Skip to main content

Acmeological Bases of Self-Improvement and Personality

Acmeological Bases of Self-improvement and Personality

Introduction: Do you want the world to be a better place? Start with yourself.

The topic of self-improvement of an individual is relevant at any time and at any age for a person.

The objectives of this study are:

1. Compose your personal development program, find ways and means for its implementation, methods and techniques of working on yourself.

2. To show that the improvement of personal qualities is a necessary condition for cultivating a tolerant attitude towards others.

The subject and subject of this study was my inner world of mental phenomena, processes and states, conscious or unconscious. By opening up, I am ready to understand something new, and thus to constantly change and improve.

Scientific research has enriched my knowledge of psychology, broadened my horizons. I apply the knowledge I have gained every day in life to understand the state of my soul, overcome my shortcomings and manage my emotions. The results of this study have practical implications for the people around me.

First, my personal experience, psychotechnics and exercises used can be useful and interesting to other people, and serve as a motivating force in their personal development.

Secondly, I will bring more benefits to people only when I have a positive life position, learn to manage negative emotions and feelings, develop positive things in myself and eliminate shortcomings.

The Republic of Kabardino-Balkaria, where I live, is not a zone of ethnic intolerance, but is surrounded by problematic ethnic groups. That is why special attention is paid to the education of a tolerant person in the republic.

Third, I connect the topic of my work with the concept of tolerance, because the development of such components of tolerance as empathy, trust, sympathy, empathy, self-esteem and the ability to self-knowledge is impossible without the work of the person on himself. .

Scroll to Continue

1. Literature review.

1.1 The search for the meaning of life in some philosophical concepts.

In the search for the meaning of human existence and one's own life, we turn to various philosophical concepts. They open a window to the outer and inner world, help us to explain our thoughts and feelings. It would be naive to expect that in them we will once and for all find a solution to all questions concerning man. V. Bibler is completely right: “Our spirit tends to lean on one of the possible semantic spectra (the choice is great ...) and to grow quickly with it. But such serenity is destroyed every time not only by the cramps of beings, but also by the strange restlessness of the human head.

Philosophy of duty

Let's call it a philosophical, ideological, ethical concept in which the people of our country lived and thought until recently, and many live and think today. Marxism is only one of the branches of this worldview, but it is in it that it has found its most complete embodiment.

In this concept, personality is seen as a set of social relations, a product of social influence. According to him, a person cannot, has no right to focus on his personal interests and needs. The most valuable human qualities are citizenship, a sense of duty, responsibility and the ability to subordinate personal interests to the public. The meaning of human life is in the service of the Fatherland. The value of a person is measured by how he managed to submit to public duty. The specificity of the manifestation of this trend in the Soviet society SL Frank defines it as "social fanaticism". Social fanaticism practically (contrary to its goals) does not reject the inner spiritual strength of the individual; on the contrary, he wants to use them - and, above all, the main potential of the inner life of the person: faith, dream, moral feeling, enthusiasm, in short, the spiritual fire with which the person burns. But he wants to invest this strength completely and without reservation in external activity - social construction. The whole soul, the whole heart of man is mobilized and intended for use as a force necessary for social construction.

Thus, the philosophy of duty not only neglects the inner spiritual strength of the person as a source, the stimulus of his activity, but also removes the responsibility of the person for his actions, way of life.

Philosophy of existence (existentialism)

Existentialism is a direction of modern philosophy that emerged at the beginning of the century in Russia (Shestov, Berdjaev).

The starting point of this concept is the recognition of the uniqueness, individuality, exclusivity of each individual man, each individual.

Man is realized as a person to the extent that he will be able to preserve and develop the uniqueness that nature has given him throughout his life. Growing up, he loses his individuality, focusing on others ("I am like everyone else"). Sometimes he consciously renounces his individuality, leveling himself - this makes it easier for him to live. Denying the fullness of one's own existence leads to the collapse of the personality.

The philosophy of existence is the basis of humanistic pedagogical views which consider education as the creation of conditions for self-development and self-realization of the individual, as an aid to her in self-determination, in choosing a life path, awareness of decision. -making.

The concept of ethical spirituality

One of the most harmonious humanistic views on the purpose and meaning of human existence is contained in the Russian philosophical thought of the late početka - early ⅩⅩ century. This view is based on the idea of ​​the development of spirituality as spirituality.

Man is a being in whom the principles of the spiritual, the mental and the physical are united. Western civilization is focused, above all, on the development of the bodily principle in man, as well as on the development of the will, which, according to Mr. Fedotov, least of all expresses sincerity.

Religious Western and Eastern traditions consider his immortal spirit to be the highest quality of a person, considering him to be a substance that can exist and develop outside a person's body and which is an expression of his divine essence, that which connects him to the world. Infinite, Universe, Cosmos. According to philosophical concepts, honesty is something lower than the spirit, something that connects the spirit with the body (feelings, emotions, experiences).

Russian philosophers reject such an understanding of human spirituality. Higher spirituality, in their opinion, is impossible without sincerity - emotional sensitivity, responsiveness, ability to respond emotionally: compassion, compassion, love of neighbor.

A person realizes himself as a person only by developing spiritual spirituality in himself: the ability to empathize and empathize, sensitivity and reaction, conscientiousness, readiness to help another person, responsibility for everything that happens around him.

Philosophy of cosmism

Questions of the meaning of life and the place of man in the universe are fundamental in the scientific and philosophical direction, which received the general name of the philosophy of cosmism. Its origins go back centuries. A sense of the deep involvement of consciousness in cosmic existence, the idea of ​​man as a microscope passes through world culture, both Eastern and Western.

According to Eastern teachings, all phenomena in the world (including man) have a dual nature: external and internal, visible and invisible, spiritual and material. Overcoming the contradiction between them is the driving force of evolution.

Recognizing the pursuit of perfection as the goal and meaning of life, cosmic philosophers claim that it can only go in one direction, in the development by man of his spiritual strength, his spiritual principle, which is eternal and immortal.

The Problem of Self-education of Personality in Literature

No other science has such a rich fund of information and observations as monuments of written culture for psychology: fiction, biographies, documents, etc. A novice psychologist, especially if he is a young man, still knows little about people, life and himself. Therefore, I must constantly remember this "golden" fund and make the most of the works of the classics to expand my life experience.

The science of healing the soul, Cicero wrote, is a philosophy, but its help does not come from outside, as help against bodily diseases - no, we ourselves must use all our strength and means to heal ourselves.

Goethe said: "An intelligent person is not one who knows a lot, but one who knows himself."

In his book "Stress without Distress", Canadian scientist Hans Silier discusses the situation of modern youth. "To overcome the current wave of exhausting spiritual collapse that leads to violence and cruelty," he writes, "young people must be convinced that their normal thirst for achievement will not be satisfied by eccentric behavior or an endless desire to win love."

Many great people have formulated life principles, rules that have helped them build their lives. These are the rules that Franklin worked out for himself. He believed that it is not possible to cultivate all the positive qualities in oneself at once, but one must "concentrate one's attention on only one virtue for a certain period of time; when I master it, I move on to others, and so on.

In his youth, LN Tolstoy compiled a program of self-improvement based on the separation of three parts: the qualities of the mind that must be developed in order to become a cultural person; the qualities of the soul that must be acquired in order to serve people with benefit; a list of vices and shortcomings that you must get rid of in order to respect yourself. "Constant exercises of self-observation, subtle analysis of one's own psychological processes and states", writes NG Chernyshevsky, - allowed LN Tolstoy to fully and realistically present the psychology of different people. Analyzing the qualities of his own personality, LN Tolstoy is sharply criticized. He immediately presents a program of self-correction: "The most important thing for me in life is to get rid of 3 main vices: invertebrateness, irritability and laziness." This program is completely over. NG Chernishevsky, notes that he "

Nikolaj Ostrovski wrote: "For self-education, one must first of all invoke one's own harsh judgment. I should clearly and accurately, without sparing my pride and a certain dose of narcissism, discover my shortcomings, vices and decide once and for all whether I will suffer them or not. Do I need to carry this burden on my shoulders or throw it overboard.

Books are of great importance to me for self-education. My favorite writers are William Shakespeare, Omar Khayyam, Mikhail Afanasievich Bulgakov, Ivan Sergeyevich Turgenev.

Ways of Understanding the Inner World

In working on myself, my inner world became the field of my action. After revising the psychological literature (1, 7, 8, 10, 12, 14, 15, 16, 17, 18), I tried to answer the questions: what should I focus my activities on? What are the ways to implement this?

Self-improvement includes three interrelated components: self-knowledge, self-control and self-regulation, self-development. (7)

The most important tool for each of them is reflection. Reflection is a human activity aimed at understanding one's own actions, one's inner states, feelings, experiences, analyzing those states and formulating appropriate conclusions. (12) In order to understand myself, control and regulate my actions, develop my inner world, I have to master reflection. Reflection includes introspection and introspection. In our classes, reflection is the main way to acquire new knowledge. Knowledge about yourself and others does not come to a person from the outside, but only through yourself, through a constant reflection of what is happening to you every minute, "here and now". (7)

The meaning of all existing psychotechniques is to achieve and maintain a high mental, spiritual and physical form through directed mental concentration. Most programs aimed at human self-development are based on four principles or ways of self-knowledge and self-regulation.

Here are ways to help you know and understand your inner world:

First method: Relaxation.

Relaxation is physical and mental relaxation. The purpose of relaxation is to prepare the body and psyche for activity, to focus on your inner world, to release excessive physical and nervous tensions or, conversely, to provide an opportunity for reunion. Relaxation is needed:

Prepare the body and psyche for deep self-knowledge, self-hypnosis;

In stressful moments, conflict situations that require endurance, self-control;

In responsible and difficult situations, when you need to get rid of fear, excessive stress.


How can I relax?

I take a comfortable position (sitting in a chair), close my eyes and begin to take a deep breath through my stomach and slowly exhale through my mouth, releasing the accumulated tension, fatigue, until I achieve inner relaxation.

For me, a session of self-education is very effective - immersion in a state of complete physical rest: I recorded the text of the session on an audio cassette (AA Vostrikov: Culture of Emotions. - Odessa, 1989). (See Appendix) Another way is mental retardation. I imagine myself as a sleeping cat and switch to her rhythm.

Another trick is to focus on candle flames, pendulums, aquariums and turn off thoughts.

I get out of the state of relaxation gradually: I tighten my muscles, deepen my breathing, open my eyes and I am ready to dive into myself.

Other method: Concentration.

Concentration is the concentration of consciousness on a particular object of its activity. At the heart of concentration is attention management. (7)

I imagine a picture of myself sitting in the garden and hearing different sounds: birds singing, insects buzzing, leaves rustling in the wind. I single out one sound, e.g. rustling of leaves, and I try to focus my visual, sound, body and other sensations on emerging emotions and moods, feelings and experiences, on the flow of my thoughts, on the images that arise in my mind.

I will list the exercises used to concentrate attention on the objects of the outside world: focusing on the object, focusing on sensations, focusing on emotions and feelings. (7) Concentration skills are based on the development of attention traits.

Third method: Visualization.

Visualization is the creation of internal images in the human mind, ie the activation of the imagination with the help of auditory, visual, taste, olfactory tactile sensations, as well as their combinations (7).

I use a series of exercises to develop figurative representations. In a state of relaxation I try to see the image of the mirror and myself in this mirror; visual, auditory images of well-known objects; abstract concepts (7). In everyday life, I use reminders to activate my imagination.

Fourth method: Self-hypnosis.

Self-hypnosis is the creation of attitudes that affect the subconscious mechanisms of the psyche. Self-hypnosis is a statement that success is possible, expressed in the first person in the present tense. (7)

At the moment, I have started to master the autogenous technique, the techniques of which can be mastered by any person. It was developed in the 1920s and 1930s by the German psychotherapist G. Schultz. Its goal is the mental and physical recovery of a person with the help of self-hypnosis in a state of relaxation.

Components of personal growth

Self-education cannot be reduced to self-training, special exercises. Working on oneself is the internal organization of a person's entire life, it is the style and content of life that he chooses. And like any activity, it has a certain structure, logic, sequence of actions. (one)

The characteristic of all psychotechnical techniques described below is their fixation on paper. I have been practicing keeping diaries and drawings for a long time. Analyzing the content of the notes and drawings, my supervisor and I noticed that these classes were of great psychotechnical importance to me. In my notes and drawings, I wrote down on paper my thoughts, emotions, fantasies, and plans for the future.

For myself, I have identified the steps I need to take to move forward towards the goal:

Phase 1: Goal setting.

Phase 2: Creating an ideal.

Phase 3: Setting a time frame and highlighting goals.

Phase 4: Self-awareness and self-awareness.

Phase 5: Self-control and self-regulation.

Phase 6: Self-development.

Defining the goal, choosing the ideal.

Phase 1: Goal setting.

I started working on myself by defining a goal and choosing an ideal. What do I want to achieve in my personal development, what do I want to become?

Take a pen and paper. Relax to feel as comfortable as possible. Try to draw your future life without limits - the way I would like it to develop, with the paths I would like to take, with those peaks I would like to climb.

I started with a list of what I dream about, what I want to become, what I want to become, what personal qualities I want to acquire. I concentrated and for 10-15 minutes made my pen work continuously. I let my imagination run wild, I rejected restrictions, if there were any doubts or restrictions, I mentally imagined taking them off the field. Write down what you would like to achieve as a result.

I followed the following rules:

1. Formed goals in a positive sense.

2. She was extremely concrete, she tried to see, hear, feel, imagine the result. I tried to get a clear idea of ​​the result.

3. I have formed only such goals, the achievement of which depends only on me.

Phase 2: Creating an ideal.

It is much easier for a person to determine the goal of self-education if he has ideas about the best that should be inherent in a person. “... An idea is the main source of energy for a creative person. An ideal is an idea transformed into a powerful energy charge that directs an individual’s creative energy into the future. (Weinzweing P. The Ten Commandments of a Creative Person. M., 1990 - p.36)

For me, the ideal is not a specific person, but a generalized image that embodies what is most important to me, which encourages me to improve.

At this stage, I used drawing and describing those personal qualities that I would like to see in myself. I drew on paper my self-portrait, the way I would like to become, a picture that embodies distant goals and aspirations. (see Appendix, Fig.)

Phase 3: Setting a time frame and highlighting goals.

At this stage, after looking at the previously compiled list, I carefully looked at the portrait, determined in which time network everything will take place.

I set goals: general - comprehensive development of my own personality - and private. I attributed the general goal to the long-term perspective, and the private one to the immediate goals, plans and steps.

The most important goals for two years:

- build willpower;


- persistence, purposefulness, organization;

- memory and attention;

- tolerance, understanding, respect for other people;

- learn to control your emotions, feelings, think about actions;

- open your "I", accept yourself, form a holistic picture of "I".

After defining the goals, I wrote why they are important to me.

3.2 Forming an “I” image.

Phase 4: Self-awareness and self-awareness.

So, the goal is defined, but is it achievable? In order to do that, I connected my abilities and abilities with this goal and ideal, so the next phase of self-education is knowledge and self-awareness, studying and analyzing my personal characteristics.

In self-knowledge, the most important thing is to emphasize one's own positive qualities, potentials, abilities, because only by relying on the positive can one overcome personal shortcomings.

Each person has a picture of their inner world. To find out what your image of the inner world is, you have to ask yourself at first glance a very simple question: "Who am I?". You need to answer here ... twenty times.

What you managed to write is a self-portrait of “I”. The image of the "I" of a person may include different characteristics. These can be adjectives that determine character traits and appearance. Everything, even the most original ones, can be divided into three groups.


social physical psychological

And now we need to analyze our own self-portrait. (five)

Then you have to go back to the list of twenty characteristics of "I" and perform another procedure. This will help you better understand the picture of your own inner world. Each of the characteristics of the image of "I" can be considered both positive and negative.

What qualities in "I" - picture more? To understand this, you must put a sign next to each characteristic: "+" or "-". It is important that this be a personal assessment. It doesn’t have to be the same as the general one. Then evaluate how many negative and how many positive characteristics. (five)

What happened as a result? What characteristics - positive or negative - are there more in the image of your "I"?

The image of the inner world are the characteristics and qualities we see in ourselves, colored by one or another emotional attitude.

In general, the image of "I" is colored by positive emotions. In order to achieve harmony with oneself, all characteristics must be the same.

The attitude towards the world and the people around him, the ability to make independent decisions, free and responsible action depend on what the person's ideas are about himself, what his self-concept is.

I am a concept

The real Ideal Me mirrors itself

or view or view or view

about what I am about what I am about about who I am

really wanted others to perceive him

Thus, "I am a concept" helped me to understand my individual "I", to understand why my true "I" and the mirror "I" are different, what is needed for the true "I" to strive for the ideal. "I". (five)

I will turn my attention to some psychotechnics. The exercise "Parts of My Self" helped me to realize myself in different situations, depending on the circumstances. I had no idea there were so many different people in me. In the picture, I have shown my most characteristic subpersonalities.

Exercise "Who am I?" the result is a verbal definition of the self-concept, i.e. about a coherent and fixed idea of ​​self.

Exercise "Level of self-esteem of an individual" in which self-esteem of intellectual, willing, moral qualities is calculated (practical guide of a psychologist).

These and other exercises contributed to awareness and experience of oneself, enabled one to see from the outside.

The second block of exercises is focused on self-acceptance. It is not enough to get reliable information, it is necessary to develop a positive self-perception. It is necessary for the realization of their abilities, the discovery of their individuality.

These are exercises such as "My Portrait in the Rays of the Sun", "My Universe", "Associations", "Hello, I'm glad to see you", etc. Every day I try to start with exercises for a positive attitude, exercises with a mirror "I love you and accept you as you are".

Self-discovery exercises are a way to harmonize the external and internal selves and build meaningful relationships with others.

These are exercises such as "Envelope of Revelation", "Interview", "Strength", etc.

As a daily exercise, this is self-confession.

Managing emotions and feelings.

Phase 5: Self-control and self-regulation.

Managing emotions and feelings includes: control over one's emotional reactions, understanding them, regulation, ie. finding ways to self-regulate, replacing negative emotions with positive ones.

Managing feelings and emotions begins with understanding your emotional state and then thinking about its sources and causes. (2)

I have just begun to master this phase of cultivation. An important role is played by mastering relaxation techniques, I analyze the characteristics of my emotional reactions with the help of self-knowledge tests, drawings and music.

There are a number of ways of self-regulation - aware of the willing management of the internal processes of your own psyche, which allow you to give an "exit to the feeling." The first group of methods is based on psychophysiological relaxation, release from negative emotions. You can't block them, so I use the following methods: "Empty chair", "Physical emptying", "Self-confession", "Relaxation". Drawing helps me to remove a negative emotional state. I analyzed the drawings using the Color Painting method. (Lutoshkin AM)

The second group of self-regulation methods I use is to shift negative emotions and feelings into positive ones.

Replacing negative emotions and thoughts with the positive image I created. For me, such self-hypnosis is effective: "I am confident in myself, in my abilities, I feel a rush of energy and optimism." This image needs to be strengthened daily in order to gain self-confidence.

I made my own formulas for self-hypnosis that create a positive emotional mood: "I'm confident", "I'm calm", "I'm not afraid", etc.

To awaken self-confidence, my strengths and replace negative emotions, I use self-reward. When something works, I say to myself: "Bravo", "You can!", "It's good, great!".

I will list some of the psychotechnical methods I have used to manage my experiences. Exercises: "Dissolving feelings of anger", "Overcoming irritability", "Positive mood for the whole day."

Psychological characteristics of drawings.

The subject of analysis was 46 of my works created at different ages since 1999.

The symbolism of my drawing reflects the internal conflicts caused, on the one hand, by the crisis of adolescence in which I find myself, and on the other hand by the crisis events in my family, class and personal life.

The presentation of the results of psychological analysis is descriptive.

The central position in many drawings, earlier, before psychology, is occupied by the eye, in various designs. In this trait, unconsciously manifested in the figure, it is easy to see a projection of my mental problems - overemphasis, conceit, excessive attention to my own person.

My first drawing, Oblivion, conveys a whole range of feelings that I waited a moment to express. As you can see, the meaning of the image gradually develops, as one fragment complements another, a third joins them. There are many intersecting lines, strokes, colors and semantic elements that are autonomous. The autonomy of the eyes, lips, eyebrows is graphically emphasized: the leaf is divided into fragments. Graphic fragments show internal problems and obstacles at that moment in life.

The drawing "Unhappy Love" conveys a storm of negative feelings and emotions through aggressive red color, predominant dark tones, sharp lines made by strong pressure, strokes. The overall impression of the picture is disturbing, depressing.

"My experiences" - this drawing shows the mental pain associated with the accident, which is expressed in two accents. On the one hand, solid lines depicting the grid reinforce the negative impression with black, green and red tones. On the other hand, the feeling of hopelessness and pain is transmitted through self-portrait.

Drawing "With myself." The central figure is the silhouette of the woman in whom I thought of myself. The hands are drawn without brushes, the face is half-closed, the figure is hidden by clothes. These elements are made with strong pressure, jerky lines. It reinforces the impression of loneliness, abandonment, isolation, triangles that cross the figure, as barriers between me and the outside world.

Psychology classes have helped to overcome some internal problems and barriers, I have established a relatively adequate self-esteem, I express more than negative feelings.

The drawing "Emblem of Tolerance" is abstract and reflects my idea of ​​ideal relationships with people around me. Elements like hearts, leaves, air currents, sun rays coming from the center, complemented by warm colors, express a positive mood that confirms life.

"The Power of Opposites" - a drawing with a philosophical context. It is divided by a horizontal line into two fragments. Clear lines, conciseness of elements - desire for reflection, understanding of life.

Drawing "Reflections". The central figure is a self-portrait. Outstretched arms, open-looking, combined with warm colors. I imagine myself in the picture as tolerant, cheerful, thinking.

3.4 Personal development program, ways and means of its implementation.

Phase 6: Self-development.

I made the program of my personal development on the basis of comparing my qualities, knowledge, skills, abilities with the requirements contained in my ideal.

Based on my immediate goals, I determined the tasks of self-improvement and the ways and means for their realization.

Objectives Ways and means

implementation of self-improvement

1. To form the strength of will 1. Clearly and clearly achieve the goal and strive to achieve it.

2. Learn to find ways to perform voluntary actions, motivate them.

3. Overcome internal obstacles.

4. Overcome external obstacles.

Rely more often on facts from biographies, characters from books, which are an example of patience, endurance, willpower.

2. Develop perseverance, keep a diary of personal growth.

purposefulness, learn to organize yourself

organization. job: plan your day, be able to control yourself, master the skills of working with literature, prepare for school, use your free time rationally.

3. Develop memory Look carefully at what you know

and attention to the subject, then close your eyes, figuratively, vividly, present it in all its details. Then, open your eyes, look again and see which details are missing.

The thing that is studied in this way should try to get out of memory. Then determine what is not drawn.

Describe from memory the facial features of a famous person. Then, observing this person in the meeting, clarify the unnoticed features of his face.

Put 7 to 15 small objects in front of you, look at them, and then describe them from memory.

Look around the room, try to remember everything in it. Then close your eyes and recreate in detail the images of what you saw in it.

Remember the voice and intonation of a frequently used phrase of a famous person and try with your eyes closed as if you will hear it again. Repeat this phrase aloud, and when you meet that person, compare the "original" with the reproducible memory.

Try to take a good look at the thrown and falling object. Then describe it as accurately as possible.

4. Develop tolerance, memorandum on the development of tolerance,

understanding, respect and attitude towards other people.

5. Learn to observe yourself.

Identify and control your own emotional manifestations

Emotions and feelings are typical of me.

consider actions.

Master the following ways of interacting with negative emotions:

Accept every event as God sent it for your benefit. This path leads to health and wisdom.

Learn to detach yourself from the emotion that has arisen, feeling it spread. Passive observation leads to its destruction.

To allow emotions to splash, not to drive them deep, but to react. This is a secular method that allows you to maintain your physical and mental health.

Master the ways of burning negative emotions with physical effort. (see attachment)

6. Open your "I", self-education - immersion in

accept yourself, a state of physical peace in the process

form a holistic self-awareness. (see attachment)

picture "I". Start each new day by reminding yourself of a good mood. (see attachment)


Related Articles