# Fundamentals Of Quantum Physics

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## Fundamentals Of Quantum Physics

If you think you understand quantum physics, you don't understand quantum physics. Quantum is the particles or the packet of particles called quanta, referred to as photons. The scientist Max Planck discovered this theory while observing the black-body radiation; he referred to it as E=HF, where E is the energy, H is the plank's constant named after him, and F is the frequency particle. With the use of quantum theory, different observations and speculations originated. Also, Einstein's Photo-Electricity and many other studies made us believe that the light is a particle or simply the packets of quanta or photons. There are numerous applications of quantum physics: computers, photodetectors, light-emitting diodes, lasers, nuclear power, Cesium clock, the most accurate clock ever developed, toasters, Global Positioning System, Magnetic Resonance Imaging.

## De-Broglie's Theory Of Duality

Finally, the breakthrough study was introduced by Louis De-Broglie, born on August 15, 1892, in France, who believed that light is a matter that consists of a series of materials and is a wave. Hence the electron slit experiment and the study of the light concluded that interference, polarization, and diffraction could exist for the light, which is a fundamental property to be defined as a wave. Then, we considered that the light sometimes behaves as a particle during another time like a wave. Planck's energy theory: **E=HF** and einstein's energy-mass relation: **E=MC^2**, we finally obtain the equation: **λ=H/MV. **Hence light, electrons, and many other particles could also be referred to as a wave which is the most crucial concept of quantum physics. However, the idea of the quantum realm is vague, where every particle consists of a wave. De Broglie's theory of duality was awarded the noble prize in 1929.

## Schrodinger's Equation

From the basic theory of quantum energy: **E=HF** and from De-Broglie's idea of duality: **λ=H/(MV)P**, i.e., {**P** is the momentum also written as M*V}, this equation can be defined as **Quantum Wave** Function. Erwin Schrodinger, born in Vienna on August 12, 1887, who developed this equation to provide the behaviour of quantum particles, was awarded a Nobel Prize in 1933. The significant finding from this theory was the concept of the wave function given as** "ψ"(Psi). **These wave functions are related to the probable occurrence of physical events. Whenever we squared this wave function, this led us to probability density; It is believed that probability density could locate the maximum chances of finding an electron at a particular wave. The fun fact of the entirety of this equation s even Schrodinger didn't know what his equation meant. The quantum particles are sneaky in that you can't predict where they will probably be. Schrodinger wanted to use quantum mechanics to prove the stability of the genetic structure.

## The structure of the atom

Niels Bohr, a Danish scientist, developed the basic ideas about the structure of an atom. For this valuable work, he won the Nobel prize for Physics in 1922. In 1911 Bohr proposed a model of the hydrogen atom which explained the existence of energy level and the spectrum of the hydrogen atom. In addition, he successfully demonstrated the sub-atomic particles inside of an atom. His structure of the atom was a milestone and helped many mathematicians study the sub-atomic world. Moreover, Bohr argued that the quantum world was different from the classical world. The quantum world where the particles exist as a wave is a fascinating concept of another world.

## Sub-atomic particles:

Charge | Mass (amu) | Location |
---|---|---|

Proton:+1 | 1 | nucleus |

Neutron:0 | 1 | nucleus |

Electron:-1 | 0 | orbitals |

## Quantum Tunneling

Without Quantum tunnelling, we can't even live on the earth; the sun and its energy are one of the many vital examples of Quantum tunnelling. There is a barrier between the physical and quantum worlds, also known as the measurement barrier. In Quantum Realm, everything is defined as waves, while they exist as particles in our world. Quantum tunnelling is simply a phenomenon where the wave function can propagate through a barrier. The trimmer is the length of the border, the more probability of wave function to existing on the other side. The wavefunction may disappear on one side and reappear on the other side. While in the sun, the hydrogen atoms undergo quantum tunnelling and wind up into a more stable bound state (e.g., deuterium). Quantum tunnelling for the STM system: Scanning Tunneling Microscopy is essential for understanding nano-scale behaviour.

## Citations:

1. Wikipedia

2. Domain of Science

3. Minute Physics

4. Space.com

**© 2021 Shubham Kadariya**

## Comments

**Leonard** on June 12, 2021:

Great Job! the explanation about quantum physics is tremendous.