I'm a registered history writer at ilmy kitab khana (a book publishing board in larkana) i have done master from salu khairpur sindh pak
The Indus Valley Civilization is one of the earliest human civilizations, dating from 3300 to 1700 BC. It started in the Indus Valley plains on the banks of the Indus and its tributaries. It is also called the Harappan civilization.
Harappa and Moinjo Daro were its main centres. Traces of this civilization have also been found on the banks of the Sawan River. The inhabitants of this civilization used to build houses with bricks. They had bullock carts, they made cloth from wheels and khadi, they were experts in making pottery, farmers, weavers, potters and masons were the architects of the Indus Valley Civilization.
Cotton cloth, which is called cotton in English, was invented by him and the word cotton is made from his word katna. Sugar and chess are invaluable gifts of this civilization to the world. The wealth of the Indus Valley Civilization has attracted people for thousands of years.
It is believed that the foundations of civilization in Pakistan and India were laid by the Aryans in 1500 BC. Before that, the people here were far from wild and civilized. But later research brought about a sudden change in this ideology and pushed back the history of this country by one and a half thousand. On the one hand, the relics of Mohenjo-daro and Harappa and the information about the ancient civilization of Sindh have led to the fact that long before the arrival of the Aryans, this country had become the cradle of civilization and civilization.
It is an incident of 1921 that Rai Bahadur Diya Ram Sahni found some traces of ancient civilization at Harappa. A year later, similar artefacts were found in the land of Mohenjo-daro to Mr. RD Banerjee. This was reported to the Archaeological Survey of India. Sir John Marshall, Director General of the Department, expressed interest and paid attention to these two places. So the excavation work started under the orders of Rai Bahadur Diya Ram Sahni, Director Ernest McKay and other orders of the Impact Department. Work was halted in 1931 due to lack of funds. In the meantime, the department has launched search operations in other places.
It was a great success and it was discovered that this ancient civilization was not limited to Mohenjo-daro and Harappa. On the contrary, there are traces of ancient civilizations in Sindh province like Chanhodro, Jhukar, Ali Murad and Amri and in Punjab province, Rupar and in Balochistan at Naal and Kali.
The Indus Valley refers not only to present Sindh but also to present Pakistan, eastern part of Afghanistan, western part of India. The Indus Valley stretches from the Pakistani province of Balochistan in the west to Uttar Pradesh in the east, and from the northeastern part of Afghanistan in the north to the Indian state of Maharashtra in the southwest.
The Indo-Gangetic Plains is a vast plain located in the northern part of the subcontinent. The plain is named after two major rivers, the Indus and the Ganges, which make the land extremely fertile. The field is spread across four countries - Pakistan, India, Nepal and Bangladesh.
Right now, as we pass through the late Hijri era, we see traces of civilization in the Indus Valley that leave us stunned. He was talking about laying the foundations of collective life, settling settlements, creating practice and cleanliness in the industry. Now all of a sudden we see a magnificent city. Their houses are solid and strong, two or three storeys high. They have roads, they have markets. The life and customs and habits of their inhabitants seem to be moulded. This strange thing is that the traces of the Indus Valley, which are in the deepest depths indicate the greatest development. That is, when the city was first formed, then the civilization here had reached its peak and later it continued to decline. The exposure and interpretation of the Indus Valley Civilization is perhaps the greatest modern event of the twentieth century. Because the breadth and significance of this civilization could not be understood before the excavation of Mohenjo-daro in 1922.
The Indus Valley Civilization is one of the most magnificent things in the history of Pakistan. There are many features of this civilization that are unique to it. In the past, experts thought that this civilization was brought from this land from West Asia and was the cause of the rise and fall of West Asian civilization. But in 1950, Dr. FA Khan excavated Kot DJ. It brought new things and changed old ideas. Kot DJ found a population long before the Harappan period. The time of its civilization was determined by radiocarbon and it was found that this population is 800 years older than Harappa. This was followed by a series of excavations. This proves that the sources of this civilization were in this land. This was a necessary consequence of the evolution of local society, and whatever external influences were secondary and less important. The mature period of this civilization is from 2500 BC to 1700 BC. But in fact its continuity can be seen up to 3800 BC.Its sphere of influence extends from Badakhshan in northern Afghanistan in the north to the coast in the south. Where it extends from the coast of Balochistan to Kathiawar. In the old excavations, there were forty-two cities and occupations associated with this civilization. Now the number has increased by hundreds.In Cholistan alone, Dr. Rafiq Mughal has found 363 buried settlements belonging to this civilization. Apart from this, the effects of this civilization have been found in Sarai Khola, Jhang, Bathial, Ghalagai in Swat Valley, many places in Gomal Valley, Mehrgarh in Kachhi area of Balochistan.In India, the Ghaghar River (Hakra) and its tributary basin area are full of these monuments. It includes the provinces of Rajputana, East Punjab and Haryana.Among the places where traces of this civilization have been found here are Kali Bangan, Seswal, Banewali Manda and many other places. Lothal and Rangpur were big cities near the coast. In addition, there are many small settlements.
The first city to meet this civilization was Harappa and for this reason it is also called Harappan Civilization. The second largest city was Mohenjo-daro. Later, Gunveri was found. Which is a bigger city than Harappa but experts gave more importance to Harappa and Mohenjo-daro.
The presence of large cities is proof that the population was large. It was in the cities, but also in the villages. Abundant commodities ... More than your local needs ... Was producing so that these goods could be sent to the cities. The frequent use of solid bricks across the country is proof that there were vast forests. The shapes of animals on pots and seals and their bones on burials are evidence of the abundance of animals and, in other words, the abundance of forests. The animals were rhinos, lions, river buffaloes and elephants. Evidence of a crocodile has also been found. Some species of bears, monkeys, squirrels and parrots have also been found. Twelve sanghas and deer have also been found.
Notable cities of this civilization include Mohenjo-daro, Harappa, Chanhudaro, Satkagan Daro, Balakot, Sotka Koh, Tochi, Mezina Dumb, Siya Dumb, Jhai, Ali Murad, Gunveriwala and several other cities.
In all the details of material culture, the whole vast area ... Now archaeologists call it the Greater Indus Valley. Has complete uniformity with each other. The pottery is the same everywhere.As a result of wholesale production, the houses are built on standard maps and are made of solid bricks. The seals are adorned with a kind of carved landscape and the script is the same everywhere. The same standard system of weights and measures is in place everywhere.
Experts generally refrain from using the word kingdom for the Indus Valley Civilization. But perhaps Puget and Wheeler have used the word Indus Empire superficially. While this is the tendency of most experts, it cannot be considered an empire.But there are some basic facts that no other explanation has yet been possible. The strong uniformity of industrial production in the Indus Valley certainly gives rise to the idea that there was a strong central government. Which was controlling the whole area. In addition, there was an integrated chain of production and distribution that she controlled.One of its products, of course, was the integrated system of toll collection and highway safety. Harappa and Mohenjo-daro were contemporary cities, which were certainly twin capitals. There were high forts inside these two cities. Which seemed to dominate the rest of the population. Therefore, there was scope for speculation that they were the capital of the central government.
The great uniformity of products and handicrafts across the country was not only the result of strict laws of the central government, but also of the commercial laws of the society. Who had a religious color ... Of course they will be very strict. Which were acted upon word for word. The weights were the same in each area. The shape of the bronze ax and the shape of the spear were the same. The size of the bricks, the map of the houses, the layout of the main streets, the purpose of the town planning of the whole city was the same. The reason for this is that for centuries, new buildings have been built on old buildings. The outer walls of a house did not change for centuries.This meant that both the ruling and subjugated classes did not feel the need for change. The artisans, bound by caste, had been doing the same thing for generations, and so it was with the upper classes.
The Indus Valley had the same intensity in time and place. On the one hand, it is the same from Balochistan to Punjab and Khyber Pakhtunkhwa. On the other hand, as long as this civilization lasted for thirteen hundred years, its details did not change.
The stagnation of civilization
A total of nine residential layers were excavated in Mohenjo-daro. There is evidence of flood damage in many places. But there is no difference in the material culture of these different periods. Neither the language nor the script has changed. In a land where language has taken many forms and the script has changed radically over and over again, the continuity of a single script is a great proof of its permanence.
On the one hand, he had relations with Akkad and Sumer. On the other hand, for thirteen hundred years they did not learn anything from Akkadian and Sumerian industrial methods. This means that the reasons for stagnation were internal and very strong and the external influences were weak.
Cosby added that the civilization lacked spread. That is, cities were inhabited along the Indus and its tributaries. The rest of the population consisted of small villages and this civilization did not go to the Ganges and Jamun valleys and the Khaknae Deccan.
This content is accurate and true to the best of the author’s knowledge and is not meant to substitute for formal and individualized advice from a qualified professional.
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