Skip to main content

English Swear Words

Peter is an amateur historian and a student of languages. Retired he spends much of his free time writing historical books and articles.

The Queen's English

Queen Victoria in her coronation gown

Queen Victoria in her coronation gown

Where the swear words came from

The English language uses amusing, unusual, even unique methods for swearing. Every language has it’s expletives but English is bloody strange.That last one for instance is peculiar to England. Although "bloody" is often used in the British Dominions of Australia and New Zealand. The word has it's own history but let's start at the beginning.
The island of Britain was originally inhabited by a Celtic people who spoke a language called Brythonic. That language eventually became Welsh, Cornish and Breton. The latter spoken in Brittany, Northwest France. The Island became part of the Roman Empire for 400 years then when the Romans left in 383 CE everyone who had a boat tried to invade. Most of these illegal immigrants came from the Germanic areas around what is now the Hook of Holland. The main tribes from that area were the Angles, Saxons and Jutes. Scandinavians, especially Danes settled in parts of England and for a period the King of Denmark was also King of the Saxons. Eventually it resulted in the people being called “Saxons” and the country they inhabited becoming known as “Angleland” or England. They spoke a language called Englec Today we would call it “Old Anglo-Saxon” a dialect of German, it became the common tongue of the Saxons as they spread through the part of the island today known as England.

Then there arrived the one man who would change the history of the island and the nature of the language, Duke William of Normandy popularly referred to as William the Conqueror. In 1066 CE he landed at Hastings on the southern shore of England and defeated the English, killing the last of the Saxon kings, Harold Godwinson. William then set about consolidating his hold on the English. The Saxon nobility were either killed or sold into slavery. They were replaced by the Barons that had aided William. The barons had their retinues and all these people spoke Norman-French. This result was that the language of the nobility was French while the language of the Saxons, remained German. The new Norman overlords were cruel and exploitative. They considered the Saxons to be inferior beings and treated them as such.The Saxon language was considered crude and peasant-like to the new rulers.
Over the next couple of centuries the two languages would meld into the English of today but the same prejudices remain. For example; the common people, mainly the farmers, provided meat for the table of the nobles. So they used the old words of Sheep and Pig. At table those same animals are referred to as; Mutton and Pork. Muton and Porc are the French equivalents. There is a common saying, still repeated today, that it's "French for the table, English for the stable" Another example of how English has a number of words for the same thing is the following words; Canal (Latin) Channel (French) Trench (Saxon) You may notice something here; there is almost an instinctive pecking order in those words. Canal seems superior to Channel and they both make Trench feel vulgar. It gets worse, In modern English, French is perfectly acceptable in all conversations. It is possible to say absolutely anything, any word, describing any part of the anatomy, even sexual acts, can be used from the church pulpit and sound respectable. As long as it is said in French. It is only a vulgar curse word if said in old English,

Pardon my French

A few examples;
It is acceptable to say “Bosom” and “Posterior” and it would not surprise us to hear the Pastor say those words from the pulpit, after all they are French. If however the Anglo-Saxon words were used, I refer to “Tits” and “Arse” Then we would all be shocked at his foul mouth. Indeed we may “Defecate” but we may not Scite as the Old Saxon would say We may even refer to a ladies vagina and not cause undue alarm but we must never, ever use the modern pronunciation of the old English word for Sex. It’s pure prejudice; we may say whatever we like just not in the language of the conquered. Let’s not forget that it is perfectly acceptable to “Fornicate” but never to……………..Ahh! now there’s an interesting one.
There are a number of urban myths about the origin of that word. Mostly they revolve around acronyms. One of the most popular refers to the days of sailing Ships, when Navies and merchant ships sailed the seven seas. The captain would keep a journal of the daily events, no, the Ship Captain’s Log did not begin with Star Trek, it was around for hundreds of years. During the voyages, due to limited writing space the captain would tend to abbreviate a lot of the entries. So, if two seamen were caught in a homosexual act, they would be punished. The entry would read, for example; “30L for UCK” “L” stood for Lashes and the UCK stood for “Unlawful Carnal Knowledge” So a Taboo word came into being. As interesting as that may sound it is an urban myth. Acronyms did not come into being until the first world war. The word has been a taboo word for centuries when used in a derogatory manner towards someone. This word derives from "Firker" the old description of a Pig breeder.
The way that word is used today is interesting. Perhaps the worse thing to wish on anyone is that they suffer torment for eternity but if I was to tell someone to “Go to Hell” they would hardly be offended. On the other hand, if I told them to “Fornicate off’ (Pardon my French) I could be in for a fight even though it almost could be a blessing.
The English nobility of the middle ages had their own way of cursing that trickled down to the masses. They used to use religious words. It is said that Oliver Cromwell’s favorite phrase was “God’s Teeth” The phrases that were particularly insulting among the religious based curses of those days have remained with us; curses like “Damn you” and “Go to Hell” are still here but have less emphasis these days. One that became popular was “By our Lady” This became so popular among the ordinary folk that it is still used today, only it has been shortened to the earlier mentioned “Bloody” Regional variations in accent still retain some of the old sense of the word. “Bloody” is only pronounced that way in the Southeast of England. In South Wales the word is “Bleddy” and in many areas of England you hear “Buh-leddy” Other words that are contractions of medieval curses, though not as popular as they used to be, were: Gor blimey, (God blind me) and Gadzooks (God's Hooks, referring to Jesus nailed to the cross)
In many ways the English of today lacks the character and eloquence of bygone years. Today we say one word, when in years past a sentence would be used, and misunderstandings were far less. Every one of us has at least one person they would love to approach with the words;

“Thou art an unseemly dog; mayhap thy mother didst dally with a lustful goat”

Isn’t that so much better than inviting them to fornicate?

English swear words and other ways to be completely misunderstood


louromano on March 14, 2012:

Thanks for this Hub. Very entertaining and educational. And yes... "bloody" is still frequently used here in Australia.

louromano on March 13, 2012:

It gave George Carlin a career highlight - and speaking of highlights - I swear this is the best hub ever written about swearing!!!

orbtastic on September 25, 2011:

Posh is another urban myth! It's a false acronym.

Valerie Washington from Tempe, Arizona on September 17, 2011:

this was great and funny!

Naomi's Banner from United States on August 08, 2011:

Interesting and humorous I might add.

Web World Watcher on June 17, 2011:

hah, very funny. I never realized swear words had such a dep and profound history

Scroll to Continue

pcdriverupdate from VA on March 13, 2011:

funny and informative. love it. :)

Suri Ben Noah from Chennai, Tamilnadu, South India on March 11, 2011:

I really loved your style. Very humourous but also very informative & meaningful. Btw, Bloody is also commonly used in India thanks to the Brits & the resultant Anglo-Indian community that they spawned.

Hezekiah from Japan on March 07, 2011:

Wow, lots I never knew there.

Mrs. J. B. from Southern California on February 01, 2011:

What a great hub.................

sligobay from east of the equator on October 17, 2010:

I'm a new follower too. Great Hub. I will be reading other articles that interest me. Cheers.

ShaunLindbergh on October 11, 2010:

Great hub, lots of interesting stuff. I look forward to reading your other hubs.

houlian on October 08, 2010:

Great stuff, i never knew any of this, and it tickles me. You have just obtained another follower.

alishaneuron from Colorado (U.S) on October 07, 2010:

Historical facts is my search. Thanks you have given me to meet it. Enjoyed really.

TonyShepard from Dallas Texas on October 06, 2010:

Positively WONDERFUL. I LOVE this article. Outstanding job on bring out some of the funnier sides to the English language. Thank you IantoPF for the post, I truly enjoyed this.

Kindest Regards,

Tony S.

EliKen on October 06, 2010:

Love the historical perspective, as a History major undergrad...

Ken @EliKen

Shona Venter from South Africa on October 06, 2010:

Always good to know the origin of our language. Name-calling must have meant so much more back then as well - so much more descriptive!

Godlike from Sweden on October 06, 2010:

Nice hub. Hope to see more from you! :)

PZigney on October 06, 2010:

Great fun. Remembering that my nephew had to calm me down one day. "Uncle, you sure use a lot of expletives." Til that day, I didn't know what the word expletives was. Now I have new ones to use on them.

Stan Fletcher from Nashville, TN on October 05, 2010:

This is a great one. Fun and informative.

kkgifts from Florence, SC on October 05, 2010:

This is a great hub!! very much enjoyed reading it!

Funom Theophilus Makama from Europe on October 04, 2010:

this is unbelievable. Such hubs are invaluable and are what make this community a world class article directory. Great job and looking forward to read more of this....

cbris52 on October 03, 2010:

Great and witty hub!

Benson Yeung from Hong Kong on October 03, 2010:

I never knew we could have so much clean fun reading around the foul subject.

Sa`ge from Barefoot Island on October 03, 2010:

Wonderfully witty hub, turned me into a fan. :D aloha oe

alqx from Singapore on October 01, 2010:

That was an interesting read. Seriously, I still can't believe 'bloody' was originally 'by our Lady'.

mikiy on October 01, 2010:

This is an exceptional writing . Thanks

cuisinart from U.S.A on September 30, 2010:

Good article. You know what I really love reading history. Keep posting man,,,

GaryChrist from Kansas City, MO on September 30, 2010:

A wonderful article! Glad I ran across it!

nathanross on September 30, 2010:

Very Interesting... That is why I love history very much. Because everything that we are today, or everything that we do all goes back to something that happened in the past. I did not know about bloody... That is very very interesting. I always wondered why people would say pardon my french after they cursed... Now I know... Thanks for sharing

TattoGuy on September 30, 2010:

Nice topic, great lil hub !

motorola from U.S.A. on September 29, 2010:

You've got a nice topic.I really love reading and this one is nice.Thanks

Drood on September 29, 2010:

thanks for the great idea. been working through a little dittie on the cliché. perhaps there's room for one more hub on the topic of language.

BartCougy on September 29, 2010:

Fun hub! I got a good laugh out of it, and it is an interesting approach to linguistics... maybe, the naughtier side of the English language. I might have to slip a few of these in place of my other bad words so that I don't get in trouble. Haha!

CarolineVABC from Castaic on September 28, 2010:

Wow-I did not know how "swear words" came about. I guess, like anything else, it has to start from somewhere. Just like with history of names: how did we get from Richard to Rick to Dick or William to Will to Bill? Thank you for sharing such an informative and interesting hub. Keep up the good work. God bless!:-)

hubpageswriter on September 28, 2010:

A very interesting hub to read.

alae on September 28, 2010:

nice hub

very true because language is a most important thing for communication. thanks for sharing.

henrykasan from UK on September 26, 2010:

Good Hub!!!!!

The information regarding word is very useful. The language of English today lacks the character and eloquence of bygone years. It is aptly stated into the hub that today we say one word, when in years past a sentence would be used, and misunderstandings were far less. The hub is very much knowledgeable, thanks a lot for sharing such a wonderful peace of text.

Artoflegendindia on September 10, 2010:

Great hub. your topic is very interesting and informative.

xboxliveforxbox on September 06, 2010:

Very interesting topic. Some people use those words without even knowing where they came from. Thanks so much and good luck with your hub.

tectonic from Singapore on August 29, 2010:

I can't believe how many comments there are here...looks like a good topic....

darntoothysam from Burnsville, MN on August 25, 2010:

Cheese and crackers! Why do people like such odd subjects 'round here? Guess funny and/or entertaining is the way to go. I do like the article ianto, and thanks for the educational response to my previous comment.


Peter Freeman (author) from Pen-Bre, Cymru/Wales on August 18, 2010:

RoseGardenAdvice; Thank you very much for the comment, I continue to be surprised at how much interest this Hub has generated. The most important part is that you enjoyed it, Best Wishes............ianto

RoseGardenAdvice from San Francisco on August 18, 2010:

I must say you have written a 'fornicating' good hub!! Very well written .. made me laugh and at the same time gave a lot of interesting info on the history of swear words, Thanks.

Medical Writer from Great Britain on August 13, 2010:

Very interesting article.

TruckinDr on August 13, 2010:

A nice read, very interesting, thnx!

Leslie Jo Barra on August 13, 2010:

I love delving into etymology. Thanks for sharing.

Elefanza from Somewhere in My Brain on August 13, 2010:

Wow, I didn't realize that. It's amazing that anyone continues with the folly of speech when there is so much opportunity for mishap. Even a fool is thought wise when he holds his tongue. Yet language is sadly and irresistibly addictive.

tt on August 13, 2010:

it's very good information.

naturefire666 on August 13, 2010:

Life Changing topic, thanks for sharing.

Peter Freeman (author) from Pen-Bre, Cymru/Wales on August 11, 2010:

LOL days leaper I actually did do that, not with that title though; It's called Americanisms,

Thank you for your comment and yes there are a lot of them. That's a good thing :)

days leaper from england on August 11, 2010:

"...And then they all F***ed off to America!" -Might be your next instalment?

Thanks for this great hub! Very informative, I bet it will take me a lifetime to read the comments alone! Well Done!

Jacob Darkley from California, USA on August 11, 2010:

Very interesting... and surprisingly funny! Thanks for sharing.


EnergyAdvisor from The nearest planet to Venus on August 11, 2010:

This is really an interesting topic. I definitely learned something here. Thanks for this great share:) voted up!

jackranson on August 11, 2010:

Cool! =) on August 11, 2010:

Think I learned more about english history than the teachers at school ever managed!

Peter Freeman (author) from Pen-Bre, Cymru/Wales on August 10, 2010:

Hello Elefanza; Thank you for your comment. It is still partly true today. "Thee" and "Thou" are still used in Yorkshire but it should not be used towards someone you are not on very familiar terms with. Outside of a friendly atmosphere it is called "Thee-ing and Thou-ing" and can be construed as fighting words.

Elefanza from Somewhere in My Brain on August 10, 2010:

Awesome post! I do love English history and the English language. One of my favorite historical tidbits (and my memory is a little vague on the specifics) involving the English language was the fact that when the language was changing and taking out the less formal you, thou etc, people would get into fights if they thought they weren't addressed properly! Ha!

Peter Freeman (author) from Pen-Bre, Cymru/Wales on August 10, 2010:

Hello CowlesK; Welcome to Hubpages. Thank you for reading this Hub. I was wondering if you use any of those words when training your animals :)

Richard; Thank you for your comment. This Hub has done so well overall that your advice is very worthwhile. I recently wrote a Hub on Americanisms and I've linked this Hub to it. Let's see if it does as well as this one.

Peter Freeman (author) from Pen-Bre, Cymru/Wales on August 10, 2010:

Ameliadietl; Thank you very much for reading and commenting. Thank you most of all for enjoying.

DzyMsLizzy; Your comments are always a joy to read as are your Hubs. Thank you.

Richard Stephen on August 10, 2010:

Very amusing and educational. You should do more of these kinds of hubs!

CowlesK on August 10, 2010:

Very interesting! Thanks for the info!

Liz Elias from Oakley, CA on August 10, 2010:

Yes, healthgoji--they used to say things of religious derivation, and that's why it was considered 'swearing' because they were "taking the name of a diety or saint in vain."

A friend of mine, when her kids were young, used to exclaim, "Oh, fungus!" I laughed & questioned her on it one day, and she replied, "It's better than saying something else that starts the same way!"

I also enjoy "frelling" which susbtitute I learned from Hollywood screenwriters, in the Sci-Fi TV series, "Farscape."

ameliadietl from Florida on August 10, 2010:

Ah! This is very funny. Thanks for the awesome hub!!

Peter Freeman (author) from Pen-Bre, Cymru/Wales on August 10, 2010:

Hello paulkimelecu: Thank you very much for stopping by I had no idea that English swearing had entered Korean.

Welcome to Hubpages........ianto.

Peter Freeman (author) from Pen-Bre, Cymru/Wales on August 10, 2010:

darntoothysam; Thank you for your comments. I try to make my Hubs entertaining as well as informative though I have discovered that the comments section is a place where I can go into a little more detail without spoiling the flow of the article.

"Cow" is derived from the old Anglo-Saxon "Cu"

"Vache" is derived from the latin "Vacca" modern French is the adaptation of the earlier Gallo-Romance language centered around Paris. Just as the accepted standard for modern English is based around the English dialect prominent in London and the south east of England, so modern French is based around the dialect commonly spoken around Paris. The Norman-French were related to the Scandinavians and their dialect was heavily influenced by their Nordic heritage. Their word for "Cow" was similar to the Danish "Bos" from which was derived the English word "Beef" There are many other examples of how Norman-French impacted the Saxon language causing more than one word to be used for the same thing and sometimes the effect of Latin as a legal language in the middle ages also contributed. For example; Canal (Latin) Channel (French) Trench (Anglo-Saxon)

Thank you for the opportunity of allowing me to go deeper into this subject. Best Wishes.......Ianto.

paulkimelecu from philadelphia, pa on August 10, 2010:

i like this hub a lot. i think English has evolved a lot. In Korea, we use English swear words all the time. I guess they've infiltrated all across the world thanks to American cultural colonization... no f-ing good!!!

darntoothysam from Burnsville, MN on August 09, 2010:

The French word for 'cow' is 'vache'.

The French word for 'beef' is 'beouf'.


Sheila from The Other Bangor on August 09, 2010:

It's just such a great word to SAY, innit? I love the Irish version, feck, too. And your intro to the history of the English language is great--


Peter Freeman (author) from Pen-Bre, Cymru/Wales on August 08, 2010:

Hello Teresa; I'm honored you took the time to read and comment. Your comment is a valuable addition to this Hub and the subject of the F word. That word seems to have a particular fascination in it's use and origin.

The stories are fun though :)

Peter Freeman (author) from Pen-Bre, Cymru/Wales on August 08, 2010:

Hello jeanie; Thank you and welcome to Hubpages. I'm glad you enjoyed this Hub and I hope you enjoy not just mine but the really excellent Hubs other writers put on here. Best Wishes...........Ianto

Peter Freeman (author) from Pen-Bre, Cymru/Wales on August 08, 2010:

Hello Witchetty; Welcome to Hubpages. You are right it is used in many English speaking parts of the World. Does that mean America is not an English speaking country? :)

Peter Freeman (author) from Pen-Bre, Cymru/Wales on August 08, 2010:

Hello David470; that is a very good point. Though I would use the word "Flowery" A comparison of today's English with the language of Shakespeare makes me feel we have lost much.

Best Wishes.......ianto

Sheila from The Other Bangor on August 08, 2010:

I found this useful list in Time magazine--it's probably already mentioned here somewhere, but just in case--

"First printed in a Scottish poem in 1503, the ancient and awesomely powerful F-bomb continues to mystify lexicographers. Rumors persist that legal acronyms spawned the obscenity in question ("Fornication Under Consent of the King" or the Irish police-blotter inscription "booked For Unlawful Carnal Knowledge"), though the modern-day phrase has been traced to a number of etymological origins: Middle Dutch (fokken), Germanic (ficken), English (firk), Scottish (fukkit). Even the Latin terms futuerre ("to copulate") and pungo ("to prick") bear a striking resemblance to the four-letter word. Of course, its original definition linking sex with violence and pleasure with pain has broadened considerably in the past 500 years.",8599,185...

jeanie.stecher from Seattle on August 08, 2010:

Great informaton you have here. I enjoyed reading your hub. Wanted to read more of your hubs. Thanks for sharing.

Witchetty on August 08, 2010:

'Bloody' certainly isn't only or even mainly used in England. It's pretty bloody common in Australia too - and in other 'outposts of bloody ex-empire'.

David 470 from Pennsylvania, United States on August 08, 2010:

Awesome hub. Our language is not really as complicated as it once was. A lot of phrases are no longer used today anymore.

Peter Freeman (author) from Pen-Bre, Cymru/Wales on August 08, 2010:

PR_am; Thank you for your kind words. I write mostly for my readers to enjoy. I'm glad that you enjoyed the read. Best Wishes..........Ianto

Lionel Bracken; You do me too much honor. Thank you.

taskmanagement; Welcome to Hubpages, thank you for stopping by.

taskManagement on August 08, 2010:

interesting read

Lionel Bracken on August 07, 2010:

Fantastic Hub! In addition to finding it informative in its right, I love the model - this is exactly the way Hubs ought to be written. Thank you for the great job!

PR_am from Oregon on August 07, 2010:

This really made me laugh out loud. Very informative and well researched post. Thanks for sharing!

Peter Freeman (author) from Pen-Bre, Cymru/Wales on August 06, 2010:

healthgoji; Thank you for reading and commenting. Yes they were speaking in religious terms. That was the method of swearing before modern English started using vulgarities.

Peter Freeman (author) from Pen-Bre, Cymru/Wales on August 06, 2010:

Hello Mardi; I've had the evil eye thrown at me a few times myself. though being Welsh I have the advantage of being able to curse in a language no one can understand.

Is the beer better in Canada? I've never been but that would be a definite selling point.

Best Wishes..........Ianto

healthgoji on August 06, 2010:

Very proper lesson on angles and saxons and queens manners. I did not know the origin of "bloody" being "by our lady". Sounds religious or were they speaking of the queen?

Mardi Winder-Adams from Western Canada and Texas on August 06, 2010:

Wonderful hub and lots of fun. I am from Canada and we use a lot of the British terms, but here in the southern USA they look at with the evil eye if you use terms like bloody or bugger. The whole chesterfield thing really throws them as well but I still go to the pub for a pint, even if they only serve bottles!

Peter Freeman (author) from Pen-Bre, Cymru/Wales on August 04, 2010:

Hello nettech: thanks for stopping by. I used to drive tour buses in and around London so I got to know the town pretty well. You're right about the swearing but the dicky bird around the kermit was that the old bill would turn a blind mince pie if you watched the P's and Q's.

Peter Freeman (author) from Pen-Bre, Cymru/Wales on August 04, 2010:

Passinitalong; I'm glad you enjoyed the Hub and may I say that there are many things I have learned about that I do not intend to do. So happy you dropped in.

Mike the Rhino; You enjoyed that? well I'll be buggered. :)

Peter Freeman (author) from Pen-Bre, Cymru/Wales on August 04, 2010:

hello Miss_jkim; Thank you not just for reading and commenting but for giving me a great idea. I'm going to write a Hub on the differemces in US and UK English. I have some deas that I think might go well together and you have been my inspiration. Thank you. :)

nettech from London (UK) on August 04, 2010:

Great hub,

Kind of made me laugh, I think for every sentence us Londoners use, over 50% are filled with profanities. Its not that we like swearing, or even do it deliberately, its just part of the culture. Not a good thing but part and parcel.

Now as much as I'd love to share all these with you, I think its best I didn'



Peter Freeman (author) from Pen-Bre, Cymru/Wales on August 04, 2010:

Hello Joshwinvp; It seems so I agree and it was just written for fun, hardly one of my more serious Hubs.

Thank you for taking the time to read and comment.

MikeTheRhino from Staten Island on August 04, 2010:

Well, Fornicate me, THAT'S a good hub!! :)

PassinItAlong on August 04, 2010:

Not that I plan to add any of those to my vocabulary, it was still very interesting to learn about them; thank you.

miss_jkim on August 04, 2010:

Delightful Hub,

As a person who has traveled to England and Scotland, I have come to realize that America and these great countries are simply divided by a single language.

It’s quite unsettling to be asked, “What time do you want to be knocked up?” when checking into a hotel.

Or have someone ask to “bum a fag” in a local pub.

And am I supposed to be offended when someone calls me a "wanker?"

Ah, so many phrases that one could discuss.

Joshwinvp from Chicago on August 04, 2010:

Hah, what a controversial topic this is.

I like it.

Peter Freeman (author) from Pen-Bre, Cymru/Wales on August 03, 2010:

cbris52; Thank you for reading and commenting. One of these days I'll do a Hub on the different meanings of words between America and the english speaking world.

Best Wishes..........Ianto

Burning Bush; Thank you; I took a look at your hubs too. Bloody good show.

burning bush on August 03, 2010:

Bloody well done.

cbris52 on August 03, 2010:

This is very interesting... My best friend moved to the states from London about 6 years he always asks me to go to the pub with him instead of the bar.

Peter Freeman (author) from Pen-Bre, Cymru/Wales on August 03, 2010:

Hi Gina; swear words are interesting but i never knew they would be this interesting. If ever you get a chance to go to the Rennaissance faire up in Northern califotnia you'll hear "Wench" said a lot. True it's more fun than derogatory these days. I can't imagine my walking into a bar and ordering a Wench to give me a beer. Not here in L.A.for sure.

jgw899 from Santa Cruz on August 03, 2010:


i love this hub; i think it's interesting that swear words change to less scathing words as time progresses. for example, in the middle ages, 'wench' was highly derogatory, but as it progressed into early modern English, the connotations changed to be less so. Now we hardly use the word, but when we do, its connotations are more funny than hateful!

beautifully done!

Peter Freeman (author) from Pen-Bre, Cymru/Wales on August 03, 2010:

hello Culturespain; Welcome to Hubpages. There are a lot more examples of this kind of thing. I might even write another Hub about it.

Thanks for stopping by.

Related Articles