Misbah has always wanted to pursue writing as a career. She loves to write on different topics, including Spirituality, psychology, and more
Attention Deficit Disorder
There are children who look like they are thinking about blue almonds. They look but do not see, hear, but do not listen to what is said to them, do not respond to commands. Despite normal mental development, they have difficulty concentrating longer and so fail in their studies. At the same time, they are full of energy and can hardly sit still in one place. Usually impulsive, they say and do immediately what comes to their mind. These are children with attention deficit disorder.
Attention Disorder Syndrome is a neurological unit characterized by the coexistence of three symptoms: impulsivity, low resistance to distractions, i.e. Distracting stimuli, increased activity, or excess energy. Research shows that only one-third of children with these symptoms grow out of them, and two-thirds continue to recognize these symptoms in adulthood.
Symptoms of Attention Deficit Disorder
A mobile child with difficulty concentrating for a long moment, being distracted by each new stimulus, even of a weak strength — behaves in a manner typical of many preschool and school children. The question arises then when can we talk about a disorder, and when is it a developmental regularity, an individual trait?
The American classification of mental disorders and diseases, DSM-IV, characterizes attention and hyperactivity disorder syndrome, listing two lists of symptoms. One shows the symptoms of inattention, while the other shows the indicators of increased physical activity and impulsiveness. We can only make a hypothesis that a child has attention deficit disorder only if the following conditions are met:
The child reveals at least six symptoms from the list; these symptoms persist for more than six months;
They occur in several forms of the child's activity (e.g. Not only at school but also at home) These symptoms occurred before the age of seven and stay till late.
Here is a list of behaviors that suggest the presence of attention deficit disorder :
- The child has difficulty concentrating on details and makes inattentive mistakes.
- He cannot concentrate on the task for a long time.
- He gives the impression that he is not listening to the messages conveyed to him.
- He does not finish the work he has started, and he does not follow the instructions accurately.
- Has problems with organizing work and all activities.
- He is reluctant to undertake tasks that require longer intellectual effort.
- He loses school supplies and things needed for work and study.
- It is easily distracted by even weak stimuli.
- He forgets about everyday duties and tasks.
The Emotional and Social Spheres
In the psychological literature, the descriptions of the symptoms of this syndrome are extended to include the emotional and social spheres. These children have problems with controlling their emotions, easily come into conflict with their peers, succumb to moods, are emotionally unstable, tearful, irritable, and explosive. Sometimes aggressive. For this reason, their position in the class is not high. They are usually rejected by colleagues or tolerated with difficulty, although there are exceptions to this rule. These children have a lot of silly ideas and can revive boredom.
As shown by the results of many recent brain studies using imaging techniques in children with attention deficit disorder, the areas of the brain responsible for the regulation and proper course of this process are less developed. These are structures located in the frontal areas of the brain, in the frontal lobes. They take part in developing self-awareness and a sense of time, as well as shaping resistance to disturbances.
Types of Attention Deficit Disorder
There are usually two main types of attention deficit disorder: hyperactive, non-hyperactive, sometimes the mixed type, inattentive-hyperactive, is also mentioned.
Many of the secondary symptoms of attention-deficit syndrome develop gradually, and then later in life in older children and also in adults. Other varieties of this syndrome occur. It is, for example, attention disorders with symptoms of anxiety, depression, dyslexia, and learning disabilities. High-risk behavior or high need for stimulation, with addictions, with behavioral disorders, aggression, and antisocial personality, with obsessive and antisocial personality disorders. Compulsive disorder and pseudo-distraction.
Pseudo ADD is a phenomenon of cultural inducing symptoms of distraction caused by lifestyle, the fast pace of realization of various tasks and professional duties, and in children resulting from overloading with excess activity caused by various extracurricular activities
What is Attention Deficit Disorder ?
How to recognize attention deficit disorder?
There is no clear and sharp dividing line between attention deficit disorder and normal behavior. The diagnostic process requires a psychological examination, as well as the comparison of each child with a group of their peers. If it is distinguished by a particular susceptibility to distraction, impulsiveness, and tireless permanent physical activity, and at the same time there are no environmental reasons for such behavior — this supports the assessment that the child has neurologically conditioned attention disorders. Of course, only specialists, psychologists, and psychiatrists experienced in studying mental processes and functions can make a correct diagnosis.
There are two dangers in the diagnostic process: ignoring symptoms or seeing them in all behavior. The first mistake comes from unfamiliarity with the syndrome and its characteristic symptoms. Not every teacher and parent knows that impulsivity, hyperactivity, and distractedness are features of the disorder commonly called "attention deficit disorder", known in American literature as Attention Deficit Disorder (ADD).
Besides, children with these symptoms in everyday situations may not reveal them in a one-time psychological examination. The novelty and attractiveness of diagnostic methods may cause a child to be very interested in them and not show the behaviors expected and watched by their parents. Since a complete diagnosis should consider data from many different sources and situations.
The second diagnostic risk consists in recognizing attention deficit disorder too quickly, even when the child's behavior is caused by circumstances that are sporadic, and situational, e.g. It occurs only when the child is bored or tired.
Also, some medications taken by a child for a different reason may cause similar behavior. For, the diagnostic process should be a multi-specialist activity, considering the results of psychological and medical tests. In the diagnosis of attention disorders, not only the presence of symptoms is taken into account, but also their intensity, period of appearance, and duration.
Treatment and therapy options
The first step in treating attention deficit disorder is a specialist diagnosis, i.e. Adequate diagnosis of symptoms. Therapy begins from this stage. The more parents and teachers know about the syndrome, its symptoms, types, and causes, the more effective the treatment process will be.
Children who are easily distracted, disorganized and disordered need external restraints and adult control. Internal chaos can greatly reduce using practical aids such as a daily planning system, to-do notes, binders, organizers, organizing tabs and containers. It also helps to gradually regain a sense of control over objects owned by the child. It is extremely important to guarantee that the child does not perform several activities at once but focuses on one action.
Often, psychological help is needed in the form of educational recommendations and guidelines, sometimes also individual and group psychotherapy. There are also drugs that can help to improve the functioning of the child — they work, like glasses, until, — improve concentration. They can also reduce feelings of inner chaos and fear. Their action is because they counterbalance the disturbances in the economy of neurotransmitters, i.e. Substances responsible for the regulation of the processes of self-control, mood, and attention.
Upbringing and education of a child with attention disorders
The main goal is to instruct the child to organize activities and gradually extend the periods of concentration on tasks. In educating a child with attention deficit disorder, it is important to implement them into self-monitoring. Behavioral therapy techniques involving using positive reinforcements, that is, rewarding the desired behavior of the child until they are highly effective. Tasks should be broken down into small parts, the stages achieving which should be completed with a short rest and praise. It is very important to have a constant rhythm of the day, periods of sleep and wake, time off, work, and rest.
Three rules to follow in dealing
There are three rules to follow in dealing with children and attention deficit disorder both at home and at school:
- Regularity, i.e. Acting in a set family rhythm, avoiding sudden and radical changes, calm and consistent enforcement of set-up rules, limiting noisy sounds and strong impressions;
- Routine, i.e. Performing specific activities at strictly defined times of the day according to the same sequence and pattern;
- Repetitions, i.e. Constant repetitions require a lot of patience and perseverance from parents and the teacher, repeating simple commands many times, and making sure that the child has understood them correctly. This is necessary due to the weakened, fresh memory of these children.
It is also worth paying attention to the diet of the child. Most studies show a negative effect of some dishes and their ingredients on the disturbed behavior of a child with attention disorders. Among the most often mentioned are: sugar, cocoa derivatives, chocolate, Coca-Cola, sweets, as well as all products that are artificially colored and contain many preservatives.
It should be remembered that among children with attention disorders, only some of them will get rid of their troublesome symptoms and, thanks to good therapeutic procedures, will achieve the optimal level of functioning in adulthood. Unfortunately, some will suffer longer from it. The management of adults is based on the same principles as those proposed in the treatment of children with attention disorders
Parenting a Child with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder Edition: Rev by McGraw-Hill Education
12 Principles for Raising a Child with ADHD by Russell A. Barkley
This content is accurate and true to the best of the author’s knowledge and is not meant to substitute for formal and individualized advice from a qualified professional.
© 2021 Misbah
Misbah (author) from The Planet Earth on March 04, 2021:
Salam, Thank you so much M DrSleep
I am glad that you liked it
Dr Sleep from Pak on March 03, 2021:
nice one dear.
Such a good way to explain
Misbah (author) from The Planet Earth on March 02, 2021:
Thank you mubarakshaikh for your kind appreciation
GLAD TO SEE YOU HERE
You are welcome
Mubarak from INDIA on March 02, 2021:
Perfect written about attention deficit disorder.Well done
Misbah (author) from The Planet Earth on March 02, 2021:
Thank you so much, Manatita for appreciating me as always,
your kind words have always given me the strength to do more better next time
manatita44 from london on March 02, 2021:
Very well done! You have improved immensely! Proud of you. I know some with this problem. Perhaps its worth a lot more studies but yes, food and especially sweet things do not help. These tend to be the very things they like. Lovely article!
Misbah (author) from The Planet Earth on March 02, 2021:
Mr. Bill, Thank you so much for appreciating
I am glad that you liked the information
Your words really matter to me
Bill Holland from Olympia, WA on March 02, 2021:
Wonderful information; nicely presented. When I was in school, they would call these kids a variety of names, none of which were accurate. It's so good that we finally have an understanding of what is happening inside their brains to affect their behavior.
I'm glad you published today. I was able to recognize your name quickly.