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Curriculum Implementation: Types, Workers, and Levels

Ruby writes from the Philippines. She teaches communication and education courses in HEI. She holds and MA in Education and enjoys research.


Types of curriculm change

Ornstein and Hunkins (1998) claim that Implementation entails convincing instructors to switch from the old to the new program, a change that may encounter strong opposition. A curriculum leader's ability to incite these behavioral shifts in the staff will partly depend on how equally the implementation process is applied throughout that specific school or school district. Thus, to them, implementation means, "change."

McNeil characterized curriculum change in 1990 into five different types as cited by Bilbao et. al (2015):
Alteration. Curriculum modification involves minimal changes. This calls for minor alterations in smaller scales.

Substitution. The curriculum will be changed. This is sometimes called a revamp. Example: rewriting a book, not just revising it.

Restructuring. Building a new facility would modify the school, degree program, or educational system. Primary and secondary levels must work together to implement a K-12 integrated curriculum. A curriculum will be reconstructed when parents get involved in their child's education instead of leaving everything to the instructor.

Perturbations. Teachers must adapt quickly to disruptive developments. The instructor must shorten the schedule to accommodate unforeseen extracurricular events if the principal alters the timetable to catch up with national testing or the dean.

Value-focused. McNeil considers this curricular adjustment. This categorization may respond to a shift in the teacher's concentration that is not in line with the school's goal or vision. When new instructors in religious institutions emphasize academics over morals or faith, they require a value-oriented curriculum. All public school instructors go through an unique induction program.

Curriculum workers

A sizable group of people, including the curriculum worker, are involved in educational planning, training and supervising educational staff, and creating instructional materials. According to Pawilen (2019), the following are the involved workers of curriculum implementation.

Teachers. Curriculum implementers play a key role. Most curriculum workers are teachers. Their experience, creativity, and dedication drive curricular success. They design teaching materials, choose methodologies, and assess student progress.
School Principals. Principals are schools' academic and administrative leaders. They supervise teachers and other school staff in curricular and instructional matters. They lead teachers in preparing school activities and ensure all DOE goals are met. Principals examine teachers' lesson plans, create the school calendar, supervise instruction, and write the annual report.
Curriculum Consultants. They have experience in planning, developing, and evaluating curricula.
District Supervisors. They supervise curriculum implementation in districts. They help principals implement DOE programs in their schools.
Subject-area education supervisors. They help the DOE district office supervise subject-specific initiatives and programs.
Superintendents. They are each division's chief academic officer. They supervise DepEd division-level curriculum, activities, and projects for public and private schools. DepEd divides by province or city.
Regional Directors handle DOE programs and initiatives regionally.
Education Program Specialists. These persons operate at the national level or in the CHED and DOE central offices. They help two government bodies design curriculum policies to aid teachers and curriculum leaders.

Levels of implementation

Implementing the curriculum involves people at different levels. These individuals take different roles as they get involved in the process of putting into action the planned curriculum. Each country may have different ways of levels in implementation. However in the Philippines, Pawilen (20190, clearly identifies five of these levels of curriculum implementation. These he ranks or arranges from top to bottom:

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1. National Level

2. Regional Level

3. Division Level

4. Disctrict Level

5. Local School Level

Each of these levels mentioned has specific work to do in its own stage where they are directly involved in the process of change and implementation. Each level has key persons assigned with their different duties and responsibilities. This way, they can properly execute what is expected of them.

Refecences cited

Bilbao, P. P. et. al (2015). Curriculum development for teachers. Metro Manila: Lorimar Publishing Inc.

Ornstein, A, & F, Hunkins. (1993). Curriculum foundations, principles, and theory. 2nd Ed. Boston: Allyn& Bacon.

Pawilen, G. T. (2019). The Teacher and the Curriculum. 1st Ed. Rex Book Store, Inc.

© 2022 Ruby Campos

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