I study humanities and computer programming at the university. I am a science nerd.
Beyond the Galaxy
Read part 1 here. With a powerful reflective telescope like the 200-inch Paloma telescope, fainter objects were captured and studied. Radio telescopes help astronomers identify remote objects. With more studies being made, and research by both astronomers and scientists, it becomes evident that the galaxy appears as 'an immense vastness of space populated by billions of galaxies, all grander in size and design than the Milky way system had once thought to be'.
The ground-based radio telescope, earth-orbiting x-rays, ultra-violet, infra-red telescopes, and high-speed electronic computers help both scientists and astronomers further in understanding the Galaxy. What is known as the Milky Way is just a tiny fraction.
Proxima or Alpha Centuari
Stars can be seen as a single object. The first star that can be seen in the evening is usually Proxima or Alpha Centauri 4.5 light-years or 26.1 trillion miles from the earth, according to Fini J. Dakes. They can be seen in clusters of 3,000 stars with a telescope.
Beyond that, 'there are about 30 billion stars', wrote Fini J. Dakes, astronomers can 'photography single'.
The point is that beyond the galaxy, there are Islands, Sea, and Continents of stars waiting for further exploration by mankind.
Late December 2021, NASA sent a spaceship into space with a powerful telescope to glean beyond that which is ordinarily known. The spacecraft with powerful mirrors attached is on a mission to probe and send analytical data to earth.
Proxima Centauri also Known as Alpha Centauri
Milky Way Center
Astronomers and scientists who have studied the Milky Way Galaxy for years tell us that it circles around us in the sky. This is certain proof that our earth is a part of the Galaxy. The best way to realize it is to view a DVD disc on a horizontal plane.
The center of the DVD disc is halo and empty. But in the case of the huge galaxy, it is dark and contains a lot of dust, gas, stars, unidentified objects, and magnetic fields.
One specific object quasar is contained in the center and knowledge of this is increasing lately.
Milky Way Galaxy Captured Across the Sky over a Field
Milky Way Galaxy Black Hole
Interestingly, the center is called the Black Hole. The Sun, which is 93,000,000 miles from the earth, will take an average of 245,000,000 years to orbit the center as the Sun's distance from the earth varies from 91,000000 to 93,000,000 miles.
This is because the strong magnetic field at the center is 300,000,000 times the mass of the Sun. This huge mass is packed in a space smaller than the solar system.
Significant evidence has been found for this by astronomers. Radio and x-ray of the Sagittarius A reside at this center because any gas that passes through it is identified by the energy wavelength.
Beyond the Milky Way Galaxy
Milky Way Supermassive Black Hole
Milky Way Galaxy Diameter.
Significantly, astronomers have computed a near accurate size of the galaxy by processes of brightness(brightest) or luminosity of stars, the nearest one star to the other.
The very brightest of the stars, the massive O- and B- types of stars with more luminosity are known to be used for the measurement.
The center of the Galaxy is about 10,000 light-years. The diameter is 100,000 light-years. The solar system is 25,000 light-years from the center.
Astronomers have computed the mass of the Galaxy to be about 200,000,000,000 times that of the Sun. The mass of the Sun is 2 x 1030 kg or 330,000 times the mass of the earth. In other words, the mass is 330,000 piles of earth.
Knowledge of the Stars
The radiating rising Sun is a star. It's a population 1 star in the Milky Way. Here the O- and B- type of young stars are still close to the gas and bags of dust that birth them during the Big Bang. 'These young stars and the clouds are so close to the central plan of the Galaxy, as the Sun and earth which are located along the inner edge of the Orion spiral arm'.
Toward the center of the Galaxy is situated the Sagittarius spiral arm another portion of young stars, clouds, and clouds of dust.
Mystery Beyond the Milky Way
On either side of the central plane of the Milky Way, they're very little gas, cloud, and dust. Here the stars are older. Some older stars can be seen and some can't be seen. The older stars form the globular cluster.
Robotic Eyes Screening on Milky Way
Instead of telescopes, radio-telescopes, and infra-red radiation tools, astronomers are now focusing on using electronic robots to observe the Galaxy. This method penetrates beyond the naked-eye scenes and the abilities of the powerful telescope.
The old method focuses on observing hundreds of stars and is time-consuming. A 20-year research project, the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) is now being used to research the Galaxy. It'll replace any previous tool that is manually manipulated. Instead, the new method uses robots that will fit optical fibers into positions of observation to gather the 'light of a specific star within the target area', says the study.
The beauty of the new tool is that it'll observe millions of stars in the Galaxy, using spectrographs, a tool capable of measuring a star's light at differing wavelengths. The results fed us with more information on the stars' age, temperature, chemical composition, motion, and more'.
Besides, quasars and supermassive black holes are the focus of study in the new scheme, 'involving the contributions of scientists from more than 50 institutions in the world'.
The Milky Way Galaxy in the Universe
Throughout these articles, I have described detailed parts of the Milky Way. Here I'll summarize in 6 points all that has been said.
⦁ The nucleus. This is the massive black hole.
⦁ The central bulge. This surrounds the nucleus and consists of population 2 stars or older stars.
⦁ The disc. It extended from the nucleus to a distance of 75,000 light-years. This disc is the underlying body of stars.
⦁ The spiral arms. It's not easy to detect it optically, except with radio waves.
⦁ The spherical components. It contains the outer globular, cluster of stars, plus population 2 stars like RR Lyrae.
⦁ The massive hole. It's little understood. Its shape, extension, and constituents are not well known. But research is throwing some light.
1. The Italian mathematician and physicist and astronomer Galilee Galileo inspired and develop the telescope in his days for observing the stars and the planets.
2. The bulge of the Milky Way consists of vast thick bars of stars. It stretches for 15 light-years across the center. Stars, bags of dust, and gas frequently fan out from the center in the form of a spiral coil.
3. We only have a speculative view of the galaxy because we are within the galaxy and interstellar dust or clouds of dust between the stars block the starlight. Otherwise, it may appear as a pinwheel viewing from above.
4. Because the center of the galaxy is bulging big, and also small, its gravitational pull will not let light escape from it.
5. The Milky Way is one-hundred billion or 100,000,000,000 times more luminous than the solar Sun hitting the Earth.
6. A quasar is 1,000 times brighter than the entire Milky Way!
7. And because the galaxies are too faint and distant, only the brightest stars, young, blue, hydrogen-burning, massive main-sequence stars with limited life-circle and exploding (nova and supernova) are studied.
8. Both star populations 1 and 2 contain young stars. But Population 2 stars contains gas and ceases to form new stars. Whereas, Population 1 star(s) can continue to form new stars.
9. The Mie, Rayleigh, and non-selective scattering of clouds in the atmosphere is due to the differing degree of wave-length of the incident light as it collides with matters in the atmosphere.
I'll now conclude the story. The vast galaxy did not evolve on its own. There's a creative force behind it, God. Genesis 2:6-7 and Psalm 8:1 and 3. His infinite wisdom and creativeness created the heavens (the universe including the galaxies), the Moon, and the stars. Even some scientists have agreed that its fine design could not be evolutionary.
Seriously, God gave mankind the understanding to master the cosmic environment, we should take advantage of the learning process in the same Psalm above verse 6.
How we study, research, and our entire or part of the galaxies and their application is worthwhile.
1. The New Scofield Reference Bible, by C. I. Scofield,(editor) Oxford University Press, New York.
2. Dake's Annotated Reference Bible(KJV), Fini J. Dakes, Dakes Publishing Incorporate.
3. Contemporary General Studies, by Dr. Josiah J. Atemie and Dr. Nelson Onubia,(editors), Uniport-Hercon Series, University of Port Harcourt, Nigeria.
4. The Flammarion Book of Astronomy, Gabrielle C. Flammarion and Andre Danjon, (Editors), George Allen and UNwin, Ltd. subject: Galaxy.
5. The Encyclopadia Americana, International Edition, vol.19, Grolier Inc. subject: Milky Way.
6. New Standard Encyclopedia, Ferguson Publishinf Company, Chicago, vol. 11, subject: Milky Way.
7. The World Book Encyclopedia, vol.13 World Book Incorporate, Chicago subject: Milky Way.
8. Funk and Wagalis New Encyclopedia, vol.16 Funk and Wagalis Incorporate, New York. Subject: Milky Way.
9. The New Encyclopedia Britannica Macropodia, vol.19, Encyclopedia Britannica Incorporate subject: Galaxies-Milky Way.
10. Luminosity of the Sun.
11. The mass of the sun.
12. Functions of the Nasa Webb mission telescope.
This content is accurate and true to the best of the author’s knowledge and is not meant to substitute for formal and individualized advice from a qualified professional.
© 2022 Miebakagh Fiberesima