The changing climate has become a serious issue in the world. So how will such an environment affect agriculture? See in this article.
Impact on Agriculture
The adverse effects of climate change and global warming on agriculture are beginning to be felt. Production of many crops is declining, while unseasonal rains are causing severe losses to farmers. In such a scenario, water management and integrated farming is beneficial.
There are some important things to keep in mind when considering today's agricultural system, that today agriculture is suffering due to climate change. Too little or too much rainfall is the main reason for fluctuations in agricultural production. Other causes include high humidity, abnormal temperatures, disease and insect outbreaks, unseasonal rains, floods, droughts and hailstorms. Over the last few years, the weather cycle has deteriorated enough to stun everyone. Excessive rainfall and drought are both curses for agriculture.
During the last decade, the kharif crop has been hit by drought, while the Rabbi crop has to make up for the loss, then unseasonal rains have damaged the crop. While studying this problem, agricultural scientists found that even if the temperature increased by one degree, the wheat production would decrease by four to five crore tons.
Similarly, if the temperature rises by two degrees Celsius, paddy production will decrease by 0.75 tons per hectare. According to the Department of Agriculture, production is projected at 82 million tones. This is most important thing that climate change will reduce fruit production. Not only will production decrease, but its quality will also decrease. Nutrients and proteins in food will be reduced. As a result the diet will not be balanced and will have adverse effects on human health.
The Indian Meteorological Department has forecast normal rainfall this year. This means that 96 to 104 percent of the average rainfall is expected this year. It increasing pollution and over-exploitation of natural resources are causing changes in the environment, which is bound to adversely affect agriculture and crops. Rainy days used to be more, now they are less. However, the incidence of more rains in a single day has increased.
Many changes in the environment have a direct impact on agriculture. The increase in average temperature is the first change. Temperatures have been rising steadily for the past few decades. Earth's temperature has risen by 0.7 degrees since 1780. Many plant species need a specific temperature for growth. As the temperature rises, so does its productivity. For example, where wheat, linseed and potato are cultivated today, they will not be able to do so due to rising temperatures. This is because these crops need cold weather.
Organic and Natural Farming
Climate change thus changes the local biodiversity and leads to crop failure. Higher temperatures could reduce the productivity of crops such as maize, sorghum and rice. This is because the process of grain formation in these crops takes place at a certain temperature. As the temperature rises, less grain is produced and yield decreases.
If the temperature continues to rise, it will be difficult to grow these crops. Decreased rainfall reduces soil moisture. The process of erosion begins when the temperature of the soil fluctuates continuously. Droughts occur frequently due to global warming and the process of gradual desertification begins.
Rainfall and changes in pattern are also important factors affecting crops. When the rainfall is continuously reduced, the soil moisture is lost, whereas if more rain falls at the same time, the soil becomes eroded and the soil becomes barren. Rainfall is important for agriculture; But it also needs to fall on time and in the right proportions.
Farmers need to be careful to avoid the adverse effects of global warming and climate change. There is a need to create water management and irrigation facilities in the fields. In addition to preventing soil erosion, water conservation is a dual use of rainwater. We can divert rainwater to agriculture through watershed development programs. Moreover, it also stops soil erosion. At the same time, stored water helps to increase groundwater level by seeping into the soil. It is again used for agriculture.
Organic and Natural farming has become the need of the hour. Chemical fertilizers and pesticides have been shown to reduce soil productivity. Also, the toxins in it are included in the food chain and enter the stomach through food, causing serious health problems. Similarly, greenhouse gas emissions from chemical farming are high and this further degrades the cycle of nature.
Therefore, we will have to adopt organic and composite farming in future. Using holistic farming systems instead of single farming reduces the risk. In overall farming, many crops are grown simultaneously. Even if one crop is lost due to natural calamities, the farmer can get income from other crops.
It given the serious adverse effects of climate change, new methods of crop production will have to be adopted. The timing of sowing also needs to be changed. The farmer should learn to overcome the crisis through the combination of his traditional knowledge and modern techniques. The dangers posed by climate change can be mitigated with mixed farming and intercropping. Similarly, it is a matter of time before all farmers get crop insurance.
We must learn to use the available natural resources sparingly and equitably before escaping the vicious cycle of climate change. For this, the use of Indian lifestyle and traditional knowledge will be fruitful. The use of eco-friendly methods in agriculture has become a necessity in the future. By doing so, we can not only increase the productivity of the land but also protect the natural resources and the environment.
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