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Freak Show

Freak Shows

Unusual human beings have been exhibited in public since antiquity. The first traveling "freak show" appeared in 1738 in Europe. Curiosity seems to be the motivating factor of the audiences.

For over 100 years, carnival and circus freak shows were immensely popular in America. At one time, there were 105 exhibitions of human freaks traveling about the United States, as well as many featured in amusement parks.

P.T. Barnum was the most famous and successful impresario of freak shows in American history. His human freaks generally included giants, midgets, bearded ladies, fat ladies, tattooed men, and thin men, along with the usual sword swallowers and fire eaters.

Those with progressive ideas began raising objections to exhibitions of human freaks in the 1930s, deeming them shameful "pornography of the disabled." By 1970, enough laws had been passed to kill traveling freak shows.

I have for your pleasure an assemblage—a Baker's Dozen as it were—of the stars of the human freak shows of old. But first . . .

Bartholomew Fair

All moveables of wonder, from all parts, Are here--Albinos, painted Indians, Dwarfs, The Horse of knowledge, and the learned Pig,

The Stone-eater, the man that swallows fire,
Giants, Ventriloquists, the Invisible Girl,
The Bust that speaks and moves its goggling eyes,
The Wax-work, Clock-work, all the marvelous craft

Of modern Merlins, Wild Beasts, Puppet-shows,
All out-o'-the-way, far-fetched, perverted things,
All freaks of nature, all Promethean thoughts
Of man, his dullness, madness, and their feats

All jumbled up together, to compose
A Parliament of Monsters. Tents and Booths
Meanwhile, as if the whole were one vast mill,
Are vomiting, receiving on all sides,
Men, Women, three-years' Children, Babes in arms.

William Wordsworth




Schlitzie Surtees (1890-1971) was born Schlitzie Metz in The Bronx, New York. Sometimes billed "The Pinhead," he suffered from microcephaly—an unusually small brain. Schlitzie had the mind of a three-year-old. His parents sold or gave him to a freak show.

Schlitzie was adopted by a chimpanzee trainer named George Surtees, who by all accounts took great care of him for decades. Schlitzie would become a big star for the Barnum & Bailey Circus in the 1920s and 1930s. He achieved more fame in one of the four films in which he appeared, Freaks (1932).

Schlitzie was 4' tall and dressed in a moo-moo because he wore diapers, which gave the impression he was female. Schlitzie was well loved by his fellow performers for his child-like innocence, exuberance, and unconditionally loving and affectionate nature. He loved the spotlight; he lived to sing, dance, and perform for people.

George Surtees died in 1965. His daughter committed Schlitzie to a mental hospital. It so happened that a sword swallower named Bill Bunks, who knew him, worked at this hospital during the off-season. Finding Schlitzie utterly despondent, Bunks arranged his release and return to the freak show. This made Schlitzie very happy. He lived to the ripe old age of 81, before he succumbed to pneumonia.



Lazarus Colloredo

Lazarus Colloredo (1617-1646) is perhaps the earliest example of a man who became widely famous as a human freak. Born in Genoa, Italy, Lazarus toured Europe for a decade. He made his living by exhibiting himself to a public that was drawn to see the unusual.

Lazarus Colloredo was a handsome, courteous man. He got married and fathered several children, all of whom were normal. Lazarus also had a parasitic twin named Joannes Baptista, who dangled from his midsection.

Joannes Baptista had only an upper body and a left leg that protruded out of Lazarus. Joannes never spoke; he never opened his mouth or eyes. Lazarus kept him covered up with a cloak when not performing.



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Chang & Eng

Chang & Eng (1811-1874) were born conjoined identical twins in Siam (Thailand). Thus we get the portmanteau "Siamese Twins." If born today, Chang & Eng would easily have been separated.

Chang & Eng were discovered by a British merchant and exhibited as human freaks on a world tour. They settled in the United States and worked fifteen years for P.T. Barnum as sideshow freaks, which made them fairly wealthy. They adapted the last name of Bunker for unknown reasons.

Chang & Eng bought a 1000 acre plantation in North Carolina, and purchased a few slaves to work it. The plantation was near Mt. Airy, the inspiration for the fictional city of Mayberry on The Andy Griffith Show.

Chang & Eng married American sisters and fathered 21 children between them. Their respective children were genetically double-first-cousins and half-siblings.

Chang was the dominant brother and a heavy drinker. Eng was known as a quiet intellectual who loved to play poker. Chang died of pneumonia at age 63. Eng lived three hours longer.



General Tom Thumb

General Tom Thumb (1838-1883) was the stage name given by P.T. Barnum to a dwarf born Charles Stratton in Bridgeport, Connecticut. Barnum discovered Charles Stratton and "leased" him from his carpenter father at age 4.

General Tom Thumb was trained in courtly manners by P.T. Barnum. Tom became one of the most famous persons in the world. He entertained millions over the years through dancing, acting, impersonations, and comedy. A highlight was when he performed for Queen Victoria.

General Tom Thumb married a fellow dwarf in 1863. The newlyweds had dinner in the White House with President Abraham Lincoln. When Tom died suddenly of a stroke in 1883, his funeral was attended by 10,000 people.

Charles Stratton was a big baby at birth, weighing 9 pounds 8 ounces. When he was six months old, he suddenly stopped growing at 25" (18 lbs.). He did have a later growth spurt that put his adult height at 3'4". As General Tom Thumb, he became a rich man with a snazzy wardrobe, his own yacht, and a fancy home in Manhattan.



Myrtle Corbin

Myrtle Corbin (1868-1928) was born in Tennessee. She suffered from an extremely rare condition called dipygus. Myrtle had a conjoined twin in her lower half only. Her spinal column divided in two just below her third lumbar vertebrae.

Myrtle Corbin was born with four legs, two complete pelves—and two vaginas fully functional for coitus; much to the delight of her future husband. She married a doctor when she was 19 years old. Myrtle gave birth to five children: three from one womb and two from the other.

Myrtle Corbin made a good living, happily working first as a touring carnival freak; then in circus freak shows for P.T. Barnum, and Ringling Brothers; and finally at Coney Island.



Prince Randian

Prince Randian (1871-1934) was born in British Guyana to slave parents from India. P.T. Barnum hired him for circus freak shows in United States in the 1890s. Prince Randian also worked under various names in carnival freak shows during his 45 year career, including "The Living Torso," and "The Caterpillar Man." His longest stint would be with the sideshow freaks at Coney Island.

Prince Randian moved like a snake. He became famous for rolling his own cigarettes with his mouth, which was featured in the 1932 film Freaks. Prince Randian could write and paint as well.

Prince Randian was known as a clever, quick-witted man who spoke four languages. He got married, had four normal children, and settled in New Jersey, where he died of a heart attack at age 62. Prince Randian was a practicing Hindu.



Mademoiselle Gabrielle

Mademoiselle Gabrielle Fuller was born in Basle, Switzerland in 1884. She had a completely normal—in fact beautiful—body down to her hips; her body there came to a smooth end.

Mademoiselle Gabrielle joined the Paris Exposition in 1900 as a sideshow freak. This was followed by a career that included tours with Ringling Brothers circus freaks, and a stand with the Coney Island freak show.

Mademoiselle Gabrielle was married twice. It is unclear how long she lived. Of her disability she said: "Women really do not need legs. I have never had them and have never missed them. I enjoy life and do everything I want without them."



The Mule Faced Woman

Grace McDaniels (1888-1958) was born in Iowa afflicted by the very rare degenerative disease called Sturge-Weber Syndrome. She won an "ugly woman" contest in 1935, and soon thereafter joined a traveling troupe of carnival sideshow freaks. Grace enjoyed the attention and made a good living from exhibiting herself as a human freak, including a run at Riverview Park in Chicago.

Grace McDaniels was a kind, friendly, lovable person. She is unusual among sideshow freaks in that she strongly and publicly objected to being called a "freak" (and to the moniker "The Ugliest Woman in the World"). She preferred to be called "The Mule-Faced Woman." And so she was.

Grace McDaniels died of cancer in 1958. Her son (and manager) passed away later that same year.



Lionel the Lion Faced Boy

Stephan Bibrowski (1890-1932) was from Poland. In 1901, after he was abandoned by his mother, he was hired to join the circus freak show of Barnum & Bailey. Bibrowski was billed as Lionel the Lion-Faced Boy. He was afflicted by hypertrichosis—one of only 50 documented cases in 500 years. His five siblings were normal.

Lionel the Lion-Faced Boy had 8" of long hair on his face. The rest of his body, except the palms of his hands and the soles of his feet, was covered with 4" long hair. He had only two teeth.

After six years with the circus freak show, Lionel the Lion-Faced Boy moved to Germany, where he proved enormously popular working as an added attraction for a wax museum. 1913 found him back in the United States, where he worked for fifteen years in the freak sideshow for Coney Island Dreamland.

In 1928, Stephan Bibrowski retired to Germany, where he died of a heart attack four years later. Lionel the Lion-Faced Boy was noted as an educated, impeccably dressed, perfect gentleman. He spoke five languages, was a skilled gymnast, and he was recognized as a fine landscape watercolorist.



Daisy and Violet Hilton

Daisy and Violet Hilton (1908-1969) were conjoined twins born in Brighton, England, to an unwed mother. As children they were adopted and exhibited at carnival freak shows by their landlady. The landlady died, and her daughter took over.

Daisy and Violet Hilton moved to the United States, where they became famous as a Vaudeville and freak show act. They hobnobbed with the jet set, becoming close friends with Harry Houdini and Bob Hope. In 1932, Daisy and Violet appeared in the controversial film Freaks, and in 1951 in the even more controversial, semi-autobiographical movie Chained for Life.

Violet had a string of well known boyfriends; both ladies were married for a spell. After freak shows fell out of favor, they ended up bagging groceries in Charlotte, North Carolina. There they died of the Hong Kong Flu—Violet outliving Daisy by nearly a week. I wonder what that was like.



Johnny Eck

Johnny Eck (1911-1991) was born in Baltimore, Maryland with nothing below his torso, a condition called sacral agenesis. His twin brother Robert was normal.

Johnny Eck would become internationally known as the "Half-Boy" and later the "Half-Man." He went to work for Ringling Brothers first, then Barnum & Bailey, and later Ripley's Believe It or Not. Johnny Eck, 18" tall, had a starring role in Freaks, and appeared in three Tarzan movies.

Johnny Eck was a bright boy who excelled in school and aspired to become a preacher. At age 13, he joined a carnival freak show and loved it. Johnny Eck walked on his hands. He also performed acrobatics, juggling, and illusions, and trained animals. Away from work, Johnny Eck was an admired painter, conductor, and race car driver.

In retirement in 1987, Johnny Eck was violently robbed in his home. This caused him to lose faith in mankind. The last four years of his life, the formerly ebullient, gregarious man secluded himself and lived in utter isolation. He died of a broken heart.

Betty Lou Williams

Betty Lou Williams

Betty Lou Williams

Betty Lou Williams (1932-1955) was the youngest of 12 children born to sharecroppers in Albany, Georgia. (My maternal great-grandparents were sharecroppers.)

At the age of two, Betty Lou Williams began to be exhibited by Ripley's Believe It or Not. While still a teenager, she had become quite wealthy. Betty Lou put all 11 of her siblings through college, and bought her parents a 260 acre farm, cash money.

Betty Lou Williams was known as a fine, generous person. Perhaps too generous, as her fiancé ran off with most of her money and disappeared. She died soon after, officially of asthma, but of a broken heart according to her friends.

Betty Lou had lived her 23 years with a parasitic twin embedded in her torso. Its head was literally in her torso, with two legs and one arm protruding.

Lobster Boy

Lobster Boy

Lobster Boy

Lobster Boy (Grady Stiles) is a strange case. Grady Stiles was 6th in a line stretching back to at least 1805 of men born with claws for fingers and toes—ectrodactyly. He was a murderer, and he was murdered.

The father of Lobster Boy starred in a carnival freak show, and incorporated his two children into the act as the Lobster Family. All of the Stiles family resided in Gibsonton, Florida, home to more former circus and carnival sideshow freaks than anyplace else in the world.

Grady Stiles (1937-1992) aka Lobster Boy was an abusive alcoholic with a hot temper. Unable to walk, he possessed incredible upper body strength. Of his four children, two also have claws. In 1978, on the eve of his daughter's wedding, Lobster Boy shot and killed her husband-to-be. He confessed but received no jail time as no facilities were deemed appropriate for a man with his disabilities. In 1992, the wife of Lobster Boy hired a hit man who shot and killed Grady Stiles. He got 27 years in prison—serving as catcher for the cell block.



Freak Shows

Progressive thinkers ended the human freak shows of yesteryear. As usual, they favored politically correct conformity to their ideas by all citizens, as opposed to liberty and freedom for people to choose for themselves.

The human freaks in these shows enjoyed being in show business—who doesn't? Many of them grew wealthy and enjoyed a rich social life. In reading about their lives, one is struck by how much they valued the "family" of performers they traveled with—and how much they missed this atmosphere of loving friends when it was over.

Instead of the dignity of earning their own way in the world—which every person had to do before the welfare state; there were no layabouts in those days—all of them became wards of the progressive state. They were reduced to lonely lives with no social life, no crowds cheering, living off of government checks in squalor.


James A Watkins (author) from Chicago on August 26, 2017:

Besarien! How lovely to 'see' you have visited my Hub and read my work here. I, too, love that movie. Thank you for your kind comments.

Besarien from South Florida on August 23, 2017:

Very cool hub! Freaks is one of my favorite movies. It was interesting to read the biographies of some of the cast. Gooble gobble, James. I accept you!

James A Watkins (author) from Chicago on September 14, 2012:

Levertis Steele— Thank you for visiting. I got a joyful kick out of your hilarious comments.

"Doc was a freak, too! Well, at least he did not have an excuse to cheat, if you can discount his affair with the conjoined twin as adultery."


Myrtle Corbin IS unforgettable.

It is a pleasure to "see" you here. I am always happy when you come by and offer your keen observations. It is always great to hear from you. :-)


Levertis Steele from Southern Clime on September 09, 2012:

I had not read about the four-legged woman and her husband, the physician. Wow! Two wombs! Doc was a freak, too! Well, at least he did not have an excuse to cheat, if you can discount his affair with the conjoined twin as adultery. I have a thousand questions about this story. I am amazed.

So, the woman would rather be called mule-faced than a freak. Interesting.

I had never heard of Lazarus Colloredo. Married. Brother hanging at midsection. Children. Yes, the questions are running full throttle!

Chang and Eng had slaves!

The others, I can handle, but Myrtle Corbin is unforgettable.

James A Watkins (author) from Chicago on August 11, 2012:

jsasson— I agree with your assessment. Thank you for reading my Hub. Welcome to the HubPages Community! :)

jsasson from Florida on August 09, 2012:

Very interesting, they all seem like they have their dignity and humanity intact.

James A Watkins (author) from Chicago on April 26, 2012:

??????????— Thank you!! Thank you very much! :)

Александра on April 19, 2012:

? ????! ?????? ????!

James A Watkins (author) from Chicago on April 11, 2012:

superstitiousspec— Good luck on your project. I hope you do get earn an A. Thank you for taking the time to read my article. I really appreciate your accolades. :D

superstitiousspec on March 31, 2012:

absolutely amazing! your are ans great go-to, james! thatnk you so much! i hope get an a on my project. thanks to you, i probably will! thanks again.

James A Watkins (author) from Chicago on March 13, 2012:

dc— I appreciate you telling me about the novel, The Haunted Man. I had not heard of it and it sounds quite interesting. I agree with the author's premise, as you might have gathered.

Thank you for expressing your admiration of this Hub. I am honored that you might recommend it to your friends. :D

dc on March 10, 2012:

This is really cool. There's a novel (The Haunted Man, by Dori Davis) that talks about the rights of so-called "freaks" to decide for themselves how to make a living, and how the politically correct crowd ruined that for them. I recommend it, and I'll recommend this hub to anyone.

James A Watkins (author) from Chicago on January 01, 2012:

Marlin 55— Thank you for saying so. I love that movie. I am glad you enjoyed my Hub. I appreciate your kind comments. And you are most welcome.

Marlin 55 from USA on December 28, 2011:

It's a great hub James. I am familiar with some of these personalities from watching the movie Freaks. You gave some great background into their personal lives that I found interesting. Thanks for sharing this great article.

James A Watkins (author) from Chicago on June 27, 2011:

biblicaliving— Yes, there are many who want to "save us from ourselves." Makes me wonder how my generation survived into middle age without them. :D

The stories I read made it clear that these "freaks" had a better life in show business than they possibly could have had as government dependents or trying to find a place working regular jobs.

Thank you for your thoughtful insights. Welcome to HubPages!!

biblicaliving from U.S.A. on June 24, 2011:

It seems our society is always trying to save "us" from "ourselves." As you stated, many of them appeared to have enjoyed the lifestyle. As long as they were not being "forced" to do anything against their wishes,it should have been left up to the conscientious of the promoter, performer and their spectators.

Personally, freak show aren't my thing, but I don't think that it would be proper of me to advocate for regulation.

James A Watkins (author) from Chicago on June 06, 2011:

A.A. Zavala— You are welcome. It is good to hear from you again. We humans are a curious lot alright. Thank you for reading my article. I appreciate your comments.

Augustine A Zavala from Texas on June 03, 2011:

Can't believe I missed this. I remember the case regarding the lobster boy and the murders. These "oddity" shows will flourish, because of our innate morbic curiosity. Thank you for sharing.

James A Watkins (author) from Chicago on May 20, 2011:

Alastar Packer— I love the film "Freaks." What a truly original classic piece of work.

Thank you for the accolades, my friend. Yes, Grace and Betty Lou are particularly tragic cases of human deformity.

I find it interesting that you live near Eng & Chang's farm, as well as the grocery store where the Hiltons worked. Have you met anyone who knew them?

I have close friends in Thomasville, Hendersonville, and Franklin NC. Beautiful country. I appreciate the visit!

Alastar Packer from North Carolina on May 18, 2011:

How could I have missed this one till now. 'Freaks' is a one of a kind movie and you've got a couple of the 'performers' in that classic featured and pictured here. Fantastic article James with many new...what's the word used now.. bio challenged? I've lived close to some of these people: 5 miles away in Dobson N.C. from Eng n Chang's farm. Maybe 10 miles as the crow flies from where the Hilton ladies ended their days working at a Park-n-Shop grocery as you pointed out. The saddest cases here to me are Grace and Betty Lou. You do deserve to be one, if not the most respected writer on this site. AP :D

James A Watkins (author) from Chicago on May 05, 2011:

pinkydoo— Thank you for the kind compliments. Yea, that last picture is a bit confusing. At least the guy always has a place to sit down.

Wow! You really like cats! Welcome to the Hub Pages Community! :D

pinkydoo from New York on May 04, 2011:

Whoa...I don't know what to say! I'm still feeling kind of confused by that last picture! Yes, I know what I want to say, this hub is fascinating (as demonstrated by all these comments here)! this is by far, one of the most interesting "reads" I've ever had at Hubpages! All the details and photos - very well done!

James A Watkins (author) from Chicago on March 10, 2011:

justmesuzanne— Well then, thank goodness the Freak Show is a thing of the past. I do see your point. I would not endorse the exploitation of human beings. I stand fully convinced that the Freak Shows were wrong.

justmesuzanne from Texas on March 08, 2011:

I think that the freak show situation can be most closely equated with prostitution. The circumstances you described often existed in the freak show setting. Heavily regulated, with full comprehension and consent of those involved, it would be a different situation.

Modeling and professional sports are well-regulated industries, entered into with the full consent and understanding of the participants.

James A Watkins (author) from Chicago on March 08, 2011:

I surely did not mean to poo-poo the incredible accomplishments of this man you wrote about.

I was only saying people should have the freedom to choose for themselves. And this freedom was taken away.

Pornography is legal. It is all over the internet, as I'm sure you know. I don't think it should be; but it is. As far as I am concerned, prostitution should be legal, heavily taxed, and regulated for health reasons. It will never be stopped. Get rid of the pimps, beatings, disease, sex slave trade and surely the situation would not be worse than it is today.

Exploitation . . . well, how about modeling? Here we have unusual beauty being exploited. How about a professional baseball player—extraordinary (freakish, if you will) talent that people pay to see. Artists?

I agree with what you are saying. There are many angles to this, as you say, philosophically. :-)

justmesuzanne from Texas on March 07, 2011:

Apparently you missed the part of my description of my former Executive Director in which I explained that he was the Executive Director of an agency by, of and for people with disabilities and had a degree in communications. This was a man who could not speak or walk and did not have the use of his hands. He was severely malformed and would, indeed, have been "freak show" fodder in the days of "freak shows" if he had not been institutionalized or killed/allowed to die at birth as many people with disabilities were in those days.

Only the very lucky made it into freak shows, and not all of them did so willingly or with freedom to choose. Many were owned and used.

It is wrong to make money exploiting others for whatever reason. If a person does, indeed, choose to display his or her self for money, it poses a number of philosophical questions: e.g. How does this differ from producing pornography or engaging in prostitution? If it's legal to exploit your own abnormalities for money, should it also be legal to exploit your own body otherwise to produce pornography or to engage in prostitution?

James A Watkins (author) from Chicago on March 07, 2011:

justmesuzanne— Yes, I agree with your comments. I don't think deaf people, or quadriplegics, paraplegics, and unfortunate folks with cerebral palsy were ever used in Freak Shows.

I think empowering people with disabilities is wonderful work.

Freak Shows are outlawed in many states so no, people are not still free to join circuses. Even where not outlawed, they are politically incorrect—held in disdain, which makes it a very unattractive business.

Learning how to use Speak and Spell is great but hardly comparable to being an international star in Show Business.

I appreciate your thoughtful comments. Thank you for sharing your insights.

justmesuzanne from Texas on March 06, 2011:

Interesting history with a rather oversimplified conclusion. Having worked closely with people with disabilities for most of my life, I would have to say that the majority (all whom I have known) would not want anything to do with a "Freak Show".

The executive director of the independent living skills agency where I worked during the 1980s would have had no other choice had it not been for programs that assisted him in getting a degree in communication. He had severe cerebral palsy, could not speak and communicated by use of a Speak N Spell which he operated with his toes.He did a great job and was an excellent executive director.

The agency, itself was conceived of and operated by, of and for people with disabilities. Services for paraplegics and quadriplegics were coordinated by qualified paraplegics and quadriplegics. Deaf services were coordinated by qualified deaf people. Our board of directors was comprised of 51% people with disabilities.

We empowered people with disabilities to take control of their lives and live full lives, and none of these people would appreciate being called lazy or lay-abouts because they needed and accepted assistance to begin their journeys.

If it were not for the very "progressive thinkers" you blame for bringing about changes, none of these people would be in the effective, positive positions they were in then and are in today.

Additionally, many of the conditions which placed people in freak shows in the past are now easily treated allowing people to pursue a vast array of choices rather than being consigned to a life of being considered simple oddities to be gawked at.

As far as I know, people of all sorts are still free to join the circus if they wish. Being given resources that enable them to make other choices is progress, and that's a good thing.

James A Watkins (author) from Chicago on February 25, 2011:

no body— Hey Brother Bob! Good to see you here. Yes, the ogling is crass. The good thing is that in almost every case, these folks weren't just displayed for ogling per se, but had developed amazing talents as performers. I think they inspired people: Heck if these people can overcome these disadvantages, what am I cryin' about?

Of course, there will always be mean and evil people. And I agree with you that the do-gooders thought they were doing something good. The law of unintended consequences came to bear.

I appreciate the love, my friend. Thank you for your ongoing support and encouragement.

James A Watkins (author) from Chicago on February 25, 2011:

DIYweddingplanner— Thank you very much for your kind compliments. Welcome to the Hub Pages Community! I look forward to reading your work.

Robert E Smith from Rochester, New York on February 24, 2011:

The same kind of thinking that would call these people handicapped and make the people around them feel sorry are the same people who do not realize God made us all as we are. These folks accepted who they were and how God created them. The only unfortunate thing is the crass type of ogling and laughter that goes to freak shows. That type laughter is covering up an uncomfortableness at having to see a strange individual. It's unfortunate there was not a way to have both things, the curiosity expressed and the shock but without the element that everyone thought was evil and mean. The people that destroyed those people's lives and livlihood were actually thinking they were doing them a favor. I totally agree that the progressive thinking destroys and will continue to destroy until Jesus comes to get us. Great hub as usual. I would say I love you like usual but I think I love you a little more with each thing I read that you write. Your brother. Bob.

DIYweddingplanner from South Carolina, USA on February 24, 2011:

Amazing...and a little freaky. A great hub, I am absolutely a devotee and follower.

James A Watkins (author) from Chicago on February 23, 2011:

Beth100— Thank you! I agree with you that there are those who want dependents not independents. Dependents are far easier to mould.

Beth100 from Canada on February 21, 2011:

Another exceptional article James. It seems teaching a person to be independent and allowing them to be so has been lost on those who make judgements.

James A Watkins (author) from Chicago on February 20, 2011:

Amy Becherer— I had no idea TLC had such a program. I will look for that show. Thank you for telling me about it. You paint a pretty sad picture here. People are surely voyeuristic, it's true. Look at "gapers delays" when a bad accident happens on the freeway. You can't help but look. I suppose it is part of human nature. And it is somewhat disturbing on some level.

Well, I appreciate your thoughtful insights. It is always my pleasure to hear from you.

Amy Becherer from St. Louis, MO on February 19, 2011:

In my former life, which I will forever more put into perspective as inconsequential, comparatively speaking, to this lengthy list of horrific conditions, I watched TLC and learned of "Tree Man", and the "Mermaid Girl". Even today, the tendency to voyeuristic curiosity makes a living hell for the people afflicted with these birth defects and diseases. The adults afflicted that were documented on cable television spent their lives secluded, other than publicly humiliated in a circus environment to earn a living. I have great admiration for their resilience in adapting to a life that, even in my wildest imagination, would be too compromising for me to tolerate. Fascinating, informative piece on a subject I find very disturbing.

James A Watkins (author) from Chicago on February 09, 2011:

Paraglider— It's never too late, brother. Thanks for coming by and making your presence known. I'm glad you enjoyed it.

Dave McClure from Worcester, UK on February 07, 2011:

Hi James - coming to this late, but I enjoyed your exchange with Ben as much as the hub itself. Hope all's well.

James A Watkins (author) from Chicago on February 05, 2011:

Ben Zoltak— I am glad you enjoyed the Burke quote, Ben. And yes, Katiem2 is a special gal with a warm heart.

I believe my statistics are accurate. Do you want references for all of them? How about you pick the one you think is most off the mark and I will supply you with the stats right here and now.

I have written about pornography. HubPages demonetizied for an unspecified reason. Perhaps it is politically incorrect. Too bad though because it has proven to be one of my top four Hubs for viewership out of 213:

James A Watkins (author) from Chicago on February 05, 2011:

Lightning John— How great to see you, my friend! You wrote:

"Yes, some of these unique people did live like rock stars. Some were made welcome by kings and queens."

Indeed! More than simply being exhibited, the majority of them displayed skills and talents which were also extraordinary.

Thank you for visiting and commenting.

Ben Zoltak from Lake Mills, Jefferson County, Wisconsin USA on February 04, 2011:

I disagree with your non-referenced statistics up there Jimmy, but I thoroughly enjoyed the brilliant Edmund Burke quote and I'll be looking after this comment to see if you wrote more about him in one of your other hubs.

Pornography to me isn't so bad, god knows just about all of my conservative friends take their paychecks to the strip joints on a regular basis. Human trafficking to me is the biggest fight going on in the world now. We are privileged to live in a country that diligently fights it, the world at large is not so lucky to be protected from those all to real freaks though I'm afraid.

Great comments here on your hub Mr. Watkins. I thought katiem2's was especially heart warming.


lightning john from Florida on February 02, 2011:

Yes, some of these unique people did live like rock stars. Some were made welcome by kings and queens. They understood that they were different than others in a very severe way. Earning their own money for being who and what they were, must have given them a certain sense of independance and status. But we other humans cannot let them be exploited so we can feel good about ourselves.

James A Watkins (author) from Chicago on February 02, 2011:

alinadelea— You are welcome! Thanks for visiting and commenting.

alinadelea on February 02, 2011:

Thanks for sharing

James A Watkins (author) from Chicago on February 01, 2011:

englishtea— I very much appreciate your laudatory remarks. It makes a man feel good to be recognized. Thank you! :D

James A Watkins (author) from Chicago on January 31, 2011:

lilyfly— Ha! We are hiding our abnormalities!? Do ya think? :D

Warts? That is a serious impediment to social acceptance. Thank you for sharing, Lily. I appreciate your compassion.


James A Watkins (author) from Chicago on January 31, 2011:

katiem2— You are welcome, Katie. Thank you for reading it and for your kind compliments. We all need a full charge of angels, don't we? Your comments are deep and lovely. I appreciate them and you—for your huge heart. :)


englishtea on January 30, 2011:

Like I've said before, you have an incredible gift for selecting topics. This topic is fascinating and sure does stimulate thought and conversation. I do enjoy your flare for details.

Lillian K. Staats from Wasilla, Alaska on January 29, 2011:

Captivating read ,John! I've always thought that we all have some kind of freakishness, It's just normal looking people can hide it.

When I was a girl, I used to be shunned completely, I had warts all over. That gave me a little compassion for freaks... lily

Katie McMurray from Ohio on January 29, 2011:

God bless them each and every one that a full charge of angels be with them, guiding them, protecting them and blessing their foot steps and or path that they be in a place and truly doing what makes their hearts light and filled with real joy!

Thanks James for bringing this to our attention. Well Done! :) Katie

James A Watkins (author) from Chicago on January 28, 2011:

rls8994— Hey! It is great to see you! I'm glad you enjoyed my article. You've actually been to Freak Show!? Wow! I haven't ever had access to one. Thank you for visiting and commenting. :D

James A Watkins (author) from Chicago on January 28, 2011:

Ben Zoltak— I saw that article when it came out and I am glad it was quickly resolved.

What I mean by a sick culture is:

A concerted effort has been made since the Sixties to destroy the social habits and traditions of the American people. All institutions of authority that might set limits to acceptable behavior, what sociologists call the intermediate institutions—families, churches, schools, private associations, city governments, state governments—that stand between the individual and the national government and its bureaucracies have been weakened. Equal acceptance has been assigned to the opinions of the most foolish among us. The result has been societal chaos—the necessary precondition for an all-powerful government to step in and take control, with not only the permission of society, but upon its pleading.

The Supreme Court has steadily advanced the rights of individuals in regard to non-religious expression; while steadily curtailing the rights of individuals in regard to expression of their Christian faith. The Court has decided that it is a grave harm to godless individuals to hear or see expressions of the Christian faith.

Edmund Burke: "The only liberty I mean is a liberty connected with order; that not only exists along with order and virtue, but which cannot exist without them. . . . The effect of liberty to individuals is, that they may do what they please: We ought to see what it will please them to do, before we risk congratulations . . . "

Since the Supreme Court of the United States banned God from the public schools, SAT scores have dropped 10 percent; violent crime increased 700 percent; divorce rates doubled; unmarried couples living together increased 600 percent; single parent households have tripled; premarital sex increased 400 percent; illegitimate births quadrupled; pregnancies among girls under 15 years old have increased 600 percent; sexually transmitted diseases have tripled; 55 million unborn children have been killed in the very place Nature designed to keep them safe; pornography is America's # 1 export; a girl from nearly every block in America can be seen having sex on the internet; preteens have been sexualized in marketing and some media; society is full of vulgar language; 19 million persons are infected with a STD each year in America—4 million of them teenagers. 65 million Americans have a contagious Sexually Transmitted Disease right now. 25 percent of all American adults have a lifelong incurable STD.

If that is not a sick society, pray tell: WHAT IS?

rls8994 from Mississippi on January 27, 2011:

This was very interesting James. I can remember as a child walking into some of these freak show tents at carnivals and fairs. I remember being a little scared to go in but I was very curious to see. I always felt bad for them and also guilty for paying money to look. I enjoyed reading this. Great job! :)

Ben Zoltak from Lake Mills, Jefferson County, Wisconsin USA on January 27, 2011:

Hey Mr. Watkins, here's a link to an article of an American who would benefit from the changes our President has been proposing:

Ben Zoltak from Lake Mills, Jefferson County, Wisconsin USA on January 27, 2011:

James Watkins, it's too bad our country makes you sick, from the look of your profile pic, and the anecdotes you share, your country has done a lot for you. It certainly has done a lot for me, the people and the government too. As for the culture, it has been tainted by the continued fear and hate campaign of scapegoating and prohibition. There's a "geewhiz why are people so violent" attitude by conservatives, while they do everything they can to imprison people for victimless crimes and then create real criminals in the process.

Murdoch is the consummate American conservative. An immigrant who, now that he has been granted citizenship into our great country, turns around and vilifies immigrants! Much like the actor/President he idolizes, Ronald Reagan, whose daddy left him and his mom when he was a kid, and who himself was saved by funding from our welfare system. What does this conservative do when he becomes President? Spit on the very system that saved him and his mom.

There is a large swathe of our culture that has enjoyed a vast measure of opulence on the backs of working families. Our country needs those people to invest back in our great country, and to give back to regular people. Sure wealth is great, but we don't need kings and queens here, we need yeomen. Remember? We had a revolution against those guys because they wouldn't give regular Americans representation.

Mindless propaganda and "some people say" references on Murdocks news outlets only inflame our citizenry. I find it very difficult to communicate with many conservatives because they robotically repeat whatever strange (let's say freak show, for the sake of your article) propaganda their media outlets are selling them. I've been friends with some great, free thinking conservatives, I believe James you're probably one of those rarer and rarer kinds.

Glad you call me to a reference, I wish I had the dough to buy that book, but it's out of my price range, maybe I'll check the library. You might enjoy the movie "Outfoxed" which shows conservative journalists that were fired for not distorting facts or outright lying as they were ordered to do. It also explains the stranglehold Murdock has on our media better than I ever could.

Let's bring the hate and anger speech down and get to the matter of bringing our country back to the top.

Take it easy James, united we stand.


James A Watkins (author) from Chicago on January 27, 2011:

Ben Zoltak— Thank you, Ben. I find you a thoughtful person as well. I feel the same way about hope for common ground. ummm . . . purer form of communism? I've always found it odd that a man who employs 500 people is considered a capitalist dog but a man who is boss of 500 bureaucrats—who produce nothing—is considered a fine fellow.

I hardly think Mr. Murdoch is in control of our media. Surely ABC, NBC, CBS, CNN, MSNBC, the New York Times, the Washington Post, etc. etc. etc. are not getting their marching orders from him. I think the Left is simply upset that Fox News has broken THEIR monopoly on the news. I say Thank God for that.

I would love to be positive but when I look about my beloved country, its culture, its society . . . frankly, it makes me sick.

For some reason this book just came to mind:

Ben Zoltak from Lake Mills, Jefferson County, Wisconsin USA on January 26, 2011:

James, you are a thoughtful American, I hope we can work together to get to some common ground. I miss conservatives who fought monopolies (no purer form of communism agreed?) Perhaps you can find some of your party who would help to break the strangle hold Rupert Murdoch has on our democratic republic? I say this without vitriol or antagonism Jim, our country can't bear more of this man's 75% stranglehold on our media. Bring the good conservatives back my friend, where are the positive conservatives? You are a good American, an adversary perhaps, but a worthy one, and still a good American.

James A Watkins (author) from Chicago on January 24, 2011:

Nell Rose— Good to see you! I am glad we are in agreeance, Nell. And that this is your kind of Hub. I appreciate the visitation from you. Thank you for your comments.


James A Watkins (author) from Chicago on January 23, 2011:

Dolores Monet— I knew Baltimore was famous for screen painting but I completely missed the connection with Johnny Eck. Thank you for enlightening me on this. I very much appreciate your comments and the visitation from you.

Nell Rose from England on January 23, 2011:

Hi, James, now this is my kind of hub! fascinating stuff, and I quite agree with you, sometimes the so called politically correct get it all wrong, they enjoyed themselves and they felt part of a family and community, so why take them away? sad, cheers nell

James A Watkins (author) from Chicago on January 22, 2011:

gr82bme— You are most welcome! Thank you for visiting my Hub! :-)

James A Watkins (author) from Chicago on January 22, 2011:

Ben Zoltak— Thank you, Ben, for taking the time to read my article. I appreciate your compliments.

I haven't heard that song by the Ramones. I will have to check it out. Thanks for that tip.

I have heard that a certain sort of Freak Show is making a comeback.

I do apologize for offending your liberal sensibilities. I simply find the solution of making everyone a ward of the state not only an insult, but dangerous. I don't want to see the USSR replicated in the USA.


Dolores Monet from East Coast, United States on January 22, 2011:

Johnny Eck is a Baltimore folk hero due to his fame as a local screen painter. An old Baltimore tradition, screen painting became popular early in the 20th century. Row houses, set very close to the street were not very private. Screen painting ( painting a picture on a screen) allowed those inside the houses to see out while people passing by could not see in. Johnny Eck is one of our famous screen painters.

gr82bme from USA on January 22, 2011:

Loved the pics. Thank you for sharing.

Ben Zoltak from Lake Mills, Jefferson County, Wisconsin USA on January 21, 2011:

This was a good read James, I especially enjoyed the line:

"Schlitzie was well loved by his fellow performers for his child-like innocence, exuberance, and unconditionally loving and affectionate nature. He loved the spotlight; he lived to sing, dance, and perform for people."

The Ramones do a song that I believe is about Schlitzie Surtees called, "I don't wanna be a pinhead no more." Great song.

There are still freak shows, my daughter saw a mutated woman reading a book at a fair we went to in Milwaukee a few years ago. She said the woman looked incredibly sad.

It's too bad you included the usual conservative propaganda in your verbiage here. It makes your POV look myopic and misguided. Abuse of human rights seems to be the latest trend of conservative thinkers for the past ten years in our country. Now if we can only get American corporate executives off of welfare we can restore dignity to business in our nation as well, the white collar freak show.

Other than that, a sound tribute to the dignity of the people of the "Freak Show".


James A Watkins (author) from Chicago on January 21, 2011:

Betty Wilson— You are welcome. It is always a pleasure to hear from you, Betty. I'm glad you found this article interesting. Thank you for visiting and showing your appreciation of my work. :-)


Betty Wilson on January 20, 2011:

This was really interesting! Unbelievable how humans can endure. Appreciate all your research and work. Thanks for sharing. Betty

James A Watkins (author) from Chicago on January 20, 2011:

Edoka Writes— Thank you! I'm glad you enjoyed it. Welcome to the Hub Pages Community!

James A Watkins (author) from Chicago on January 20, 2011:

maggs224— It is a pleasure to receive you here! Thank you very much for taking the time to read my article. I appreciate your thoughtful and insightful remarks. And I am grateful for the up vote and you hitting the awesome button for me. :D

I had not heard of the Goose Fair. Seven hundred years!? WOW! Now that's a long time. I have seen a Flea Circus! HA! I had forgotten about those.

I agree with your comments. I enjoyed reading them too. Yes, life is always changing. That is for sure.

James A Watkins (author) from Chicago on January 20, 2011:

gachapoz— Thank you for letting me know how interesting you found my article to be. Welcome to the Hub Pages Community!

James A Watkins (author) from Chicago on January 20, 2011:

Coming of Age— Don't trust anybody over thirty.

James A Watkins (author) from Chicago on January 20, 2011:

HealthyHanna— Thank you for coming by and making your presence known. It is good to see you. I agree that all we can control is how we respond to unfortunate circumstances. I appreciate your comments.

James A Watkins (author) from Chicago on January 20, 2011:

Wayne Brown— Good to hear from you, brother! I'm glad you liked my article. Thanks for saying so. I appreciate the visitation, WB.


James A Watkins (author) from Chicago on January 20, 2011:

akirchner— Where was Rick James when they need him!? :-)

I am not familiar with Patrick's story. So, I'm not sure what you mean there, though I would like to. Is he disabled in some way? Or challenged?

Thank you for visiting my Hub. I appreciate your comments.

Edoka Writes on January 20, 2011:

Great hub! I love reading about topics like this. Interesting.

maggs224 from Sunny Spain on January 19, 2011:

On the first full weekend in October Goose Fair the largest travelling fair in the UK comes to Nottingham. This annual fair has been a feature on Nottingham life for over seven hundred years and it is still going strong.

When I was a child over fifty years ago I can remember being taken into a Freak show at the fair of course today there are hardly any Sideshows at all at the fair at all it is nearly all rides.

When I was a child there were still many different types of Sideshows at Goose Fair. There was the Flea Circus where the Fleas would pull tiny chariots and walk the tight rope a Mouse town where tiny white mice would play in a miniature town. There were mini circus type shows boxing and wrestling booths where members of the public were invited to take their chances against the fair’s fighters. There also use to be a sideshow that had freak animals like two headed lambs or five legged goats’ etc.

I found the hub very interesting, I am glad to see that many of them became rich as well as famous I often wondered if they had been misused and exploited. Life back when the film was made back in the UK and the USA was very different to how it is now.

I wonder what sort of an alternative lifestyle would have been available to these people if they had been denied the chance of being part of the show business community. It is very difficult to judge what you would have done unless you have been faced with the life chances that were available at the time to people in their situation.

I personally would rather be a part of a community that cared about me where I could live life with some semblance of normality with money in my pocket (plenty of money it seems) than be institutionalise locked away in conditions that were appalling.

This is an excellent hub I am voting it up and hitting the awesome button.

gachapoz on January 19, 2011:

So interesting, wow, i had to read it all.

Coming of Age from Rocky Mountains on January 19, 2011:

Hi again James-You're right about the "dark tenor" of the new sideshow tours, but I think that probably just goes with the times....You know, the heavy metal and gothic culture swing.

Maybe it just means that you and I are getting old. Afterall it wasn't all that long ago that I used to join others and say "if the music is too loud, you're too old." Now, its too loud for me, so there you have it.

HealthyHanna from Utah on January 19, 2011:

Just want to add my voice to how interesting this is. What I read into the lives of these 'freaks', is that it is not really about what life hands you, BUT, it is how you handle life.

James A Watkins (author) from Chicago on January 19, 2011:

Coming of Age— Yes, there has been a revival of freak shows, though with a much darker tenor. Since it has become politically incorrect, I don't see postmodern freak shows as being as beneficial to the entertainers themselves as those of old.

Thank you for that diligent research. It is very interesting stuff. I doubt I'll do a follow up on this topic but I think it would be great if you do.

I appreciate you coming back with this new addition to the conversation. Well done!

James A Watkins (author) from Chicago on January 19, 2011:

Alexander Mark— Very good to hear from you again, my friend. You didn't write too much. Your comments are thoughtful and insightful. I certainly appreciate the laudations. :D

There was surely a positive side to the freak shows for the entertainers themselves, particularly considering the alternatives.

Yes, I agree that blaming guns for the things people do is off target. In cities where guns have been banned in America, crime goes up. Of course, criminals can always get guns on the black market and they love an unarmed populace.

Relegating people to being wards of the state is never a positive development in my book. I stand for individual freedom and liberty. Thank you for coming by and offering your point of view. I agree with you.

James A Watkins (author) from Chicago on January 19, 2011:

drbj— You are welcome. I appreciate you taking the time to read my article. I am glad you found this piece compelling. Thank you for your comments.

Wayne Brown from Texas on January 19, 2011:

That was a fun and very interesting read, James. It is amazing what some people can live with and still achieve to significant levels in life. Thanks for sharing it! WB

Audrey Kirchner from Washington on January 18, 2011:

Wow, James, freaky is definitely the word! I often think of my boy, Patrick and had he been born in a different time and place, he probably would have been part of a "freak" show....not sure if that is good or bad but I much prefer him in the here and now!

James A Watkins (author) from Chicago on January 18, 2011:

gusripper— You are welcome, my friend. Thank you for your note. Good to see you. :D

James A Watkins (author) from Chicago on January 18, 2011:

Doug Turner Jr.— You are welcome. Thank you for taking the time to read my article. I appreciate the compliment. Welcome to the Hub Pages Community!

James A Watkins (author) from Chicago on January 18, 2011:

prasetio30— You are welcome, Prasetio. I did a lot of research on this subject, and a lot of thinking about it, too. I had to get a clear vision as to my feelings about this before I expressed it.

These were special people. Thank you for your gracious compliments. I enjoyed reading your words. God Bless You!


James A Watkins (author) from Chicago on January 18, 2011:

cameciob— It is a pleasure to see you here, my dear. Thanks for coming.

Yes, we are much more sensitive these days. And I agree that many of these folks were blessed to be part of a community of entertainers. I appreciate your comments!

James A Watkins (author) from Chicago on January 18, 2011:

fastfreta— Thank you for your compliments and up rating. It is good to hear from you. I need to get over and see what you've been writing. I'll do that soon.

I agree with your remarks and I appreciate you sharing your thoughts with us here.

James A Watkins (author) from Chicago on January 18, 2011:

ama83— It doesn't sound bad to be shocked, no. I understand.

I agree these were some strong individuals. One of my best friends was born blind and he is one of the happiest, level-headed, steady-mooded people I have ever met. A reminder to count our blessings.

Thank you for visiting and commenting. I enjoy hearing from you. I hope your folks are well.

Coming of Age from Rocky Mountains on January 18, 2011:

Hi James.....Well, I decided to do a bit of research and have discovered that the traveling "Freak Show" has really not gone away at all. Less common perhaps, but alive and well.

If you use your search engine and look up the following names you will discover that the freak show is still traveling the country, and available for booking.....This might even be good subject matter for you to do a follow up hub.

"Chuy-The Wolfman", Jesse Stitcher-"The Haf Boy", Dame Demure-The Dancing Dwarf", "Jackie of All Trades-The Human Tripod", "Erik-The Gentle Giant", "Lobster Boy-The Black Scorpion", Jason Brott-"The Penguin Boy", "Lobster Girl"

All of the names above represent off & on again performers in traveling freakshows that tour the U.S. today. Each represents a performer that has a medical condition making them unique, and are in most cases representative of the same sorts of conditions from your list and photographs. These folks have chosen to keep the sideshow traditions of old going. I guess it proves the old adage that "the show must go on".

Of course the freakshows also have the self made freaks: swordswallowers, & tatooed man sorts.

To be concise, it is only the state of Michigan that has outlawed putting human beings on display as "freaks".

The names of the freakshows themselves are: "999 Eyes", "Hellzapoppin", Ken Harks-"The Brothers Grim Sideshow", "Coney Island USA's".

At any rate, I thought you might like to have/be interested in this fresh information.

James A Watkins (author) from Chicago on January 18, 2011:

CASE1WORKER— See! That's what I'm talking about. :D

Thank you for your comments. I appreciate the visit.

James A Watkins (author) from Chicago on January 18, 2011:

allpurposeguru— Thank you for visiting my humble Hub. I appreciate your thoughtful comments. I do not know the answer to your last question, though it is a good one.

You wrote: "It's amazing how and where the law of unintended consequences turns us, isn't it."

Yes, it is. You wrote:

"Did the ones you mention develop their talents and personalities precisely because they had an opportunity to perform in public?"

A very good question. I might guess yes. Most of these acts did not just stand there. All of them were trained to DO something. And many of them proved quite talented.

James A Watkins (author) from Chicago on January 18, 2011:

Coming of Age— Hello there! You make many outstanding points, that are thoughtful and insightful, my friend.

I agree with you up to a point. The whole idea of show business is based on extraordinariness. We don't seek to see shows of people who are average or normal, but those who have unusual beauty, talent, or skills. Admittedly, freak shows are the flip side of this.

By loving show business—having been in it myself—I mean it is easy to love the hurly burly, the excitement, the performing, the comraderie, the travel, the sense of belonging to a group of extraordinary individuals who do what most folks only dream about.

You are surely correct that medical advancements and employment opportunities have increased since these old days.

As to your idea that you would rather not perform in public if you knew people were paying to see you perform because you were odd looking, I am sure many did stay home and choose not to do this. The people I highlighted on this page chose to become performers and the evidence is that they were glad they did for a variety of reasons. Fame is a powerful lure. Many mass killers only wanted to be famous.

Ha! I love your point about reality TV being one long freak show. And this makes a similar point: surely people on Jerry Springer and Jersey Shores or whatever are aware that most people are laughing at them. They want to be in the limelight anyway.

Thank you for making these extraordinary comments.

James A Watkins (author) from Chicago on January 18, 2011:

stars439— Thank you, brother. I know you can relate. I agree with your words. I always enjoy your visits. God Bless You!

Alexander Silvius from Portland, Oregon on January 17, 2011:

Wow James, you did it again. I was thoroughly entertained throughout and pleasantly surprised by the positive side of the freak story. Until this hub, I had the impression that all freaks in a freak show were enslaved, mistreated and / or poorly paid. Apparently that was not the whole story. When I compare it to the erroneous blame placed on guns for murder, and the fact that we can admit civilian owned weapons can provide opportunity to commit crime, it easy to make the next logical leap and as the idea that gun control over law abiding citizens is going to stop crime and illegal gun ownership is ridiculous, so is saying that freak shows were always bad news for the participants.

I still want to wonder if it wasn't such a negative phenomenom, but you presented heavy evidence to the contrary and also turned these freaks into human beings. I'm starting to think that even when ordinary people from previous centuries lacked knowledge, maybe they were more thoughtful and reasonable than we are today.

Kudos by the way on delivering a perfectly presented point. You mentioned progressives in the beginning and I felt that it was a positive mention, but then you reiterated the success of deformed entertainers over and over, and even in the case of Schlitzie showed us how detrimental socialized help was for him, and then in the last section it became an undeniable fact that boxing humans into categories and numbers is the end result of "helping" people who do not need or want help.

Forgive me if I have written too much again - this hub was spectacular and enlightening and I couldn't contain myself.

drbj and sherry from south Florida on January 17, 2011:

Fascinating and compelling as always, James, and a humane treatment of those who were often abused by an inhumane world.

Thanks for sharing all these details and amazing photos.

gusripper on January 17, 2011:

Really freak hub.Thanks James for the informations

Doug Turner Jr. on January 17, 2011:

Bizarre and fascinating. A very well done hub. Thanks.

prasetio30 from malang-indonesia on January 17, 2011:

Another great hub from you, James. I really love to read this hub. There are many "great" person out there with all their shortcomings. But it made the world so beautiful. How you find all this information? including the pictures. At least you open my eyes about what happen outside. I believe they all special people. Thank you very much. God bless you.


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