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All substances found on Earth are made up of elements. So far, about 112–15 elements are known that makeup almost all the substances on the earth, of which about 80 elements are metals and the rest are non-metals or substrates.
Generally, metal conductors and heat conductors are shockproof and tensile. And are in a solid-state at room temperature. Only mercury is the only metal that is in a liquid state at room temperature.
According to chemistry, metals are the elements that easily make electrons by giving up electrons. And form metallic bonds with atoms of metals.
Metals are generally chemically active. That is, they are not found in free form, they act with other elements and are found in compound form (compound). Those are called minerals. Some metals are found in basic form or metallic form. Such as gold, silver, platinum, etc. Sometimes pure metals are found in the form of piles called nuggets.
Natural substances in which metals are found in the earth are called minerals. Minerals from which metals of economic importance can be easily separated. They are called ore.
Ores of major minerals are
1. Free Ore
Metals in these ores are found in a free state.
Silver, Gold, Copper, Platinum, Mercury, etc.
Iron is found in the free state as a meteorite.
2. Sulfide Ore
The metal in these ores reacts with sulfur.
Sisa (Pb) - Galena (PBS)
Silver (Ag) - Argentina (Ag2S)
Zinc (Zn) - Zinc Blend (ZnS)
Mercury (Hg) - Cinebar (HgS)
Iron (Fe) - Iron Pyrite (FeS2)
Copper (Cu) - copper pyrite (CuFeS2)
3. Oxide Ore
The metal in these ores reacts with oxygen to form oxides.
Aluminum (Al) -Boxide (Al2O3.2H2O)
Copper (Cu) - Cuprite (Cu2O)
Zinc (Zn) - Zincite (ZnO)
Iron (Fe) - Hematite (Fe2O3)
The metals in these ores react with carbonates.
Copper (Cu) - Melachite (CuCo3)
Iron (Fe) - Siderite (FeCo3)
Zinc (Zn) - Calamine (ZnCo3)
Apart from these ores, metals are also found in living organisms.
Potassium is present in the roots of plants.
Magnesium is found in chlorophyll.
Iron is present in hemoglobin.
Calcium is present in bones.
These ores are very important in our lives. We use a lot of ores directly in our daily lives. Some of which are as follows.
1. Sodium Chloride (NaCl) - Common Salt
It can be obtained from saltwater or lakes of the sea. HCl gas flows into it and it is purified.
Our daily lives are used as salt.
Meat is used in the preservation of fish.
Salt is used to make ice mixtures because salt prevents the ice from melting.
It is used in the manufacture of other products such as caustic soda (NaOH), sweet soda (NaHCO3).
2. Copper Sulfate Penta Hydrate () CuSO4.5H2O-
It is a bright blue colored crystalline substance which upon heating gives off water molecules.
Power is used in batteries and electrical coating.
A mixture of copper sulfate and change is used as a fungicide by farmers.
3. Silver Bromide (AgBr)
It is a light yellow crystalline compound.
It is used in photography.
4. Sodium Carbonate (Na2CO3.H2O) - Laundry Soda
It is a white crystalline solid. Whose water solution is alkaline. It reacts with acids and gives carbon dioxide.
In the laundry
To soften the water
In the production of glass, paper, baking soda, etc.
5. Silver Nitrate (AgNO3) - Lunar Caustic
Silver mirror making
In making indelible ink.
6. Sodium Bicarbonate (NaHCO3) - Eating Soda
As food soda
7. Sodium Hydroxide (NaOH) - Caustic Soda
In the dyes industry
As a reagent in the laboratory
Soap, scavengers, paper in the industry.
8. Alum (K2SO4Al2 (SO4) 3.24H2O
In softening the water.
Refining of ores
Metallurgical obtaining of pure metal from various ores by an ore is called metallurgical.
The following procedure is adopted to obtain pure metals from ores.
1. To crush or grind ore
2. The concentration of ore (separation of impurities from ore)
3. Separation of metal
4. Metal refining
In this way, now you can understand how important metal is in our life.
This content is accurate and true to the best of the author’s knowledge and is not meant to substitute for formal and individualized advice from a qualified professional.
© 2020 Swati Sharma
Swati Sharma (author) from India on May 25, 2021:
Umesh Chandra Bhatt from Kharghar, Navi Mumbai, India on October 28, 2020:
This is a very informative article. Metals are very important and are required in so many industries.