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Types of Arches

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Flat Arch
/ Jack Arch/Straight Arch/Straight Gauged Arch

French Arch/Dutch Arch/ Slanted Arch/ Skewback Arch.

Triangular Arch

Segmental Arch

Round Arch

Roman Arch

Equilateral Arch

Horseshoe Arch/ Moorish arch/ Keyhole arch

Basket-Handle Arch/Elliptical Arch

Rampant arch

Bell Arch

Trefoil Arch/ three-foiled cusped arch

Catenary Arch

Pointed arches

Equilateral Arch

Drop Arch

Lancet Arch

Gothic Arch

Tudor Arch/ Four-centered Arch/Depressed Arch

Blind Arch

Relieving arch/Discharging arch

Inflexed Arch/ Flamboyant Arch

Ogee Arch/Contrasted Arch; Keel Arch

Depressed Arch

Cinquefoil arch

Scalloped arch/Multifoil arch

Norman Arch

Florentine arch

Venetian Arch

'Recto' arch


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Jack Arch

A jack arch is a structural element in masonry construction that provides support at openings in the masonry. Alternate names are "flat arch" and "straight arch".

A straight arch along the springing line with a flat Intrados. The masonry units are laid out as voussoirs angled to a centre below the arch.

French Arch

A flat arch that uses parallel sided voussoirs.

French Arch

French Arch

Triangular Arch

triangular arch. Two flat stones set at an angle of 45° or thereabouts, mitred at the top, and touching each other at the apex of a triangular-headed opening. It occurs in Anglo-Saxon architecture and is not an arch at all. An arch often formed by two large diagonal stones that mutually support each other to span an opening; also called a miterarch., Mayan Arch

Triangular arch

Triangular arch

Segmental Arch

An arch in which the curve is a less than semicircular segment of a circle.

Round / Roman Arch

A Semicircular Arch

Moorish arch

The horseshoe arch, also called the Moorish arch and the Keyhole arch, is the emblematic arch of Islamic architecture. Horseshoe arches can take rounded, pointed or lobed form.

Equilateral arch

Many Gothic openings are based upon the equilateral form. In other words, when the arch is drafted, the radius is exactly the width of the opening and the centre of each arch coincides with the point from which the opposite arch springs. This makes the arch higher in relation to its width than a semi-circular arch which is exactly half as high as it is wide.

Windows in the Chapter House at York Minster show the equilateral arch with typical circular motifs in the tracery.

Windows in the Chapter House at York Minster show the equilateral arch with typical circular motifs in the tracery.

Basket-handle arch

An arch of 3 centres. In the simplest model, the outer centres lie on the springing line, and describe equilateral triangles. The radii of the middle arc bisect the springing line at these two outer centres (M and Q) – thus the depth of the middle centre

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Rampant Arch

An arch whose support is higher on one side than on the other

Bell Arch

A round arch resting on corbels

Trefoil arch

A trefoil arch -- or three-foiled cusped arch -- is an arch incorporating the shape or outline of a trefoil — three overlapping rings. It has been widely used for its symbolic significance in Christian architecture.

Trefoil arches at the Bayeux Cathedral (11th century), Calvados, Normandy, France.

Trefoil arches at the Bayeux Cathedral (11th century), Calvados, Normandy, France.

Catenary Arch

An arch that takes the form of an inverted catenary, i.e., the curve formed by a flexible cord hung between the two points of support.

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Drop arch/ Surbased arch.

a pointed arch having radii of length less than the span.

Also called surbased arch. an arch having a rise of less than half its span.

blunt pointed arch drawn from two centers within the span

Lancet Arch

The simplest shape is the long opening with a pointed arch known in England as the lancet. Lancet openings are often grouped, usually as a cluster of three or five. Lancet openings may be very narrow and steeply pointed. Lancet arches are typically defined as two-centered arches whose radii are larger than the arch's span.

Lancet Arch

Lancet Arch

Tudor Arch

a four-centered arch, the inner pair of curves having a radius much greater than that of the outer pair.

Construction of a four-centred arch

Construction of a four-centred arch

Blind Arch

A blind arch is an arch found in the wall of a building which has been infilled with solid construction so it cannot serve as a passageway, door, or window.The term is most often associated with masonry wall construction, but is also found (or simulated) in other types of construction such as light frame construction. Some blind arches were originally built as open arches and infilled at a later date. Others were originally built with solid infill as intentional stylistic elements.

Relieving arch

A discharging arch or relieving arch is an arch built over a lintel or architrave to take off the super incumbent weight. The earliest example is found in the Great Pyramid, over the lintels of the entrance passage to the tomb: it consisted of two stones only, resting one against the other. The same object was attained in the Lion Gate and theTomb of Agamemnon, both in Mycenae, and in other examples in Greece, where the stones laid in horizontal courses, one projecting over the other, left a triangular hollow space above the lintel of the door, which was subsequently filled in by vertical sculptured stone panels.

Discharging arch of the door of the minaret in the Great Mosque of Kairouan, also called the Mosque of Uqba, in Tunisia.

Discharging arch of the door of the minaret in the Great Mosque of Kairouan, also called the Mosque of Uqba, in Tunisia.

Flamboyant arch

The Flamboyant Arch is one that is drafted from four points, the upper part of each main arc turning upwards into a smaller arc and meeting at a sharp, flame-like point. These arches create a rich and lively effect when used for window tracery and surface decoration. The form is structurally weak and has very rarely been used for large openings except when contained within a larger and more stable arch. It is not employed at all for vaulting.

Flamboyant tracery at Limoges Cathedral.

Flamboyant tracery at Limoges Cathedral.

Ogee Arch

In architecture, the principal use of the term is to describe an arch composed of two ogees, mirrored left-to-right and meeting at an apex. Ogee arches were a feature of English Gothic architecture in the later thirteenth century.

An ogee-arched doorway in Pirna, Germany

An ogee-arched doorway in Pirna, Germany

Depressed arch

The Depressed or four-centered arch is much wider than its height and gives the visual effect of having been flattened under pressure. Its structure is achieved by drafting two arcs which rise steeply from each springing point on a small radius and then turn into two arches with a wide radius and much lower springing point.

The depressed arch supported by fan vaulting at King's College Chapel, England.

The depressed arch supported by fan vaulting at King's College Chapel, England.

Cinquefoil Arch

Cinquefoil Arch

Cinquefoil arch

A fiveIobed pattern divided by cusps; a cusped arch with five foliations worked into the intrados; a cinque-foil tracery at the apex of a window.

Scalloped arch/Multifoil arch

An arch having more than five foils, a design found in Moorish architecture.

Norman arch

The "Norman arch" is the round arch. Norman mouldings are carved or incised with geometric ornament, such aschevron patterns, frequently termed "zig-zag mouldings", around arches.

A Norman arch with zig-zag mouldings above the church doorway at Guiting Power, Gloucestershire

A Norman arch with zig-zag mouldings above the church doorway at Guiting Power, Gloucestershire

Florentine arch

A semicircular arch having its extrados struck from a higher point than its intrados so that the length of the voussoirs is longer nearer the top of the arch.

Florentine arch

Florentine arch

Venetian Gothic Arch

Venetian Gothic Arch

Venetian Arch

The Venetian brick arch is a specific example of a three centred arch. Also known as a Queen Anne arch it is a classic design but structurally weak.

An arch having its extrados struck from a centre further from the central axis than its intrados so that the length of the voussoirs is longer nearer the top of the arch. Frequent in Florentine palace architecture, such as the 13th centuryPalazzo Mozzi. Occasionally, an ogee point at the apex is also found.

Where the Intrados is semi-circular and the Extrados is pointed this is sometimes referred to as a 'Venetian Gothic Arch'

'Recto' arch

A specific acute, 2-centered arch. The arc length is 5/4 of the span of the arch with the centres exterior to the span

Reference

American Heritage® Dictionary of the English Language, Fifth Edition. Copyright © 2011 by Houghton Mifflin Harcourt Publishing Company. Published by Houghton Mifflin Harcourt Publishing Company. All rights reserved

McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Architecture and Construction. Copyright © 2003 by McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

A Dictionary of Architecture; Fleming, John; Honour, Hugh & Pevsner, Nikolaus (1966)

Random House Kernerman Webster's College Dictionary, © 2010 K Dictionaries Ltd. Copyright 2005, 1997, 1991 by Random House, Inc. All rights reserved.

Ching, Francis D.K. (2012). A Visual Dictionary of Architecture (2nd ed.). John Wiley & Sons, Inc. p. 6.ISBN 978-0-470-64885-8.

Banister Fletcher, A History of Architecture on the Comparative Method.

Chisholm, Hugh, ed. (1911). Encyclopædia Britannica (11th ed.). Cambridge University Press.

Davies, Nikolas; Jokiniemi, Erkki (2011). Architect's Illustrated Pocket Dictionary. Oxford, England: Architectural Press. p. 318. ISBN 978-0-08-096537-6.

Illustrated Dictionary of Architecture Copyright © 2012, 2002, 1998 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved

Comments

Tayyab Mahmood on November 28, 2019:

Very informative

Renu Sharma on November 05, 2019:

Nice information

Aisha on November 02, 2019:

Thanks for great compilation.