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Dry cells, Daniel cells, storage cells etc. using various electrochemical cells are constantly operating electrical equipment. But considering the environmental pollution, longevity, the possibility of accidents, these cells can not play an effective role. Therefore, with the continuation of continuous research, the journey of fuel cell has started as a less environmentally polluting, more efficient and sustainable technology. Fuel cell fuel cell is a type of electrochemical cell or galvanic cell in which a special electrochemical component is attached which converts the chemical energy generated from the fuel directly into electrical energy.
Features of Fuel Cell
- Fuel is the source of energy in the fuel cell
- Hydrogen gas or methanol is mainly used as fuel
- Fuel cells and other normal cells have three parts. Namely: anode, cathode, electrolysis
- Fuel and oxygen or air from two external sources enter the cell and continuously react to convert chemical energy into electrical energy.
- Hydrogen as fuel and wind as oxidant will generate electricity uninterruptedly
- Fuel cells are named after the fuel used in the fuel cell
- Hydrogen fuel cells generate electricity without pollution
- Provides maximum thermal efficiency
- In the fuel cell, the fuel is oxidized at the anode and oxygen is oxidized at the cathode.
Hydrogen fuel cell
Like other fuel cells, hydrogen oxygen has three parts namely anode, cathode and electrolysis. Here the nickel or platinum powder coating on the graphite rod acts as an anode or cathode. Aqueous solutions of NaOH or KOH are used as electrolysis. In addition, hydrogen gas and oxygen gas are driven into the cell at a pressure of 50 atm.
The structure and types of hydrogen fuel cells
Hydrogen fuel cell is a breakthrough in solving the fuel crisis. Using it can reduce greenhouse gas emissions as well as generate high-efficiency electricity for a long time due to its efficiency and high efficiency. That's why the Apollo spacecraft was the first to use a fuel cell.
A hydrogen fuel cell is a low temperature fuel cell. There are two types of hydrogen fuel cell circulation based on fuel and electrolysis such as
- Hydrogen-Air Fuel Cell (Here a mixture of hydrogen and air as fuel and phosphoric acid is used as electrolysis)
- Hydrogen Oxygen Fuel Cell (Here the mixture of hydrogen and oxygen is taken as fuel and alkaline solution as electrolysis)
Hydrogen gas is used as fuel in the anode electrode and oxygen gas in the other electrode. Hydrogen gas as fuel is absorbed in the gap between the platinum powder at the anode and in contact with the electrolytic KOH solution actually produces electrons and hydrogen ions through the hydrogen gas at the anode. The generated electrons travel from the anode to the cathode through the wires of the external circuit. The flow of electrons is electricity. Hydrogen ions come in alkaline solution to produce water. It is shown below
2H2 + 4OH- = 4H2O + 4e.............(1)
Oxygen gas from the cathode receives electrons and decomposes to form oxygen. Oxygen ions turn into hydroxide ions in the presence of water. The generated hydroxide ions reconstitute the reduced hydroxide ions in the caustic soda solution used as electrolysis. As long as the flow of fuel and air continues in the cell, electrons are generated at the anode and electrons are removed at the cathode.
O2 + 2H2O + 4e = 4OH- ....................(2)
The overall reaction that takes place in a hydrogen fuel cell
2H2 + O2 = 2H2O
Advantages of Hydrogen Fuel Cell
- Since hydrogen gas is an environmentally friendly fuel, it does not pollute the environment of power generation through fuel cells.
- It is safer and more convenient to produce electricity through hydrogen fuel cells. Water and heat are available as by-products as well as in the production of electricity
- Hydrogen fuel cells are being used to generate electricity and clean water from artificial satellites used in space missions.
- Hydrogen fuel cells have no noise pollution and never need recharging.
- It is lightly portable, with no damaged components inside the cell
- In the near future, the electricity generated from hydrogen fuel cells will be used for the operation of electric vehicles, commercial establishments, residential houses, etc., reducing environmental pollution.
- Twice as powerful as gasoline
- No problem to recharge
- The efficiency of this cell is much higher
- Easy to maintain