Parts of body involved in ischemic stroke, carotid artery delivers blood to brain (Illustration from Mayo Clinic.Internet. Aug. 6.2014)
Inside wall of carotid artery attacked by free radicals and ROS: corrugated and with lesions
Inside wall of healthy carotid artery: smooth
How to cure stroke with an alternative method
What is a stroke?
Stroke consists of a damage in the brain. It can lead to paralysis or to death. It is also called brain attack because brain cells die due to lack of oxygen, similar to heart attack.
Let us trace a symptom or sign of stroke from the symptom back to its cause. For example, paralysis of the left foot. This foot is controlled by the right side of the brain. So paralysis of the left foot is traced back to a damage on the right side of the brain. Several parts of the brain control motor movements of parts of body.
Some parts of the right side of the brain is damaged by lack of oxygen. There had been lack of oxygen going to the right side of the brain. Blood carries oxygen. So lack of oxygen is due to small amount of blood going to the right side of the brain.
Why the small amount of blood going to this side of the brain? The artery that supplies blood had been narrowed.
What cause the narrowing of artery?
One, blood clot in one part of the carotid artery, called thrombus. Two, moving clot that started in one part of an artery. This moving clot is called embolus. Three, plaque that has grown in the inside wall of the artery partially or completely blocks the artery. This plaque started as atheroma, a benign tumor in the inside wall of the artery.
What started this atheroma? This is an injury started by wear and tear and by free radicals and reactive oxygen species or ROS. Free radicals or ROS grab electrons from the inside wall of the artery causing an injury. From this injury, blood comes out and comes into contact with collagen. And plaque starts to grow.
Seen another way, the body tries to repair the injury caused by free radicals and ROS. It patches it up with collagen, elastin, fibrin, bad cholesterol and other particles. Calcium comes in later that serves as a cementing agent. Their combination grows into a mound that turns into a plaque. Bad cholesterol piles up on the mound that grows. As the plaque grows it partially blocks the artery and in the long run may completely block the artery (Cranton, E. MD. Bypassing Bypass. Updated second edition. 1995).. Brain cells deprived of blood, thus oxygen, die. They fail to control muscles and nerves linked to them resulting in paralysis or death.
Kinds of stroke
There are three kinds of stroke: one, ischemic stroke; two, hemorrhagic stroke and transient ischemic attack.
Ischemic stroke is due to lack of blood, thus oxygen, in brain cells or neurons. This is due, in turn, to a narrowed or blocked artery that supplies blood. There are three kinds of narrowing discussed earlier: thrombosis, embolism, and plaque.
In thrombosis, a blood clot forms in the inside wall of the artery and stays there. This clot is called thrombus. Blockage of a brain artery by a thrombus makes for 40 to 50% of strokes.
In embolism, a blood clot forms in an artery away from the brain and moves along with blood. It can lodge in the bifurcation (corners of branches) of arteries. This clot is called embolus that can form in heart arteries, or carotid arteries, or pulmonary arteries. Blockage of a brain artery by an embolus makes for 30 to 35% of strokes.
A plaque can partially or completely block an artery. An embolus that lodges on a plaque partially blocking an artery can completely block the artery.
In the ischemic area where blood flow is absent, “cell death is virtually certain.” However, brain cells in the surrounding area survive that can still maintain some brain functions. In that case the stroke victim survives. Brain cells in this area, called penumbra, should be revived; if not they too will die.
The normal blood flow to the brain is 750 ml/minute or about 55 ml/100 gram of brain tissue per minute. When blood supply is reduced to one-third or one-half, the neuron cannot make a charge. It stops to work. When blood flow gets back to normal, the neuron can make a charge and works again.
“If blood flow stops completely for as little as four minutes, even more basic chemical machinery of the cell is damaged. The cell membrane begins to leak (membrane pump failure); the cell starts to swell; and the neuron will die” (DeBakey, M. MD. and A. Gotto., Jr. The New Living Heart. 1997:305).
Hemorrhagic stroke. Hypertension and aneurysm may result in hemorrhagic stroke or bleeding on the surface or into the brain cells.
Aneurysm is a weak spot in the blood vessel that had been damaged usually by free radicals and reactive oxygen species.
Two kinds of hemorrhagic stroke:
Intracerebral hemorrhage. Bursting of blood vessel results in spilling of blood into brains tissues. Brain cells are damaged, surrounding cells are starved of blood thus oxygen. Immediate causes are hypertension, trauma and aneurysm. Blood thinners like aspirin may cause hemorrhage (Dr. Mercola. FDA reversed position on the wonder drug aspirin. Internet. Aug. 7,2014).
Subarachnoid hemorrhage. Blood spills into the space between the surface of the brain and skull after the bursting of an artery. Severe headache is a symptom.
Aneurysm owing to a weakened artery forming a pouch on one side or around the artery may burst. Blood vessels so affected by spilled blood may narrow and widen alternately that do more damage on brain cells. Blood flow also becomes limited. (Mayo Clinic. Internet. Aug. 7,2014). Rapture of a blood vessel and bleeding inside or over the brain accounts for 20 to 25% of strokes
TIA or transient ischemic attack. It is also called ministroke. The reason is that it is temporary, lasting about five minutes. Symptoms are like those in ischemic stroke. However, it is hard to tell from symptoms alone if you are suffering from TIA or ischemic stroke.
TIA occurs when blood flow to the brain is blocked by debris or clot . A clot in the heart artery may result in TIA.
Conventional medicine lists risk factors affecting stroke: bad cholesterol, diabetes, age, sex, heart disease (myocardial ischemia), race, smoking, alcohol, vasoconstrictor (like coffee, energy drink), hypertension,. heredity, arrhythmia. A risk factor exacerbates the causes of stroke. A risk factor does not cause stroke. It is only associated with stroke.
“A risk factor is defined as any trait or habit, whether genetic or environmental (which includes lifestyle factors), that can be used to predict an individual’s probability of developing a particular disease” (DeBakey, M. MD and A. Gotto, Jr., MD. The New Living Heart. 1997:79).
So a risk factor is only a tool in prediction. It is not a cause. However, conventional medicine deals with risk factors as a way to treat stroke. That is a mistake. One may have a high level of bad cholesterol but may not develop stroke.
Smoke is a risk factor that contains causes of stroke. Conventional medicine does not recognize these causes or it ignores them. Such snobbery is not due to medical sense or scientific knowledge. It is induced by pharmaceutical companies that make big profits out of drugs used for risk factors and symptoms of stroke.
Smoke contains radioactive materials like polonium 210 and lead 210. Both decay into lead 206 that is stable. Each atom contains 84 protons and 84 electrons. Two electrons bump into each other and destroy each other, emitting energy in the process, like x-rays. X-rays excite electrons in the inside orbitals and move them out of their orbital. For example, phosphorus atom. When any of its electrons is moved out of orbital, it stops to be phosphorus. This movement is a kind of injury in the molecular level. Phosphorus is a component of DNA so that when hit by X-rays, DNA is injured resulting in mutation,. that results in tumor or cancer. Decay also leaves two unpaired electrons that make for free radicals that grab electrons to stabilize themselves. Any molecule of a tissue whose electron had been grabbed is injured. Such injury results in mutation that results in tumor or cancer.
That smoke contains radioactive materials had been denied by the cigarette industry for over 50 years. After a series of lawsuits, the cigarette industry finally admitted their presence in smoke in 1999 (Melpor, Polonium in tobacco leaves. Hubpages, Internet). US President Barack Obama had signed a law mandating the Food and Drug Administration to require the cigarette industry to remove polonium from cigarettes. Lead 210 should be included. Polonium 210 has a half life of 138.4 days; lead 210 has a half life of 22 years (Encyclopedia Britannica 2009).
How neurons die
A nerve is technically called neuron. A neuron is like the electric wire in that it carries message also called impulse. It has other tasks like production of energy, maintenance of membrane, maintenance of the calcium/magnesium (Ca/mg) pump, maintenance of sodium/potassium (Na/K) pump, and maintenance of water balance.
Lack of blood flow to the neuron leads to lack of oxygen that is used in the production of energy called adenosine triphosphate (ATP). ATP drives the Ca/mg pump and and Na/K pump that also moves nerve impulses.
The natural distribution of particles is by diffusion, that is, flow from a higher concentration to a lower concentration.
The pumps belong in action potential, that is movement of particles from a lower concentration to a higher concentration. In the Na/K pump the concentration of Na outside the cell membrane is 4 molecules, that of K inside the cell is 3 molecules. The initial movement is K toward the outside of the cell; Na moves into the cell across the membrane bringing along nutrients and water. This movement is driven by ATP. That is, without ATP this movement stops and the neuron dies, that result in the death of man/woman.]
“This pump uses energy derived from oxygen and glucose stored in the molecule adenosine triphospharte (ATP) to move sodium and potassium ions across the membrane, moving water with them. When delivery of oxygen and glucose for energy production is stopped the neuron cannot make ATP, the ion pump cannot operate, excess water cannot be moved out of the cell; and the neuron swells with water and dies” (Winikates, J. P., MD. “Stroke.” DeBakey, M. MD and A. Gotto, Jr., MD. The New Living Heart. 1997:311).
A dead neuron does not transmit messages. That is why, the message from the brain to the organ, like tongue, controlled by damaged neurons do not reach the tongue. The tongue is paralyzed resulting in slurred speech.
If the dead neuron controlled the left foot, the left foot becomes paralyzed. If the dead neuron controlled the lips, the lips become disfigured.
The neuron is not like a continuous electric wire. A neuron is a long cell at whose end is a synapse with a synapse bouton. One neuron is separated from another by a gap. The next neuron has a receptor. An impulse from one neuron travels to the next neuron by means of a neurotransmitter that serves as a temporary bridge between the gap. The transmitted impulse is received by a receptor of the next neuron. A receptor is linked to a tubelike structure, called channel that passes through the neuron membrane. The channel has a gate that opens when stimulated by the neurotransmitter. This gate opens and allows that passage of ions like calcium,. sodium, chloride and potassium into and out of the cell.
A channel may be voltage-gated, or stretch-gated, or ligand-gated that open or close depending on the charge, negative or positive. The charge is maintained by ATP.
When ATP is lacking, neurons tend to depolarize wasting energy in charging and recharging. Some neurons are inhibitory, others are excitotory. Neurons excessively stimulated waste energy and start to falter in a process called excitotoxicity.
The neurotransmitter that causes excitotoxicity is glutamate. It opens the channel for the entry of an ion, like calcium.
During ischemia (lack of oxygen) extra calcium gets into the neuron, according to Dr. DeBakey and Dr. Gotto.
Extra calcium inside the neuron throws the ratio Ca/Mg out of whack. This disrupts the work of the neuron that eventually dies (Cranton, E. MD. Bypassing Bypass. Updated second edition. 1995).
Calcium brings along with it the protein calmoudulin that triggers fast beating of the heart resulting in fatigue of the heart, according to Dr. Cranton. Calmoudulin brings on palpitation and contributes to angina pectoris and heart attack.
“Ischemia also triggers the neuron to make a group of highly reactive chemicals called free radicals. These free radicals damage the cell membrane and components of the intracellular machinery. Ischemic neurons make a substance called nitric oxide... Formation of free radicals and nitric oxide can be blocked, and thus prevent a portion of this damage.
“Ischemia prompts cells to begin manufacturing substances called ischemic cell adhesion molecules (ICAMs). These ICAMs attract white blood cells, or leukocytes, into the area of ischemia. The resulting inflammation increases the amount of brain tissue damaged....Ischemia triggers some cells to make proteins that actually take apart the cell’s own DNA. This permanently disrupts the cell’s function, and the neuron dies. This process is called programmed cell death or apoptosis ((Winikates, J. P., MD. “Stroke.” DeBakey, M. MD and A. Gotto, Jr., MD. The New Living Heart. 1997:311).
A free radical is an atom or a molecule or a fragment of a molecule that has at least one free electron in its outermost orbital. Orbital is the path of electrons around the nucleus of an atom. For example, atomic oxygen that has eight electrons and three orbitals. Two electrons occupy the first orbital nearest the nucleus; four electrons occupy the second orbital. These electrons are in pairs for stability. However, two electrons do not pair up. Each spin around the nucleus alone, each is unstable. The third orbital is empty that is attractive to other electrons in the neighborhood that is why atomic oxygen can easily combine with another element and make a compound. There are thousands of oxygen compounds. For having two free or unpaired electrons, atomic oxygen is a free radical.
Molecular oxygen is a molecule that is a free radical. Molecular oxygen consists of two atoms of oxygen joined together by six electrons with orbitals around the whole molecule. It has two unpaired electrons spinning around the whole molecule in parallel direction. Molecular oxygen reacts with free radicals or their derivatives like hydrogen peroxide. It reacts with low density lipoprotein to make lipid peroxide, a component of the plaque in heart artery or carotid artery. We will find below that this plaque contributes to stroke.
Another free radical is the superoxide that is derived from molecular oxygen. It was formerly a molecular oxygen whose one unpaired electron had grabbed another electron in the neighborhood.
For one, superoxide reacts with nitric oxide, another free radical,. to form peroxynitrite. This is called reactive oxygen species (ROS) or reactive oxygen intermediate (ROI). ROS acts like a free radical in that it reacts with a free radical or another ROS.
Peroxynitrite reacts with nitric oxide (NO) and depletes it. NO of the kind produced by the endothelium nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) is a vasodilator that widens arteries allowing more blood flow. It acts like the drug nitroglycerin (Isordil, Imdur). Depletion of NO contributes to angina pectoris, or heart attack, or stroke.
Free radicals or ROS damage the gated channels resulting in the disruption of the cal/mg pump and Na/K pump.
We can see that the free radical NO is beneficial. The endothelium produces three kinds of NO,. One is produced by the eNOS, the NO/eNOS; another is produced by the neuron nitric oxide synthase (NO/nNOS); still another is produced by inducible nitric oxide synthase (NO/iNOS). NO/nNOS is also beneficial in that it dilates arteries. NO/iNOS is detrimental in that it kills healthy cells or produces scars. It is responsible for the stenosis in rheumatic heart disease.
Endothelium injured by atheroma, for example, does not produce NO (Ornish, D. MD. Dr. Dean Ornish’s Program for Reversing Heart Disease. 1996). That is why the endothelium needs protection.
However, NO/iNOS can be put to good use. It kills cancer cells. A new method to cure cancer is called gene therapy where NO/iNOS is delivered precisely to cancer cells to kill them. Since they do not land on healthy cell, they do not have side effect. (Chemotherapy has side effects because it kills both cancer and healthy cells).
Balance populations of free radicals and ROS
There is no escape from free radicals because our body produces them and we get them from the environment. We inhale molecular oxygen that metabolizes glucose into energy whose by-products are superoxide, water, and carbon dioxide. The enzyme cyclooxygenase acts on arachidonic acid and produces prostacyclin whose by-product is superoxide. There are several reactions whose by-products are superoxides.
Ultraviolet rays of the sun hit the water in the skin and produces hydroxyl radical, another free radical. Ultraviolet rays hitting the skin excites water molecules and move electrons out of their orbital. For example, molecular oxygen whose one electron is moved out of its orbital turns into singlet oxygen, another free radical.
We get ozone, another free radical, from the atmosphere and from the sparks of motor starters and other electrical gadgets.
Injuries like atheroma and lesions in the inside wall of the artery leak out iron and copper. Atheroma is a benign tumor started by free radicals or ROS; so are lesions in the carotid artery that supplies blood to the brain.
Iron facilitates the production of hydroxyl radical, the most destructive free radical. Copper accelerates the production of alkoxy radical.
However, we can balance out the population of free radicals and ROS that cause damage as oxidants. Our body has built-in antioxidants. We have the superoxide dismutase, an enzyme that neutralizes superoxide by turning it into hydrogen peroxide. This ROS is turned into safe water by the enzyme glutathione peroxidase. Catalase is another built-in antioxidant.
When an unpaired electron grabs another electron to stabilize itself, it inflicts injury. Damage inflicted on molecules, tissues and organs turn into disease.
When the population of free radicals and ROS overwhelm the population of built-in antioxidants oxidation stress occurs that results in free radical disease or degenerative diseases like heart disease, stroke, cancer, emphysema, osteoporosis, arthritis, Alzheimer’s disease, motor neuron disease, Parkinson’s disease, diabetes, lupus, psoriasis and many more.
The built-in antioxidants can be helped by means of supplements (vitamin A, C, E, B complex, coenzyme Q10, melatonin) and chelators.
How infusion chelation therapy cures stroke
Chelation therapy can be given orally or by infusion. The latter is more effective in that the chelator goes direct to the blood. The strong acid of the stomach may diminish the effectiveness of oral chelation, according to Dr. Arturo V. Estuita, a Filipino internist and chelationist (personal communication, 2013). . .
Chelation therapy consists of chelators: ethylene-diamine-tetra- acetate (EDTA), minerals, and vitamins. This chelator has six claws, as it were, and a negative charge.
Chelation is likened to claws of a crab pinching on minerals and plaque. The negative charge of EDTA reacts with the positive charge of calcium, or iron, or copper, or NO/iNOS and other components of a plaque. They bind with and remove them through the urine.
EDTA lowers the level of calcium in the blood (but not to a fatal extent). Lowered calcium level triggers the parathyroid gland to secrete hormone that triggers the osteoblast to stimulate bone formation. Such formation gets calcium from any source including the plaque that narrows the diameter of arteries. That is another way how EDTA dissolves plaque.
EDTA (with disodium) also neutralizes free radicals and ROS (Cranton, E. MD. Bypassing Bypass).
In short, EDTA dissolves plaque, dissolves blood clot and catches free radicals and ROS. These are the main weapons of infusion chelation therapy in curing stroke, according to Dr. Estuita,
Once its plaque had been dissolved, the benign tumor, atheroma, will heal itself by means of the endothelium progenitor stem cells that are circulating in the blood.
Why do we say that chelation therapy cures stroke? Cure is different from prevention, or treatment, or healing.
Prevention means stroke is not allowed to occur by preempting its causes. The causes are free radicals and ROS. Prevention is done by catching free radicals and ROS such that oxidative stress does not occur.
Treatment is like this: When high blood pressure occurs, you take an antihypertensive drug and your blood pressure goes down to normal. However, when you are provoked to anger, your blood pressure elevates again. You take an antihypertensive drug and your blood pressure normalizes again. This cycle goes on.
In cure, the above cycle does not occur. Once your blood pressure goes down to normal it will stay there. That is unless the causes come back and life style gives opportunity for the disease to recur.
Smoking and alcohol are parts of life style. Free radicals and ROS are causes that when neutralized will not cause another episode of stroke.
Healing is a spontaneous process done by the body on itself. Take the cutting of the tip of a finger. This finger will stop bleeding, form a surface clot, and dry up. In a short time, the cut portion will regrow. That healing is done by stem cells. The body has reserves of stem cells that differentiate to replace worn out, or apoptosed, or damaged tissues.
Infusion chelation therapy is a more effective alternative
Why is infusion chelation therapy more effective than the ways conventional medicine deals with stroke?
Some ways by which conventional medicine prevents stroke is by changes in life style, and taking of aspirin. This drug inhibits the action of the enzyme cyclooxygenase on arachidonic acid that produces thromboxane and prostacyclin. Thromboxane promotes aggregation of blood platelet that leads to blood clot. So if no thromboxane, no blood aggregation and no blood clot. Thromboxane also constricts arteries.
Aspirin thins the blood; however, long time use of aspirin results in internal bleeding in the stomach and in the brain (Dr. Mercola, FDA reverses its position on wonder drug aspirin...." Internet, August 3,2014) and allergy to any drug.
Prostacyclin does the opposite of what thromboxane does. Prostacyclin dilates arteries and inhibits aggregation of platelets. Aspirin allows a limited production of prostacyclin (Sears, B. Ph.D. The Zone. 1992). Other painkillers of the type cyclooxygenase 2 like Vioxx completely inhibit the production of prostacyclin that is why they induce heart attack and stroke. (Vioxx, made and marketed by Merck, was withdrawn from the market in 2004, some 27,000 cases were filed against Merck that paid out US$ 1.84 billion in indemnity).
The conventional treatment of ischemic stroke due to blood clot is by dissolving the blood clot with enzymes like streptokinase, recombinant tissue plasminogen activator (t-Pase) and ASPAC. However, these enzymes sometimes fail to dissolve the clot.
Vasodilators like nitroglycerin widen the artery but only temporarily. Conventional medication neither catches free radicals and ROS nor erodes the plaque.
“Despite the best currently available treatment, about 25 percent of stroke victims die; 15 to 25 percent worsen after hospital admission; and many stroke survivors are left with significant disabilities, many severe” (DeBakey, M. MD and A. Gotto, Jr.., MD. The New Living Heart. 1997: 310).
Another way conventional medicine treats plaque is by bypass surgery. This is invasive. Besides, the causes of plaque, free radicals and ROS, are still roaming around. They can cause another plaque.
In contrast, infusion chelation therapy has several mode of actions against stroke. One, it dissolves blood clot. Two, it erodes the plaque in the artery. Three, it catches free radicals and ROS that cause atheroma and lesions. Four, it removes the minerals (iron, copper) that catalyze the production of free radicals and ROS. Five, it returns flexibility to hardened arteries.
Dr. Estuita had cured victims of stroke with 30 to 60 sessions of infusion chelation therapy depending on the severity of attack. He had revived a victim who was in coma for one week. This fellow is now back to work as a high official of the National Bureau of Investigation.
I have seen patients who were in crutches, others who were being fed by tube who were cured. I am having infusion chelation therapy for my ischemia that is why I sometimes have sessions at the same time with them.
New entries as of August 5,2014
The United States' National Institutes of Health (National Institute of Heart, Lungs and Blood) launched a doubled blind randomized with control study in 2002 called "Trials to Assess Chelation Therapy" (TACT). It costs 30 million US dollars; some 1,780 patients participated in the study. Results were announced in a meeting of the American Heart Association on November 4, 2012 in Los Angeles, California. TACT found that chelation therapy is safe and effective for heart disease. Another beneficial side effect is that chelation is safe and effective for diabetes. Some of those who participated in TACT were also suffering from diabetes and got well of it.
It should be added that chelation therapy is effective for stroke because stroke is caused by free radicals and ROS that cause plaque in heart disease. Carotid artery is usually afflicted with plaque that results in ischemic stroke. Free radicals and ROS also weaken arteries that turn susceptible to rapture resulting in hemorrhagic stroke.
Hubs on chelation therapy by conradofontanilla:
TurtleDog on August 14, 2019:
I had a stroke. Remedies are few and far between. I'll look more into this