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Biotechnolgy :- Principles and Process

Biotechnologist, Interested in sciences, the microscopic world, and mysteries. Interested in the latest research & present data also.


Biotechnology is a new and emerging field of biology. It is totally different from the conceptual form of biology. This new field is more practically applied. It is the branch of biology in which we study the techniques of using live organisms, micro-organisms, and enzymes from organisms to produce beneficial biological products. Mainly biotechnology contains two core techniques which are Genetic Engineering and Bioprocess Engineering. This newly emerging field provides us a lot of new technology like new vaccines, genetically modified organisms, in many industries, etc. We will talk about it later. This new technology also gives birth to biological weapons. Which are extremely harmful and in my opinion, it is more harmful than nuclear weapons. So let us understand about biotechnology more. But first, we understand about two core techniques of biotechnology.

Restriction Enzyme

Restriction Enzyme

Genetic Engineering:- Techniques to alter the chemistry of genetic material whether it is DNA or RNA, and then introduce it into host organism and thus changing the phenotype (physical appearance) of the host organism.

Bioprocess Engineering:- Maintenance of sterile (microbial contamination-free) ambiance in the chemical engineering process to enable the growth of only the desired microbe/ eukaryotic cell in large quantities for the manufacture of biotechnological products like antibodies, vaccines, enzymes, etc.

Gene Gun

Gene Gun

Tools Of Biotechnology:-

  1. Restriction Enzyme:- Restriction enzyme is basically known as molecular scissors in recombinant DNA technology. It will cut the strands of DNA from a specific sequence. This specific sequence is known as the recognition sequence. For example EcoRI, BamHI

2. Cloning Vectors:- These are the part of cells in which we link our desirable alien piece of DNA. Then we send this vector to the host cell. pBR322. Vectors are used at present, are engineered in such a way that they help easy linking of foreign DNA and selection of desirable recombinants from nondesirable.

3. Competent Host:- As we know that DNA is a hydrophilic molecule (water-loving) it cannot pass through the cellular membrane. For this, we have to make our host competent to take up DNA. This is done by treating them with specific divalent cations, such as calcium, which increases the efficiency with which DNA enters into the host. We can also use micro-injections and biolistics or gene gun.

Microinjection Setup

Microinjection Setup

Processes Of Recombinant DNA Technology:-

  1. Isolation Of Genetic Material:- In order to cut the DNA with a restriction enzyme, it needs to be in the pure form, free from other macro-molecules. But as we know DNA enclose in a cell with many macromolecules like protein, lipids, and polysaccharides. But this can be achieved by treating cells with enzymes such as lysozyme, cellulase, chitinase. We Can also remove RNA by using a ribonuclease enzyme. After that, we treat remained with chilled ethanol.

2. Cutting of DNA:- We can use restriction enzymes for our needs and we cut the DNA at specific locations.


3. Insertion of Recombinant DNA:- There are several ways which we discussed above like we can use gene gun, microinjection to insert DNA in the host.

4. Obtaining The Foreign Gene Product:-

After the above mention process, the last and most important process is also starting. When we get our biological product from the host by insertion of our recombinant DNA. Then its purification is also a major step. Because there is definitely a chance of growing some other unwanted and harmful microorganisms with our desirable product. For this, we use Bioreactors which also maintain the appropriate pH humidity, temperature, pressure, etc. With the downstream process, our product is now ready to go for clinical trials.



So that's it from this article. In the next article, we will learn about the applications of biotechnology. If you like this article then please mention it in the comment box. If you have any queries related to this topic you can e-mail me or mention it in the comment box. I will definitely give you all answers. If you want a detailed description of some topic of this article, then definitely write in the comment box and I will write an article on it as well. I hope you really enjoyed this article. You should stay with me even further as I will continue to bring similar scientific articles for you in easy language too. So be happy for that time, keep smiling and keep reading the science with fun. See you in the next article.

© 2020 Manu Saraswat


Manu Saraswat (author) from India on July 01, 2020:

Link to my articles

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