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Great Scholar Max Muller - a Great Thinker of Indian Sanskrit Subject

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Max Muller's love of Sanskrit was evident in all the texts from Darwin's new writings to Greek, Latin, Arabic and Persian texts.


Nineteenth Century Period of Sanskrit Studies

At the beginning of the nineteenth century, a nation called Germany did not exist. There were many small German-speaking territories. But it was not under one regime. These German-speaking people were politically dispersed under the rule of many kings who were supposed to be small institutions.

Although the monarchies of France, England, Denmark, modern nationalism were taking shape in the societies of those lands. They were woven around language, ethnicity, religion and, culture. Those regimes had a colonial fever of commercial power and political power.

Their curiosity about India was overshadowed. The German language was proud in these German-speaking territories. The dominance of that language and the universities there had come to the fore. But German-speaking territories did not have a national umbrella like other territories. There was no political identity as a nation. There was no political impression.

This is what economist Friedrich List's statement was called 'economic nationalism'. The German-speaking curiosity about India and Indians was neither religious enough, nor economic, nor political. It sprouted and flourished because of the scholars. At that time there was an atmosphere of reliance on liberal and idealistic thinking among German scholars.

Reading English translations of Sanskrit literature by Colebrook and Wilkins created consciousness in the minds of many German thinkers and writers. The big names are Wolfgang Goeth (Gutte), Schlegel and Humboldt. Goethe was overjoyed to read Shakuntala's translation. Schlegel, who translated 17 of Shakespeare's plays, was shocked to read it.

A scholar like Humboldt, who is known as a 'multi-scholar', wrote an essay on the Bhagavad Gita as 'a narrative from the Mahabharata'. After reading it, a philosopher like Hegel was compelled to write in his encyclopedia on aspects like philosophy and art in India.


Pioneer of Sanskrit Studies

Prof. Max Muller is one of the pioneers of the wave of curiosity about Hindustan. He was born on December 6th, 1823. He loved music and poetry. But in his quest for admission to the University of Leipzig, he became a student of mathematics, modern language, and science. In his twenties, he wrote a dissertation on Spinoza's ethics. During this time he became proficient in Greek, Latin, Arabic, Persian and Sanskrit.

In 1844 Max Muller came to Berlin with his fellow Friedrich Schilling. Hegel's roommate was a philosophical friend but was overshadowed by Hegel's growing influence. During that time he translated the Upanishads for Shelling. He continued to study Sanskrit with the help of Franz Bopp. The parallel connection between the history of language and the history of religion began to unfold because of Bop. At the same time, he translated a collection of proverbs, Proverbs.

From there he arrived in Paris in 1845. Eugene Bunare began to study Sanskrit in depth with a French Sanskrit scholar. Bunare's encouragement led to the hope of translating the Rig Veda. The text of Rigveda in the collection of the East India Company was available at Oxford University. William Jones's study of the Indo-European language group had its roots in Oxford.

He insisted that the study of ancient texts, such as the Rig Veda, was essential to the study of non-Christian and pre-Christian theology. He insisted on the East India Company. He accurately edited and translated Sainacharya's Rig Veda copy.

The list of exact 'discourses' and lectures he has translated is very long. He has played a significant role in many of the debates that took place during in his time. He examining their history of ancient religions, he suggested four groups of religions. The same pair argued about Darwin's theory of evolution. For example, can human languages ​​evolve from the sounds of animals? Indo-Europeans, especially the Vedic and Avestan Iranians, they refer to themselves as Aryans. Prior to that, Indo-Europeans did not know what to call themselves and did not know.

Over time, the idea of ​​Aryanism developed into a number of ethnic and cultural issues. Many of his assumptions are largely complex. He re-translated Kant's critique of the Pure Reason, and in his preface he says, "The whole of the Aryan universe is connected by a bridge. Its initial roar is in the Vedas, and its final result is in the review of Kant.” This is necessary and inevitable.

As became the case with Christianity. It will also happen to Hindu Dharma. He hoped that the old tree of Hinduism, which had been eroded by tradition, would collapse and change.' If modern western education spreads in India, this transition will happen spontaneously and the result will be more commendable. They would be better than Christian evangelical efforts. He also said that the form of Christianity that is taking shape in India will be very different from the Christianity of our nineteenth century.

He spoke respectfully about the main religion i.e. Hinduism and other non-Christian religions. Because of his beliefs, he was disliked by traditional Christian followers. So much so, that he could not be appointed Bowden professor at Oxford because all the Roman Catholic Church revolted against his writings as anti-Christian. In those days, His recommendation was ignored by many scholars of the time. The character of Monier Williams, who seemed to be quite a scholar in comparison to him, appeared there.

Oxford, Cambridge were originally Christian schools and colleges. It was customary to persecute other religions there, to treat them as if they were being thrown into the sand. Max Miller was so anxious to leave Oxford that he was often reluctant to do so, but his well-wishers and supporters continued to oppose him.

Many Indian scholars were his friends. The most notable scholar is Lokmanya Tilak. Max Miller praised him for reading his book, The Arctic Home in Vedas. After Tilak was imprisoned in a treason case in 1887, Max Miller demanded his release, saying that it was unjust and indecent to punish such a scholar. This is the first article written by Tilak on the death of Max Miller on November 6th, 1900.

In 1882, he gave seven lectures in Cambridge entitled 'What should we (ie England) learn from Hindustan'. Those candidates who passed the ICS exam used to undergo training at Cambridge before entering India. This lecture given to the ICS selected students should be read from the beginning.

Let's look at selected excerpts from the recipe - ‘I always tell the students who sit for the ICS exam to take up the study of Sanskrit language. Then these students ask me, 'What is the benefit of learning Sanskrit? The translation of texts like Shakuntal, Manusmriti, and Hitopadesh is in English only! 'There is nothing new to learn in Sanskrit. And even if there is some knowledge in it, why should we bother to learn it? '

The Tibetan translation of the Buddhist Tripitaka contains a fable. Two women claim to be the real mother of the child. We can see such is the story of the judgment of Solomon, king of the Jews. If you compare the judgments they give, you will see in this Buddhist story a more thorough study of human nature than in King Suleiman. So that's what I would say in India.. We Europeans only grow up studying Greek and Roman philosophy. But whoever wants to bless his life on earth... Or whoever wants lasting peace will have to turn to Indian philosophy.'

The 50 volumes of the book "Sacred Books of the East" edited and translated by him are ample evidence of his immense learning ability and erudition. Apart from this, he has written many research ideological works that we couldn’t think about it. While describing this German scholar who did not set foot in India and was relatively deserted in Oxford, one should remember the title of Tilak's obituary 'Swadeshe Pujyate Raja Vidvan Sarvat Pujyate'.

© 2021 Anand

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