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Denisovans - A new breed of Man who Interbred with Humans An Exciting New Discovery for Archaeology


A New Breed of Human Discovered!

Throughout history, man has been searching for his ancestors and the knowledge of where we came from. Up until the last 100 years, archaeology was a painstaking process, with hardly anybody qualified to understand what they had discovered, or even know what to do with it when they did. There was no DNA mapping, very little knowledge of dating the finds and more importantly, hardly anyone with the know how to even recognise important finds. We have been raised to believe that humans were a single species that evolved from monkeys. In recent years, with our science and technology bounding forward at a great speed, we have been able to see archaeology much more clearly. And more importantly, record and study every find. In the past ten years we have discovered a new breed of human which has been called the Hobbit, or scientifically named, Homo Floresiensis. This discovery caused major excitement. Now there were three. Modern man, Homo Floresiensis and of course the famous Neanderthal found in Germany in the last century. But now there is a fourth. The Denisovan.

The Denisovan was discovered in the Denisova cave in southern Siberia. The Russian led team found a 30,000 year old fossil finger bone of a young girl, and a tooth fragment. When they took the specimens back to the lab for forensic testing, they found, to their astonishment, that the DNA didn't match any known human. It was completely distinct from Human and Neanderthal! Imagine the excitement of this new discovery! We have been aware for some time that we came from a specific bloodline or breed of human, but each and every new discovery makes us more aware of how little we do know. This was another ancient cousin of the human being!

30,000-40,000 year old Young Denisovan girl's Finger bone and tooth


Do the Descendants Live Today?

So it seems that human evolution is not so straight forward as we believed. It is only through recent study that we have discovered the fact that we are interbred with Neanderthals. As we have all seen in the news recently, Ozzy Osbourne is in fact part Neanderthal! And obviously he isn't the only one. Now we have a new DNA in the mix. Denisovans. So what does this mean? Apart from our physiology, there is a possibility that Neanderthals and Denisovans also produced a new breed together. Anthropologist Bence Viola, who works at the Max Planck Institute for Evolutionary Anthropology in Leipzig Germany, states that:

'We think the Denisovan population inhabited most of eastern Eurasia, in the same way that Neanderthals inhabited most of western Eurasian. Our idea is that the ancestors of Melanesians met the Denisovans in southeast asia, and interbred. And the ancestors of Melanesians then moved on to Papua New Guinea.

The Cave where the bones were found


Artists first Impression


What this seems to mean is that living islanders today, in parts of Papua New Guinea may be distant descendants of the prehistoric groups! Evidently scientists had collected what is called mitochondrial DNA which comes only from a woman. It is not so easy to track and study as male DNA, as it is a relatively new way to study the female line. So, after further intense studies, they discovered, to their astonishment, that the new DNA was neither modern human or Neanderthal. It is nearer in structure to Neanderthals. They believe that Denisovans split from the parent group of Neanderthals approx 350,000 years ago.



There Be Giants

Archaeologists from the Russian Academy of Sciences, who excavated the site, discovered a rather strange tooth. It is bigger than any modern human tooth. And even stranger, it is also bigger than a Neanderthal tooth! It seems from this deduction, that this new breed were much larger than modern humans and their Neanderthal counterparts!

So is this the giant of myth and legend? Have we at last found real evidence of human like creatures that roamed the earth before and during mans first steps? More importantly, is this where we get our memories of giants roaming the earth, which in fact were even mentioned in the bible?

George Washington University Richmond, airs on the side of caution. They stated that: 'The tooth size isn't always a good indicator of body size. A Hominin can have big teeth and not be a giant'.

Denisova Cave Entrance


It seems that we won't know for at least a while whether it really is a completely separate species, or a branch of modern man. At the moment scientists seem to be leaning towards the separate species idea. Just because the DNA is similar to modern humans, doesn't mean that we did interbreed with them. We shall have to wait and see. Their theory is that if they are a separate species then modern man could not have mated and produced children. But are we certain of that? If the genetics are similar, then surely there is a possibility that we could.

Archaeology and science have a long way to go to figure out exactly how modern man evolved, and who we are related to.

From the depths of time, prehistoric man still holds it's secrets. How many more amazing discoveries will we find?.


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Nell Rose (author) from England on April 14, 2016:

Wow, thank you Michael! how fascinating! Yes you are right! people should live with them without saying they are scientists, it would be so much more natural. That must be amazing to live with them, and thank you for adding such interesting info, nell

Nell Rose (author) from England on January 27, 2015:

Well they do say that homo sapiens have four genetic traits in them, homo sapien, denisovan, neanderthal and one 'lost' one, mayb Nephillim?! lol! you never know.....!

DanArt on January 27, 2015:

Prehistory...the murky mists of that shroud the dawn of time...the age of Hyperborean Warriors...the mighty men of old, the men of renown...the Nephilim.

samowhamo on November 12, 2012:

Hi Nell

If you are interested in dinosaurs and paleontology check out my hub. :)

Nell Rose (author) from England on August 02, 2012:

Hi Green Bard, thanks so much, yes there are many new human species being found, it will be interesting to see the next one that is discovered, just goes to show that the 'hobbits' homo floresiensis, and the denisovans are they stuff of legend that are really true, and has been proved, thanks again, nell

Steve Andrews from Tenerife on August 02, 2012:

I had heard about the Denisovans before somewhere and am well aware that what we are taught as the accepted history of man is not the whole truth by any means but is only a patched together version they want us to accept. I have voted up and tagged as Interesting.

Nell Rose (author) from England on April 29, 2012:

Hi Wesman, yes I know what you mean. I think there will always be disputes, but saying that I think its a good thing that people have more than one idea of whats going on this way we have more chance of finding out the truth about these people, thanks for reading, cheers nell

Nell Rose (author) from England on April 29, 2012:

Hi Wesman, yes I know what you mean. I think there will always be disputes, but saying that I think its a good thing that people have more than one idea of whats going on this way we have more chance of finding out the truth about these people, thanks for reading, cheers nell

Nell Rose (author) from England on April 29, 2012:

Hi andromida, thanks so much for reading, and I am glad you liked it, cheers nell

Nell Rose (author) from England on April 29, 2012:

Hi Neanderthal Larry, er sorry Larry! lol! thanks for reading, I will have to go and look that one up too. Its amazing how many different sub species of human there are or were. I particularly like the Homofloresiensis (Hobbit)! we always said there were little people! thanks again, nell

Nell Rose (author) from England on April 29, 2012:

A bit thanks JK, but I must stop lifting painting climbing into the top cupboards and just about everything else and have a bit of decorum! lol!

James Kenny from Birmingham, England on April 29, 2012:

That's alright Nell. Hope your back feels better :)

Nell Rose (author) from England on April 29, 2012:

Hi JKenny, thanks for the link and sorry it took me so long to answer, bad back! ouch! lol! I will go and take a look at the link, and thanks!

Wesman Todd Shaw from Kaufman, Texas on April 28, 2012:

Very interesting, Nell - one thing I know from constantly writing about animals, is that there are more disputes in evolutionary biology than there are answers. I'm sure this will lead to brand new disputes, and also, a lot of folks that will see what they want to see.

syras mamun on April 28, 2012:

From the News media we get very little about these type of fascinating discoveries.I guess there are a lot that we still need to know to explain how we evolved into homo sapiens.thanks a lot.

Larry Fields from Northern California on April 28, 2012:

Hi Nell,

Voted up, interesting, and shared. The Denisovan discovery shows that human evolution is not as neat and tidy as some would prefer. You've done a great job in writing this chapter of our story.

The 40 thousand year old remains of Mungo Man in New South Wales is another enigma. His mitochondrial DNA is completely different from that of any modern humans. Yet his taller-than-average skeleton is completely modern in appearance.

If we include Mr Mungo, the putative Mitochondrial Eve for all modern-appearing humans is considerably older than we once thought. And that suggests multiple migrations of our distant ancestors from Africa.

Cheers, Neanderthal Larry

James Kenny from Birmingham, England on April 28, 2012:

By the way, that anonymous comment was from me, I don't know why it came up like that. Voted up and shared.

anonymous on April 28, 2012:

Hi Nell, fascinating article, its amazing to think that we once shared the planet with several other species of human. Recently, I don't know if you've heard, but they've discovered a possible fifth species. Here's the link if you're interested:

Nell Rose (author) from England on October 01, 2011:

Hi, Huntgoddess, lol! sorry they never had pants in those days! thanks for reading! cheers nell

Hi, Rose, that's okay, I just got myself confused! lol everything in science has two sides or arguments to it, it wouldn't work if we all had the same opinion, thats what makes science push forward, thanks for taking time to read it, cheers nell

Rose Ella Morton from Beverly Hills, Michigan on September 30, 2011:

Sorry: Nell can't type but love to talk.

Huntgoddess from Midwest U.S.A. on September 29, 2011:

OMG, put some pants on that guy! LOL. This looks interesting, but I had to hide my eyes :-)) It's difficult to read that way.

Nell Rose (author) from England on September 29, 2011:

Hi, Alastar, yep mitochondrial dna makes us the best! ha ha one of these days we will find that men really do come from mars and women from venus! lol thanks as always, nell

Alastar Packer from North Carolina on September 29, 2011:

Excited to see this Hub. Always thought native New Guineans had a special physiology. Yep, there were giants in the earth in those days. Denisovans? Maybe. Nell, do you believe mitochondrail dna proves once and for all women really do have it all over men? At any rate learned something cool & new here, Tack Nell.

Nell Rose (author) from England on September 29, 2011:

Hi, Rose, I am sorry I am not sure exactly what you mean? This isn't an alien, this is an ancient man like hominid, who was found recently. recently scientists have discovered the fact that we don't actually come from monkeys but are a 'branch' of the species. Monkeys have, for example, 100 chromosomes and we have 102, which means we went 'sideways' to the monkey, everything evolved by different genomes, each starting off similar but then adding chromosomes etc as we evolved, thanks for reading, cheers nell

Nell Rose (author) from England on September 29, 2011:

Hi, Jama, yes it seems that we are finding new stuff every day, if we put the myths and legends together with the real finds, its amazing how close we get! it seems genetic memory is alive and working very well! thanks as always, nell

Nell Rose (author) from England on September 29, 2011:

Hi, jenny, thank you for reading it, it is an amazing find, glad you enjoyed it, thanks nell

Nell Rose (author) from England on September 29, 2011:

Hi, Dardia, yes I am agreeing with you! lol I am only 5ft 2 1/2! so yep, I am a hobbit! lol thanks for reading, cheers nell

Nell Rose (author) from England on September 29, 2011:

Hi, Justsilvie, so true, its only been proved recently that we do have Neanderthal dna in us, they used to believe that we were a seperate species, and look how we laughed at neanderthals. its amazing, I personally love the little Homo Floresiensis, hobbit! can you imagine being that small? at least we know where all the myths and legends come from! lol thanks again nell

Nell Rose (author) from England on September 29, 2011:

Hi, suzette, it seems that the archaeologists are finding so many new and exciting things, there are bound to be more types of humans and of course animals out there, only time will tell, thanks nell

Rose Ella Morton from Beverly Hills, Michigan on September 29, 2011:

Man has a never ending search for knowledge. man has also tried to change history to benefit those who wish not to be part of the circle. Man did not evolved from apes or he would still be changing. This Idea came from connecting fossil of a human jaw bone added to the skeleton of an ape. Man will never find any life on the planet's in the universe because they were put there so we would not feel lonely when we gauze into the sky. Scientology has proven the universe is too complex to be just one big explosion.

Nell Rose (author) from England on September 29, 2011:

Hi, tsmog, there are so many different types of humans beginning to be found, I wonder what the next one will be! thanks so much again, nell

Joanna McKenna from Central Oklahoma on September 29, 2011:

I've always been fascinated by evolution, and after reading "Lucy" decided much too late I should've taken up archeology instead of housework. But I don't have, and never have had, a subscription to Archeology mag. No particular reason, just never felt the need. But I do have copies of the Leakey family's books even though some of their "break-through" findings have been discredited by those who came after using more modern technology and who had access to a wider range of previous research.

The discovery of Devisovans is only one more example of how little we *really* know about the origin of humans.

Thanks for a great and informative hub! ;D

jennyjenny on September 29, 2011:

What a fascinating hub! Incredibly interesting! Thank you for sharing! :)

Darlene Yager from Michigan on September 29, 2011:

I think I must have come from the shorter of the breeds. Lol! Certainly not a giant. ;)

Interesting and fun read! Thanks for sharing, Nell.

Justsilvie on September 29, 2011:

Interesting Hub Nell,

Makes you realize just how silly it is to worry about a race dying out. It rarely does, just meshes and makes a new one. And I somehow find that a lovely thought to know we are a part of someone ancient and someday someone else will think the same of us.

Maybe education really will put an end to xenophobia and racism. Hard to be a bigoted against your own great, great… grandparents.

Suzette Walker from Taos, NM on September 29, 2011:

This is really interesting! I think as time goes on we will find out more and more new findings about the human race. I find all this fascinating.

Tim Mitchell from Escondido, CA on September 29, 2011:

Hello Nell. Just read discovering this to be quite fascinating. I am having a challenge assimilating as my mind wanders with past learned knowledge, of which questioning is good, eh?

I retreat when nervous toward laughter. I giggled thinking of J.R.R. Tolkien's work with 'hobbits' in his novel "The Hobbit." An example of me trying to assimilate. Another from the Hector's post. I have a joke at work I say, "Men are from Mars, and women from Venus, but I'm from Pluto (now thought not to be a planet per se), because I like Disney." I know I am being silly.

Honestly, until now I didn't really have a grasp of the other three being distinct. Then I give pause to biblical accounts?, some say is mythology? regarding Angels intermingled with man and my mind wanders trying to assimilate again.

Oh, I will check the site you recommended to Hector out of curiosity another time. I have a hard time with how rapidly our technology has advanced. Then there is the time warp / machine thing, oh well I better find another hub - smile.

Nell Rose (author) from England on September 12, 2011:

Hi, Hector, there is so much out there on the internet that is about this subject, but the trouble is whether to believe it or not, why not try the Starchild site? this is about a skull that was found back in the 90's, some people believe that it is extraterrestrial, ok? good luck! and thanks for reading, cheers nell

Hector on September 11, 2011:

What's even more interesting is finding and investigating the Extraterrestial's role in mankinds evolution. The process of biologially engineering humans and sculpting them into what we are today. Have you got any finds on that?

Nell Rose (author) from England on June 21, 2011:

or is it Mexico city!

Nell Rose (author) from England on June 09, 2011:

Hi, workingmomwm, thank you so much! I am glad you liked it, I love all these discoveries and history, wonder what the next one will be? thanks nell

Mishael Austin Witty from Kentucky, USA on June 09, 2011:

Fascinating hub, Nell! Have to share it on Facebook. :-)

Nell Rose (author) from England on May 29, 2011:

Hi, lone77star, thanks for reading it, I love this sort of history or discovery, it just goes to show that we really don't know a lot yet, I wonder who or what else is buried out there? cheers nell

Rod Martin Jr from Cebu, Philippines on May 26, 2011:

Nell, thanks for this well-written and fascinating look into our past. Things just keep getting more and more interesting the more we learn.

Nell Rose (author) from England on May 25, 2011:

Hi, quotations, yes you are right! I'd love to know what they are going to find next! thanks nell

Robert P from Canada on May 24, 2011:

A wonderful hub about the mysterious origins of humankind. Who knows what else lies hidden in the mists of time.

Nell Rose (author) from England on February 16, 2011:

Hi, CMHypno, lol I knew we were too! I wonder what else they will find soon? hopefully we will discover that we come from elves! well, we did find the hobbit! lol cheers nell

CMHypno from Other Side of the Sun on February 15, 2011:

Interesting Hub on Denisovans Nell, and it just goes to show that we are all a bunch of mongrels really! LOL. There is still so much that we have to learn about human eveolution, and it will be an interesting journey

Nell Rose (author) from England on January 08, 2011:

Hi, Millenium, that is me exactly! lol I get so excited when I find something like this! thanks nell

Millenium on January 08, 2011:

I'm a closet Archaeologist myself and find this hub extremely interesting! Thanks for the read!

Nell Rose (author) from England on January 06, 2011:

Hi, IdeaMorphist, it is isn't it? I love it! lol thanks nell

IdeaMorphist from Chicagoland on January 05, 2011:

How totally spectacular!!!!

Nell Rose (author) from England on January 05, 2011:

Hi, EmpressImani, thanks for reading it, no, I think this one is what they say it is, I believe that they have been studying it for over two years now, so hopefully they have got it right this time, thanks nell

EmpressImani from SE London, England on January 05, 2011:

Hi Nell, very interesting and I enjoyed reading it(just hope this is not another Pilt Down Man debacle)


Nell Rose (author) from England on December 30, 2010:

Hi, Alicia, that would be great, wouldn't it? the evidence that we find is so painstakingly slow, but eventually they find what they are looking for, the trouble is that they sometimes guess it wrong when they do get it! lol cheers nell

Linda Crampton from British Columbia, Canada on December 30, 2010:

Thanks for the article, Nell. I find archeology fascinating too. I wish we had a time machine that would let us see what the past was really like. It’s so hard to study ancient humans from the limited evidence that has survived.

Nell Rose (author) from England on December 29, 2010:

Hi, mysterylady,I have been looking forward to it! lol after finding the 'Hobbit' the little people, I hoped that they would find a giant! of course it is still to early to state that, they only found a tooth and a finger, but you never know! thanks as always nell

mysterylady 89 from Florida on December 28, 2010:

Archeology truly is a fascinating subject, as is this hub. I loved the thought about giants walking the earth. Thanks for sharing!

Nell Rose (author) from England on December 28, 2010:

Hi, Christopher, glad you liked it, I love any new archaeological findings, it is fascinating, thanks

Hi, Sa'ge you may well be right! we think we know it all, but maybe there is more to it than just another human being! hope so! lol thanks

Hi, Audrey, ha ha now now! lol but seriously they found a tooth that was bigger than normal even bigger than a neanderthal, maybe it just had teeth problems! ha ha thanks again

Hi. suzie, thanks so much, and I am glad you liked it, nell

Hi, Nellieanna, I love archaeology too! everything fascinates me about what is out there, and especially after finding the 'little people' a few years ago, now we may have giants! and yes I agree, the way that we use carbon dating is a great way, and pretty accurate at that, hopefully one of these days we may find something even more interesting, wouldn't that be great? thanks as always nell

Forgot to say about Ozzy, evidently they did tests on his dna for something or other and found out that he was related to neanderthals! it was all over the English press! hee hee

Nellieanna Hay from TEXAS on December 28, 2010:

FASCINATING! Well done, Nell. I used to subscribe to "Archeology" magazine. I think I should do it again. I really find it interesting, both geology and archeology, like a mystery or detective novel as Silent Reed said. So much is there, yet it's so difficult to read & interpret. Then, after it's been interpreted, other evidence appears to contradict or enhance it. We never know all.

Perhaps a more exact method for dating the finds will be devised, though the present methods used seem to have been useful and possibly fairly reliable. And dating "finds" is crucial to establishing authenticity to make the conclusions believable. Compared to things we accept and believe with no basis whatsoever, when there are physical evidences in the form of where an object was found in striations of earth and its radioactive carbon dating, etc. - at least it is somewhat more probable.

But I gotta wonder how they determined anything about Ozzie Osbourne other than looking at him - LOL. By that method, how about Mick Jaggers? hehe ;->

Hello, hello, from London, UK on December 27, 2010:

Wow, Nello, that was an interesting and fascinating read. Thank you for your great hub.

suziecat7 from Asheville, NC on December 26, 2010:

This was very interesting - thanks.

Audrey Kirchner from Washington on December 26, 2010:

Very informative, Nell - I don't understand archeology much to be honest because how can they be so certain but it is fascinating! Giant men huh? I was going to say something naughty but it's Christmas, so best not put it in writing! Happy Holidays, Nellie!

Sa`ge from Barefoot Island on December 26, 2010:

Since the DNA does not relate to Human.... then is it not true to say we may not be related at all to this finger and tooth.......... I mean why not or why can it not just be alien to human....... does every bone that is found that walked on two feet and upright need to be in line of and with humans? I feel humans are strange beings who think they are the smartest and highest and only people or kinds of people anywhere.

Ok, just playing the devils advocate here, I am one who does not just take what science says as a grain of salt. it closes doors and is way to narrow for my mind, I feel there is a bigger picture here, much bigger.

hope you day was a grand one, filled with much joy and over flowing onto the new year and beyond.. :D hugs :D

Christopher Price from Vermont, USA on December 25, 2010:

This is the first I'd heard of the Denisovans...another branch of our primate family tree. It will be interesting to follow the findings from this discovery.

Thanks for bringing this to our attention.


Nell Rose (author) from England on December 25, 2010:

Hi, Polly, thanks so much, hope you are having a great day! cheers nell

Nell Rose (author) from England on December 25, 2010:

Hi, prasetio, thanks so much, I am glad you like archaeology too, it is a fascinating subject, love and hugs back! cheers nell

SilentReed from Philippines on December 25, 2010:

Reading about Archaeological finds is better than reading a detective novel.Can't wait to turn the page to new discovery.Thank you for "digging up" this article and sharing it with us ;) Cheers

Pollyannalana from US on December 25, 2010:

I will have to come back and study this..looks too interesting! Merry Christmas!

prasetio30 from malang-indonesia on December 24, 2010:

Thanks for share about this. I always liked about anything related with prehistory. Good work, Nell. I always give my vote for you.

Wishing you true joy, quiet peace and perfect love.

Merry Christmas ! ~prasetio

Nell Rose (author) from England on December 24, 2010:

Hi, DzyM, you never know, you might be right! I believe that a lot of UFO stories are just imagination, but they can't all be, can they? thanks again, =)

Nell Rose (author) from England on December 24, 2010:

Hi, Ruby, thanks for reading it, I love all the different stories out there, and try to find a new one quick! lol I think this one is only a few days old! thanks so much, Happy Christmas! cheers nell

Nell Rose (author) from England on December 24, 2010:

Hi, tmbridgeland, ha ha sylvester stallone! hee hee well Ozzy Osborne was found to have neanderthal DNA, so maybe sly stallone has this new DNA! you never know! thanks so much nell

Nell Rose (author) from England on December 24, 2010:

Hi, Martie, I know what you mean, anything new in archaeology gets me interested, the one thing that I find more and more is that our myths and legends seem to be coming true! first of all we had the Hobbits, little people, now possibly the giants! What next? elves, dragons or even fairies? lol that is said in jest but you never know! thanks again nell

Liz Elias from Oakley, CA on December 24, 2010:

Fascinating...I've always loved reading about archaeological discoveries. It explains why I plowed through Michener's "The Source" twice! Although it was a work of fiction, he did a masterful job of blending in factual historical elements, real people, and actual archaeological methods with his fictitious characters and plot.

How about the theory that we were all seeded here by aliens, and all the UFO sightings mean they are checking up on the progress of their colonies. ;-)

(Only half tongue-in-cheek, there...who knows; who's to say?)

Ruby Jean Richert from Southern Illinois on December 24, 2010:

Yea Nell!! This is very interesting.Who knows what was before us in time.I knew Ozzy was a different breed LOL The comment above about Sylverter cracks me up.You find the best articles.I love the way you write.Have a merry Christmas and a spectacular new year.


tmbridgeland from Small Town, Illinois on December 24, 2010:

Nice hub, I have been reading about this for a few days, but hadn't seen the pictures. I particularly like the pic at the top, where the artist makes the denosivans look just like a kinder Sylvester Stalone.

Martie Coetser from South Africa on December 24, 2010:

Thanks for this informative article, Nell. This is one of my favorite interests. Amazing discoveries. But as you said ‘each and every new discovery makes us more aware of how little we do know.’ Have a great Christmas Eve up there, Nell. I hope Christmas father drops you a nice present.

Nell Rose (author) from England on December 24, 2010:

Hi, carolina muscle, thanks for the read, and I am glad you like it, thanks as always, cheers nell

Hi, christopher, it would be good if they could find the whole skeleton, first we find little people, hobbits, or homo floresiensis, and now we find giants! Ooh! and yes, ha ha it is true about ozzy! it was in the newspaper! hee hee thanks nell

Hi, De Greek,glad you liked, thanks nell

De Greek from UK on December 24, 2010:

Fascinating stuff :-)

Christopher Antony Meade from Gillingham Kent. United Kingdom on December 24, 2010:

Very interesting read Nell, especially about the size.

Let us hope that they discover more remains. Then we can be more sure of the size.

Is that true about Ozzy Osborne? Or is that one of your jokes?

carolina muscle from Charlotte, North Carolina on December 23, 2010:

Interesting read, Nell Rose.. thanks!!!!

Nell Rose (author) from England on December 23, 2010:

Hi, sligo, thanks for reading it, I also love archaeology, and always keep an eye out for something new, this was in Siberia, but I never new serbia had discovered cement! wow! can you imagine our houses without it? lol take care and have a great Christmas! cheers nell

sligobay from east of the equator on December 23, 2010:

Hi Nell- Have a Happy Christmas and a healthy and prosperous New Year.

This Hub is really fascinating for me. I love new archeological discoveries. And in Serbia, no less, where there are so many geographical connections. Did you know that cement was first discovered in Serbia? Now, where would we all be without cement?

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