What is the Transatlantic Slave Trade?
The term “transatlantic” means across the Atlantic Ocean. As for the phrase “slave trade”, I guess everybody knows what it means. Well, if you don’t know what “slave trade” means, it is simply the buying and selling of human beings to be used as slaves.
The Transatlantic Slave Trade was the unscrupulous activity of buying human beings (slaves and non slaves) from West Africa and taking them across the Atlantic Ocean to America and the West Indies where they were eventually sold as slaves.
The Transatlantic Slave Trade occurred between the 15th and the 19th century.
Other names for the transatlantic slave trade include the Atlantic slave trade and the “Triangular Trade”. The term the “Triangular Trade” came about because of the fact that the slave trade system involved three continents – Africa, America and Europe, which came together to form something like a triangle. The slave traders traveled from Europe to West Africa, where they bought the slaves and captured some and then took them to the West Indies and America and some to Europe thereby forming the triangle.
The slave trade routes
- From Europe to West Africa
- From West Africa to America and the West Indies (South America)
- From America to Europe
When the slaves from West Africa arrived in the Americas, they mainly worked in coffee, tobacco, cotton, and sugar plantations. Others were also forced to work in rice fields and in gold and silver mines. The women slaves mainly worked as domestic servants for their White masters. Many of the women slaves were raped very often by their masters.
Since slaves were considered property and not human beings, they were sadly sold at markets along with other goods.
It is worth noting that prior to the Europeans coming to Africa for the first time and starting the transatlantic slave trade, Africans themselves had their own form of slavery. Many historians believe that it was the already existing African slave trade and Africans preparedness to sell their own brothers and sisters as slaves that motivated the Europeans to start engaging in the slave trade business.
In addition to the information above on the transatlantic slave trade, it is important to note that it wasn’t the whole of Europe that was engaged in slave trade. The slave trade was first started by the Portuguese before other countries in Europe such as Britain, Spain, France, etc followed.
How slaves were obtained during the transatlantic slave trade
There were a number of ways that the Europeans obtained African slaves to be shipped outside Africa. The most common sources of slaves included the following:
- Slaves of war: Before and during the transatlantic slave trade era, Africans were already involved in the slave business. Prisoners and captives of wars and conflicts between ethnic groups were usually taken as slaves by chiefs and warriors. These slaves were then sold to the Europeans during the transatlantic slave trade, making Africa play a very prominent role during the slave trade.
- Criminals and prisoners: Another source of slaves was prisoners or people who had committed crimes against the gods or their various communities. During the olden days in Africa, people found guilty of criminal activities or offending the gods were often punished by being banished from their villages or by enslavement since at that time there were no prisons. With slavery becoming a very lucrative business, many of these convicted criminals or ‘sinners’ were punished by enslavement instead of banishment. African chiefs and kings sold these enslaved criminals or ‘sinners’ to the European slave buyers. The main reason why these convicted criminals or ‘sinners’ were sold into slavery was so that they could no longer stay within their various communities and commit sins and crimes. Another major reason why these offenders were sold into slavery was because of the fact that it was extremely lucrative selling them to the Europeans.
- Tribute slaves: Tribute slaves were slaves who were gifted to kings and chiefs by other prominent people in society in order to show appreciation or to say thank you to the chiefs or kings. During the transatlantic slave trade era, most chiefs ended up selling their tribute slaves to the European slave traders.
- Kidnappings: Some slaves were innocent people who were captured during raids and kidnappings. Seeing how extremely lucrative the slave trade business was with the Europeans, some unscrupulous chiefs and ordinary Africans began raiding and kidnapping their own people from their farms and other desolate places to be sold into slavery. Sometimes these unscrupulous men would raid entire communities and villages and capture mainly women and children to be sold into slavery.
- Collateral slaves: There was also a group of slaves known as “collateral slaves”. These slaves were innocent people who were given out to others as surety for loans so that when the person who went in for the loan failed to pay the loan, the creditor took possession of the innocent person. Most of these collateral slaves were sold by their masters to African middlemen (African slave buyers) who in turn sold them to the European slave buyers.
As a result of how lucrative the slave trade business was, slaves were sometimes even sold in the open market.
It is worth noting that the European slave buyers rarely went inland to buy the slaves. They mainly stayed at the coasts and waited for the slaves to be brought to them. The job of going inland to get slaves was done by their African middlemen or agents who bought the slaves and transported them to the coastal areas where the Europeans eventually bought them off the middlemen. The reason the European slave traders couldn’t go into the interior of West Africa to get the slaves was because of the fact that they were afraid of catching certain diseases from the local people. Also, they were afraid of being attacked by the Africans who disliked their presence on African soil.
How the slaves were kept before being shipped to the Americas
The slaves were mainly kept in slave farms or slave camps which were controlled by the European slave traders who employed Africans to help them take care of the camps. In these slave camps, the slaves were kept in chains and poorly fed. On top of this, they were constantly beaten.
From the slave farms or camps, the slaves were then transferred to castles by the coasts of West Africa. In these castles, the slaves were chained to one another and kept in dark and dirty rooms called Dungeons. These dungeons were special cells built in the castles by the European slave traders to keep slaves until it was time for them to be shipped out of Africa. The dungeons had no windows and therefore no fresh air entered inside. On top of this, the slaves were given very little food and given inhumane treatment. Many of them ended up dying as a result of the harsh and inhumane treatment they received.
Slavery in the Americas was more brutal than slavery in Africa
While slavery existed both in Africa and the Americas during the transatlantic slave trade era, it must be known that the form of slavery in the Americas was more brutal than that which existed in Africa.
For example, in Africa, slavery was not inheritable. This meant that the children of slaves were not considered slaves. But in the Americas, all the children of slaves were also slaves. These children were therefore also subjected to the inhumane treatment that their parents underwent.
The transatlantic slave trade, which is considered one of mankind’s worst actions, lasted for roughly 400 years, from 1450 to somewhere around 1850. The reason why the slave trade lasted for this long was as a result of a lot of factors. The most prominent reason was because it was extremely lucrative to both the European slave traders and the African chiefs and middlemen involved in the slave trade business. As of that time there was no human rights organizations such as Amnesty International and the others to fight on behalf of the slaves. As a result of all these, slave trade continued to exist for over 400 years during which over 12 million African slaves were shipped from Africa to the Americas and parts of Britain.
Ruby Jean Richert from Southern Illinois on June 23, 2020:
Reading this made me sad and angry. The bible is full of slavery, so it's been around for a long time. No wonder we are seeing black people march for equal rights. It's about time!
lubna on May 05, 2020:
Angelo Rigsby on December 26, 2018:
There is some evidence that Africans came to America prior to the Trans-Atlantic African Holocaust. There is No evidence that African loaded Africans on ships and brought them to the America or anywhere else in the world.. There is no evidence that Africans built and entire world economy (capitalism) based on the free labor of Africans. Where in the Africa of the 17th through 19th century and now the 21st century is there an African economy that got wealthy based on the enslavement of African peoples. Yes, We Africans participated when passed on or sold slaves from war and prisoners we held due to crime and misconduct. There was no looking at your child, mother, brother, or member of your immediate group and selling them to Europeans. There was also no knowledge on the part of the Africans of what the differences were between the concept of slavery in America and the concept of slavery in Africa. Africans of the interior were not aware of the level of cruelty that was to be brought down on the backs of the Africans that they traded for trinkets and guns and gun powder. We had know knowledge of the atrocities and ultimate economic gains that would come from the Trans Atlantic slave trade. Please don't say to me "Well Africans sold Africans to justify or excuse the atrocities of the European slave trade". To say this to me is more insult to injury. I get this same insult when someone says: "Just forget slavery it happen a long time ago" NO! I am never going to forget what happen to my great great grandparents as slaves. I say to them:" Would you want to just dismiss the torture and daily , hourly, oppression of your grandparents. Just act like they never happen! Who is that much of a monster other than a monster!
Raphael Duncan on November 13, 2017:
Because the slave did not do them any thing
Reynold Jay from Saginaw, Michigan on November 26, 2015:
It could be they shipped them elsewhere and I imagine so when one looks a map.
myvenn (author) from Ghana on November 25, 2015:
Are you sure about Mogadishu, Somalia being the main port for exporting slaves during the Transatlantic Slave Trade? Somalia isn't in West Africa. And during the transatlantic slave trade era, the ports from which slaves were shipped out of Africa were the ports in West Africa. West African countries such as Ghana, Ivory Coast, Nigeria, Liberia, etc were mainly where these slaves were shipped from to the Americas.
Reynold Jay from Saginaw, Michigan on November 25, 2015:
Yes--very sad part of history. Well done HUB. Mogadishu, Somalia was the main port for exporting slaves. To this day Mogadishu is considered to be the most violent city in the world.
myvenn (author) from Ghana on November 24, 2015:
Cheaptrick, you have a very strong point there. What is freedom? What is the definition of freedom? Are we really free? Maybe not. Maybe we are to a certain degree. Cheaptrick, your comment is really deep and thought provoking.
cheaptrick from the bridge of sighs on November 24, 2015:
Slavery was and is a look into the dark side of human nature.
An interesting fact about slavery in America(that most folks aren't aware of)is only wealthy people could afford slaves.Less than 10% of Americans had the money to buy one...
The vast majority of slaves were owned by the same 10% who's decedents own All of us today...only the chains have been replaced by debt,taxation,and the double speak of politicians.
Freedom is a word used by dreamers and fools.We(the people of the world)are like cattle bred for generations to serve the owners...who do with us what they wish..