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Example of Non Chordata

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Animal Diversity

 Chordates and NonChordates (Phylum Porifera - Phylum Echinodermata)

Chordates and NonChordates (Phylum Porifera - Phylum Echinodermata)

Kingdom Animalia are divided into two major groups, viz., the non chordates and chordates.

Non chordata includes a number of phyla.The major ones are Porifera, Coelenterata, Platyhelminthes, Aschelminthes, Annelida, Arthropoda, Mollusca and Echinodermata.

Example of Phylum Porifera

Euplectella - the Venus flower basket

Euspongia- the bath sponge

Spongilla - the fresh water sponge

Phylum Porifera

Includes pore bearing animals animals like sponges.

  • Body wall is diploblastic.
  • Spicules are secreted by sclerocytes and germ cells by archaeocytes.
  • Nervous system absent.
  • Larvae are amphiblastula


  • Phylum Porifera: General Characters and more
    The Phylum Porifera include more than 5000 animal species, mostly marine, but includes about 150 fresh water inhabitants also. They found in all seas, wherever there are rocks, shells, submerged timbers, or coral to provide a suitable substratum. Mos

Example of Coelenterata

Obelia: Marine and colonial with metagenesis.

Physalia: Polymorphic

Corals and Sea anemone belong to the class Anthozoa

Phylum Coelenterata

  • Diploblastic and radially symmetrical
  • Mouth is surrounded by nematocyst bearing tentacles.
  • A nerve net present.
  • Larva is planula.


  • Phylum Cnidaria (Coelenterata): General Characters and more
    Phylum Cnidaria (formely known as coelenterata) includes about 9000 species.Some are found in fresh water, but the grater number are marine. Coelenterates (Gr. koilos, hollow+enteron,gut).are the simplest of eumetazoans.
  • Coral and Coral Reefs
    Corals are animals belonging to the phylum Coelenterata. The corals in general have diverse shapes and sizes, but majority are colonial with very small polyps. A coral reef is a complex living community.

Example of Phylum Platyhelminthes

Free living: Planaria

Liver fluke: found in the bile duct and liver of sheep.

Schistosoma: Found in the veins of man

Taenia solium: the pork tapeworm.

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Phylum Platyhelminthes

  • Includes flat worms.
  • Body cavity is absent.
  • Excretion by flame cells or solenocytes.


  • Phylum Platyhelminthes : General Characters
    Phylum Platyhelminthes (Gr.platys, flat+ helminthes, worm) includes worms with a flat body. This phylum includes about 13,000 species. Animals with elongated bodies but no conspicuous appendages are called “worms”.
  • Classes of Platyhelminthes
    Phylum Platyhelminthes is divided into three classes (Trematoda,Turbellaria and Cestoda)

Example of Nematoda

Ascaris, pinworm, Hook worm, Filarial worm etc.

Phylum Aschelminthes (Nematoda)

Includes round worm.

Epidermis is syncytial and body cavity is pseudocoel.

Example of Annelida

Nereis: marine, locomotion and excretion by parapodia

Leech: sanguivore, saliva contains an anticoagulant, Hirudin

Earthworm (Megascolex)

Phylum Annelida

Includes segmented worms.

Body cavity is a Coelom (Schizocoel) except in Leeches.

Excretion by Nephridia



Example of Arthropoda

  • Prawn aquatic with two pairs of antennae.
  • Cockroarch with three pairs of legs, two pairs of wings
  • Cicada with 17 years of underground larval life.
  • Scropion : antennae are absent ,viviparous.
  • Peripatus : walking worms, a living fossil

Phylum Arthropoda

Includes jointed legged animals.

Body is covered by Chitin.

Body cavity is Haemocoel.

Respiratory pigment is haemocyanin.

Example of Mollusca

  • Sepia with internal shell and ink sac.
  • Octopus: the devil fish
  • Pinctada: The pearl oyster.
  • Nautilus and Neopalina are living fossils.
  • Teredo: the shipworm

Phylum Mollusca

Includes segmented, soft bodied animals with a hard shell. Larve are glochidium or trocophore (veliger)..

Phylum Mollusc

Phylum Mollusc

Example of Echinodermata

  • Starfishes
  • Sea urchins : In the pharynx of the sea urchinis is a chewing apparatus called Aristole lantern. it's development is similar to chordata
  • Brittle star
  • Sea cucumber
  • Sea lily

Phylum Echinodermata

Includes spiny skinned animals.

All are marine. Adults are radially symmetrical and larvae are bilaterally symmetrical.

Phylum Echinodermata

Phylum Echinodermata


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