Nikolas studies the philosophy of history. He interested in all interesting facts that changed the face of the European development.
The Annals' School of History, France
The Annals' school promoted a new form of history. It was replacing the study of leaders with the lives of ordinary people. Instead of politics, diplomacy, and wars, inquiries were doing into climate, demography, agriculture. You can add commerce, technology, transportation, and communication. There were as well as social groups and mentalities. It also yielded dazzling micro-studies of villages and regions. Its international influence on the historiography of the XX century has been enormous.
Lucien Fèvre, Marc Bloch, and Fernand Braudel were bright representatives of this trend. Its roots were in the journal Annals: économies, sociétés, civilizations.
The author uses statements of this school as the method in writing this article about coffee.
The Bio of Our Hero
Yuriy Kultchitskiy was born approximately in 1640, village Kultchitsi-Shlyahotski, Lviv region. He, being young, went to Zaporizhia Sych. There he learned the Turkish language. Moreover, Yuriy accomplished the work of the interpreter while battling in Crimea. He was captured by Turks and was bought back by merchants of Belgrad. In the seventies, he found himself on the translation work. There was in the Serbian representation of Austrian "Oriental merchant company".
West Against East
The Battle,Turcs and Europens, Vienna.
This picture is of July 1683. Two hundred thousand armies of the great Turkish Visir Kary-Mustapha imposed the fortress Vienna. Its defense contained 16.000 soldiers and 6.000 native residents. After many days of siege, hunger started in the town with epidemics. The Turkish artillery was the cause of many fires. Panic spread among the inhabitants of Vienna. From time to time courier sent for help didn't come back. Comte Shtarhemberg decided to send the letters to Austrian Emperor Leopold I and knyaz of Lotharingia Karl. He wanted to do it with somebody of residents. The candidate had to know the Turkish language and customs and break into Turkish pickets. The choice falls on the ordinary person of the Austrian capital. There was some Youriy-Franz Kultchitskiy. He corresponded to the listed criteria.
The Contribution of the Ukrainian in Defence of Vienna
Disguised as a Turk, Kultchitskiy with his comrade Mikhaylovitch at night broke into Osman camp. Day, he decisively went through enemy marquees humming the Turkish song. Only one time the Turkish officer-aga stopped them. The inventive Yuriy answered that he was a merchant and carried provisions for the Turkish army. It said about grapevine. Aga trusted him and even invited him to get warm in the marquee. In contrast, in one of the Danubian villages, they were confronted with the greatest danger. Inhabitants mistook them for Turks and barely killed them.
Crossing the Danube on the 15 of August couriers were at admission with the knyaz Karl. He promised to help Vienna and prepared 70.000 soldiers for battle against Turks. He wrote it in his letter for defenders of Vienna.
Not without adventures, Kultchitskiy delivered the letter of knyaz in the besieged town. It led to a great joy of garrison and wimps. They continued to defend the town with the doubled energy. Vienna won.
Defeat and Bags with Coffee
The thankful inhabitants of Vienna promoted Kultchitskiy to take coffee from the wagon train of Kary-Mustapha. Its store was enormous, with approximately 300 bags. The Turkish military leader was carrying them for the warming body and soul of his warriors in battles. Austrians didn't know how to prepare the drink from unknown grains. Moreover, they considered it unworthy to use any recipe with it.
Being in the Turkish capture he got used to coffee. That's why the genial thought appeared in his wise head not only to open the first cafe in Vienna but to make the drink more acceptable for the whole of Europe. Until that time coffee was used as a therapeutic agent and cost too expensive. Adding sugar he applied the drink to the tastes of Europeans. So, the Viennese coffee appeared.
One Thousand of Burning Coffees
In his review on the book of the famous Catalan author Albert Sanchez Piñol "Pandora in the Congo," one journalist compares the novel with one thousand of burning coffees. This drink maintains and contains deep emotions and thoughts, actions, and contemplation. It shows how peacefully and profitably can co-exist different cultures. Coffee may be one of the positive answers to the phrase from R. Kipling "East is East, and West is West, and never the twain shall meet." This natural piece of art unites genders and races, turns victory into defeat, and vice versa. The Ukrainian Yuriy Kultchitskiy opened for West such a fragrant and delicious drink.
From the History of Coffee
For each question, choose the best answer. The answer key is below.
- When did the story with coffee begin?
- In the late middle ages
- In the early middle ages
- In the modern era
- What did the people of Ethiopea use from the kefaya plant?
- What did Yuriy Kultchitskiy add to the pure coffee?
- Sugar and milk
- In the late middle ages
- Sugar and milk
The Monument to Yuriy Kultchitskiy in Vienna
The World of Coffee
Proverbs About Coffee
This content is accurate and true to the best of the author’s knowledge and is not meant to substitute for formal and individualized advice from a qualified professional.