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# Fundamentals Of Quantum Physics

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## Fundamentals Of Quantum Physics.

If you think you understand quantum physics you don't understand quantum physics. The word Quantum is simply defined as the particles or the packet of particles called quanta which is simply referred to as photon. The scientist Max Planck discovered this theory while observing the black-body radiation, he simply referred to it as E=HF, where E is the energy, H is the plank's constant named after him while F is the frequency of the particle. Using this quantum theory many observations and speculations were made. Also, Einstein's Photo-Electricity and other many studies made us believe that the light is a particle or simply the packets of quanta or photons. There are numerous applications of quantum physics: computers, photodetectors, light-emitting diodes, lasers, nuclear power, and many.

## De-Broglie's Theory Of Duality.

Finally, the breakthrough study was introduced by De-Broglie who believed that not only light is a matter which consists series of particles but also is a wave; hence the electron slit experiment and the study of the light concluded that interference, polarization, and diffraction could exist for the light which is a basic property to be defined as a wave. Then, we considered that the light behaves sometimes as a particle while another time like a wave. By Planck's theory of energy: E=HF and einstein's energy-mass relation: E=MC^2 we finally obtain the equation: λ=H/MV. Hence light, electrons, and many other particles could also be referred to as a wave which is the most important concept of quantum physics.

## Schrodinger's Equation.

From the basic theory of quantum energy: E=HF and from De-Broglie's theory of duality: λ=H/(MV)P i.e {P is the momentum also written as M*V}, this equation can be defined as Quantum Wave Function. Erwin Schrodinger who developed this equation was even awarded a Nobel Prize in 1933. The major finding from this theory was the concept of the wave function given as "ψ"(Psi). Whenever we squared this wave function this led us to probability density, It is believed that probability density could locate the maximum chances of finding an electron at a particular wave.

## The structure of atom.

Niels Bohr a danish scientist developed the basic ideas about the structure of an atom. For this valuable work, he won the Nobel prize for Physics in 1922. In 1911 Bohr purposed a model of the hydrogen atom which explained the existence of energy level and the spectrum of the hydrogen atom. He successfully explained the sub-atomic particles inside of an atom. His structure of the atom was a milestone and helped many mathematicians to study the sub-atomic world. Moreover, Bohr argued that the quantum world was different from the classical world. The quantum world where the particles exist as a wave is a fascinating concept of another world.

## Sub-atomic particles:

ChargeMass (amu)Location

Proton:+1

1

nucleus

Neutron:0

1

nucleus

Electron:-1

0

orbitals

## Quantum Tunneling

Without Quantum tunneling we can't even live on the earth, the sun and its energy are one of the many vital examples of Quantum tunneling. There is a barrier between the physical world and the quantum world which is also known as the measurement barrier. In Quantum Realm everything is defined as a wave while in our world they exist as particles. Quantum tunneling is simply a phenomenon where the wave function can propagate through a barrier. The less is the length of the barrier the more probability of wave function to existing on the other side. The wavefunction may disappear on one side and reappear on the other side. While in the sun the hydrogen atoms undergo quantum tunneling and wind up into a more stable bound state (eg. deuterium).