Beyond the Wall: Personal Experiences with Autism and Asperger Syndrome." Beyond the Wall: Personal Experiences with Autism and Asperger Syndrome. 2nd ed. Kansas: Autism Asperger Publishing Company, 2003. 11 Dec. 2015.
 Barnett, Kristine. "The Spark: A Mother's Story of Nurturing Genius." The Spark: A Mother's Story of Nurturing Genius. New York: Random House, 2013. 11 Dec. 2015.
 American Program Bureau. "Kristine Barnett: 60 Minutes." YouTube. APB Speakers, 7 Jan. 2015. Web. 10 Jan. 2016.
 Autism: The Musical. Dir. Tricia Regan. Perf. Elaine Hall, Henry, Lexi, Wyatt, Neal, Adam. 2008. HBO, 2007. Film.
 MIND Institute at the University of California, Davis. "UC Davis MIND Institute researcher receives funding to treat toddlers with autism." YouTube, UC Davis Health. MIND Institute at the University of California, Davis, 27 May 2010.
 Behavioral Treatment of Autistic Children with O. Ivar Lovaas. Dir. Robert Aller. Edward L. Anderson, 1988. Film. 8 Dec. 2015.
 "Lovaas Institute Partners in Possibilities." The Lovaas Institute. 2007. Web. 8 Dec. 2015.
 Shupsych. "Teaching Language Skills (Lovaas method 4 of 7)." YouTube. 5 Feb. 2007. Web. 20 Nov. 2016.
 autpar. "Language Development Jake." YouTube. Autism Partnership. 20 Sep. 2008. Web. 28 Sep. 2017.
 Dale Thomas. "ABA therapy with Kerry Farrell #talktools www.autismfledgings.co.uk my son Callum part 1." YouTube. 23 Sep. 2014.
 Behaviorfrontiers. "Discrete Trial Teaching - Autism Therapy Video." YouTube. 17 Jun. 2011. Web. 18 Mar. 2017.
 Fox News. "Real American Stories - Doreen Granpeesheh - Fox News - In The News." YouTube. Center for Autism and Related Disorders, Inc., 5 Jan. 2012. Web. 12 Dec. 2015.
 Autism Live. "Dr. Doreen Granpeesheh - A Lifetime Treating Autism." YouTube. Center for Autism and Related Disorders, Inc., 2 Aug. 2012. Web. 18 Mar. 2017.
 Center for Autism and Related Disorders. "Center for Autism and Related Disorders Commercial." YouTube. Center for Autism and Related Disorders, Inc., 13 Feb. 2009. Web. 10 Mar. 2018.
 University of Connecticut. "Autism Recovery - Questioning the Impossible." YouTube. UConn, 1 Apr. 2015. Web. 1 Dec. 2015.
 American Broadcasting Company. "How This Child with Autism Was Able to Recover With Therapy." ABC News Internet Ventures. ABC News, 7 Oct. 2015. Web. 19 Jan. 2016.
 Cable News Network. "Autism: A journey of recovery." CNN. Turner Broadcasting System, Inc., 8 Dec. 2009. Web. 28 Jan. 2016.
 TheELIJASchool. "Jason Harris - The Voice of Autism." YouTube. The ELIJA School. The ELIJA Foundation, 15 Dec. 2014. Web. 31 Jan. 2016.
 Proud Moments. "About Proud Moments." YouTube. Proud Moments Therapy ABA, 16 Mar. 2017. Web. 23 Jul. 2017.
 EDEN2Programs. "Genesis School." YouTube. The Genesis School. Eden II Programs, 18 Oct. 2016. Web. 30 Aug. 2017.
 EDEN2Programs. "Autism Today Episode Two (2)." YouTube. The Genesis School. Eden II Programs, 4 Oct. 2011. Web. 1 Sep. 2017.
 Beam ABA Services Ltd. "Introduction to Beam ABA Services." YouTube. Beam ABA Services, 24 Feb. 2016. Web. 1 Sep. 2017.