Kingdom Animalia are divided into two major groups, viz., the non chordates and chordates.
Non chordata includes a number of phyla.The major ones are Porifera, Coelenterata, Platyhelminthes, Aschelminthes, Annelida, Arthropoda, Mollusca and Echinodermata.
Example of Phylum Porifera
Euplectella - the Venus flower basket
Euspongia- the bath sponge
Spongilla - the fresh water sponge
Includes pore bearing animals animals like sponges.
- Body wall is diploblastic.
- Spicules are secreted by sclerocytes and germ cells by archaeocytes.
- Nervous system absent.
- Larvae are amphiblastula
- Phylum Porifera: General Characters and more
The Phylum Porifera include more than 5000 animal species, mostly marine, but includes about 150 fresh water inhabitants also. They found in all seas, wherever there are rocks, shells, submerged timbers, or coral to provide a suitable substratum. Mos
Example of Coelenterata
Obelia: Marine and colonial with metagenesis.
Corals and Sea anemone belong to the class Anthozoa
- Diploblastic and radially symmetrical
- Mouth is surrounded by nematocyst bearing tentacles.
- A nerve net present.
- Larva is planula.
- Phylum Cnidaria (Coelenterata): General Characters and more
Phylum Cnidaria (formely known as coelenterata) includes about 9000 species.Some are found in fresh water, but the grater number are marine. Coelenterates (Gr. koilos, hollow+enteron,gut).are the simplest of eumetazoans.
- Coral and Coral Reefs
Corals are animals belonging to the phylum Coelenterata. The corals in general have diverse shapes and sizes, but majority are colonial with very small polyps. A coral reef is a complex living community.
Example of Phylum Platyhelminthes
Free living: Planaria
Liver fluke: found in the bile duct and liver of sheep.
Schistosoma: Found in the veins of man
Taenia solium: the pork tapeworm.
- Includes flat worms.
- Body cavity is absent.
- Excretion by flame cells or solenocytes.
- Phylum Platyhelminthes : General Characters
Phylum Platyhelminthes (Gr.platys, flat+ helminthes, worm) includes worms with a flat body. This phylum includes about 13,000 species. Animals with elongated bodies but no conspicuous appendages are called “worms”.
- Classes of Platyhelminthes
Phylum Platyhelminthes is divided into three classes (Trematoda,Turbellaria and Cestoda)
Example of Nematoda
Ascaris, pinworm, Hook worm, Filarial worm etc.
Phylum Aschelminthes (Nematoda)
Includes round worm.
Epidermis is syncytial and body cavity is pseudocoel.
Example of Annelida
Nereis: marine, locomotion and excretion by parapodia
Leech: sanguivore, saliva contains an anticoagulant, Hirudin
Includes segmented worms.
Body cavity is a Coelom (Schizocoel) except in Leeches.
Excretion by Nephridia
Example of Arthropoda
- Prawn aquatic with two pairs of antennae.
- Cockroarch with three pairs of legs, two pairs of wings
- Cicada with 17 years of underground larval life.
- Scropion : antennae are absent ,viviparous.
- Peripatus : walking worms, a living fossil
Includes jointed legged animals.
Body is covered by Chitin.
Body cavity is Haemocoel.
Respiratory pigment is haemocyanin.
Example of Mollusca
- Sepia with internal shell and ink sac.
- Octopus: the devil fish
- Pinctada: The pearl oyster.
- Nautilus and Neopalina are living fossils.
- Teredo: the shipworm
Includes segmented, soft bodied animals with a hard shell. Larve are glochidium or trocophore (veliger)..
Example of Echinodermata
- Sea urchins : In the pharynx of the sea urchinis is a chewing apparatus called Aristole lantern. it's development is similar to chordata
- Brittle star
- Sea cucumber
- Sea lily
Includes spiny skinned animals.
All are marine. Adults are radially symmetrical and larvae are bilaterally symmetrical.
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