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18th Century England

James A. Watkins is an entrepreneur, musician, and a writer with four non-fiction books and hundreds of magazine articles read by millions.

Queen Anne of Britain

King William III of England died in 1702. His horse stumbled on a molehill, throwing the king to the ground, which broke his collarbone. While recovering he caught the pneumonia that spelled his doom.

The successor to King William was his sister-in-law and cousin, Queen Anne. Anne was the last of the Stuart monarchs, but the first Queen of Great Britain. She became pregnant nineteen times but miscarried thirteen times. Five of her children died as infants, and one made it as far as eleven years old before he too succumbed. Thus, no heir.

The death of Queen Anne in 1714 left a line of succession composing of 57 Catholic Scots. Parliament had foreseen this eventuality and solved it by the Act of Settlement of 1701, which legally eliminated Catholics from the throne of Britain.

The 58th person down the line of succession was a Protestant German, George of the small state of Hanover, who spoke no English. He became King of Great Britain, and that is how Germans came to rule the British Isles.



King George I & Prime Minister Walpole

King George I, short and pop-eyed, arrived in London with his two mistresses—one obese and one rail thin. The elite of England were thrilled with George, but the common man was decidedly opposed to a German King of Britain. Disturbances became so regular that Parliament passed the Riot Act of 1715. By this bill authorities could "read the riot act" to any crowd of more than twelve persons, who could be hanged if they did not disburse within an hour.

In 1720, a hard-drinking, rotund, convicted embezzler named Robert Walpole became known as the first "Prime Minister" of Britain. This was and remains an unofficial title. It does not appear on government paperwork.

Robert Walpole held power for twenty years, during which he gave his loyal supporters key government jobs. His favorite saying was "all men have their price." Walpole was an erudite, urbane man but he created the image of a country bumpkin to his voters. He was one of them.

Robert Walpole was a master statistician and accountant, as well as a genial and relaxed public speaker. He amassed a wonderful collection of art during his lifetime.



18th Century England

18th Century England was the most advanced nation in the world in science, politics, and economics. But it was not the sort of place you would want to travel cross-country at night. Highway Robbery was common. Police were non-existent outside a few major cities. Since bank notes, checks, and promissory notes were in their infancy, many people had to travel some distances with large amounts of hard currency.

Stagecoach service began in the 1730s. Passengers came to dread the sound of approaching hooves, which was often followed by the shout "Your money or your life!"

Gangs of bandits also terrorized remote homesteads. As a result, the death penalty was imposed for theft, and thousands of criminals were strung up on the gallows of Georgian Britain before the crime wave subsided.

It was in 18th Century England that we get the phrases "Far from the Maddening Crowd" and "The Industrial Revolution."



Bonnie Prince Charlie or God Save the King

"Bonnie Prince Charlie" was the grandson of King James II of England. In 1745, the 24-year-old "Young Pretender," who was reared in Rome, decided to invade Britain to restore the Catholic Stuart family to the throne. Backed by the Vatican and France, Charles Stuart landed in Scotland where he was greeted enthusiastically. With 20,000 Scottish supporters, Charles took Edinburgh and set his sights on London.

Bonny Prince Charlie was quite a man. He spoke three languages and was renowned for his skills at riding, shooting, tennis, badminton, golf, dancing, playing the cello, and the art of warfare. He had a particularly magnificent regal bearing and comportment.

The Young Pretender captured Carlisle and Manchester, and came to within 100 miles of London before his forces were defeated. During this period, Londoners began singing a song, "God Save the King," which became the first national anthem in world history.



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John Wesley

John Wesley is the founder of the Methodist Church. The ministers of the Church of England had become quite worldly men. Their congregations met more for socializing than because of any zeal for the Christian Faith. And the Church of England ignored miners and industrial laborers.

John Wesley took his message to the ignored poverty-stricken people in Britain, many times preaching to them outdoors. His followers took to his methods—regular group prayer, reading the Bible in small groups, fasting, confessing sins to each other, and visiting prisoners in jail. His followers experienced tremendous spiritual rebirth and learned to communicate directly with God.



Dr Samuel Johnson

Samuel Johnson was a highly opinionated journalist—and a genius—when he was commissioned to produce the first dictionary of the English language in 1746. Johnson had an untidy appearance and was pockmarked from a bout with smallpox. He was known to roll his head and grunt frequently.

Samuel Johnson was tall and stout, but he had a curious stoop. His mouth seemed to be constantly opening and shutting as if chewing on some imaginary thing. His body seemed agitated, and he always twisted his hands and twirled his fingers.

Despite all this, Samuel Johnson was an intimidating presence. Those who knew him thought him a kind spirit and sharp wit. After nine years, with help from five assistants, he completed the English Dictionary, which won him everlasting fame. Johnson was also a fierce opponent of slavery.



Captain Cook

James Cook came from humble origins. His education ended in the third grade. His father was a farm laborer, and James Cook started his adult life working on a filthy coal ship. He landed a gig on a sea-faring vessel in 1755, where he spent his spare time educating himself in astronomy and mathematics.

By 1768, Captain Cook had become the top navigator in the Royal Navy. He was sent to the South Pacific with eleven prominent scientists on board his ship to measure the location of the Sun. The commission of Captain Cook also included finding the legendary Terra Australis—the "Land of the South."

In 1770, Captain Cook dropped anchor in the harbor of modern day Sydney, which he named Botany Bay for its unusual plant life. Cook claimed Australia for Britain and named it New South Wales. Before heading back to England, Captain Cook charted 4,400 miles of the coastlines of Australia and New Zealand.

Captain Cook became famous not only for his discoveries but also because his crew returned home free of Scurvy, that fatal disease that had plagued all ocean-going ships before him. Cook had implemented the advice of his friend, Dr. James Lind, to supply his crews with lemons and limes—rich in Vitamin C. Thereafter, British sailing crews were known as "limeys."

Captain Cook's men became fascinated by the tattoos on Polynesian men. Cook's men underwent the operation to be tattooed, which started a naval tradition that has today become a fashion statement.

In 1779, Captain Cook was clubbed to death in Hawaii. He could have escaped, but the greatest navigator in English history never learned how to swim.



Mutiny on the Bounty

The real story of the Mutiny on the Bounty is quite different from the film versions. The Bounty was turned into a floating greenhouse to transport breadfruit plants from the South Pacific to the West Indies, and William Bligh was named its captain. Bligh was no taskmaster at sea. He was big on music and dancing to keep the crew's spirits high during the long voyage.

After sailing through stormy seas for ten months, Bligh allowed the crew to relax and enjoy Tahiti for five months or so. By the time the Bounty was ready to resume its voyage, the sailors had become quite accustomed to the beautiful surroundings and most of all to the free sexual habits of the Tahitian women. Many of the men had taken Tahitian women as their brides and didn't want to leave the island.

But leave they did. Three weeks later, most of the crew mutinied. Captain Bligh was dragged from his bed in his pajamas. He was set adrift in a 23 foot boat along with 17 crew members who refused to join the mutiny. From there, Captain Bligh carried out a feat of navigation that remains unequalled in the annals of the sea.

He sailed 3,600 miles in the open boat to the Island of Timor. During this 41 day journey, he and his men survived on raw fish, birds, and turtles. Rainwater—and very little of it—was all they had to slake their thirst. Captain Bligh returned to England a hero.

The majority of the mutineers stayed in Tahiti. But their leader, Christian Fletcher, led a group of nine men with their Tahitian wives to the most remote island in the world, Pitcairn, which was uninhabited. Their descendents are still there today.



American Revolution

In 1773, American rebels disguised as Indian warriors dumped 45 tons of tea into Boston Harbor—enough to brew 24 million cups of tea. They were protesting against "taxation without representation." The taxes in question were to help pay for the protection of the British American Colonies by the British Armed Forces.

The port of Boston was then closed, and the British sent troops to put down the revolt. In 1775, these troops clashed with the colonists and thus began the American War of Independence.

Thomas Jefferson, a radical young lawyer, wrote the American Declaration of Independence, which began with these immortal words: "We hold these truths to be self-evident, that all men are created equal, that they are endowed by their Creator with certain inalienable rights, that among these are life, liberty and the pursuit of happiness."

Five years of war followed, during which the American forces were shrewdly led by George Washington. Once the French fleet arrived to assist the American siege at Yorktown, Virginia, the British surrendered. The loss of America was a terrible blow to Britain.



The Madness of King George III

King George III reigned in Britain for 60 years (1760-1820)—longer than any monarch in British history save Queen Victoria. In the early years on the throne he was known as a tall, dignified, hard working King who was good, decent, and deeply religious. King George and his wife Queen Charlotte provided Britain with plenty of heirs—15 all total.

In 1788, King George III began to have convulsions. He also started to talk non-stop, sometimes deranged gibberish, and sometimes while foaming at the mouth. King George suffered from incessant stomach cramps, constipation, and hallucinations. His doctors tried to cure these maladies by applying leeches to his forehead and blistering his scalp with acidic potions to no avail. King George developed open sores on his legs, to which his doctors applied burning mustard plasters. He was often straitjacketed, and for at the least the last ten years of his life he was completely insane (and blind).

King George III did make an astute choice of the brilliant William Pitt the Younger as Prime Minister. Pitt became the youngest man to ever hold the post at age 24 and held power for 21 years.



The Rights of Man

Thomas Paine was an enthusiastic supporter of the 1789 French Revolution. Paine was a drunkard who rarely washed his clothes or himself. He suffered from Scabies and stunk to high heaven. He was riddled with debt and quite disorganized. Paine loved to offend people. But he also published the two best-selling pamphlets of the 18th century: The Rights of Man and Common Sense.

Thomas Paine coined the immortal phrase "These are the times that try men's souls." His main argument was that the rights of men are God-given prior to the formation of governments. The only good governments are those which protect these God-given rights.



The Rights of Woman

Closely following on the heels of Thomas Paine was his friend Mary Wollstonecraft. She wrote about the Rights of Women. Wollstonecraft had a bitter childhood. She never felt her mother loved her, and she hated her drunken father—who wasted the family fortune and mistreated women.

Mary Wollstonecraft earned a living as a nurse, seamstress, school teacher, and governess before becoming a writer. She scorned the women of her day and what she described as "the selfish vanity of beauty."

Mary Wollstonecraft was the prototypical feminist. She bore a bastard, tried to kill herself, was emotionally fragile, suffered from constant depression, had a deep sense of personal grievance, was extremely volatile, and became well known for melodramatic histrionics. Wollstonecraft denounced marriage as legalized prostitution. But she eventually married—fittingly to an anarchist—before she died at age 38. Her daughter, Mary Shelley, wrote the novel Frankenstein.



Thomas Clarkson

The Quakers were the first in England to stand up against slavery. In 1774, they announced that no Quaker would have any kind of relationship—business or personal—with anyone involved in the slave trade.

The Methodist John Wesley published a diatribe against slavery that same year. Said Wesley: "I would do anything in my power to the extirpation of that trade, which is a scandal not only to Christianity but to humanity."

Then along came Thomas Clarkson. He dedicated his life to ending slavery. In 1785, Clarkson published the prize winning essay, "Is it lawful to make men slaves against their will?" The following year he formed the Committee for Effecting the Abolition of the Slave Trade.

In 1787, Thomas Clarkson recruited MP William Wilberforce to push for an end to the slave trade through Parliament. It would take Wilberforce twenty years of constant energy before he finally ended the slave trade in 1807. During those years, Clarkson persuaded 400,000 English citizens to sign a petition against slavery, and 300,000 to boycott the sugar that made the trade lucrative.





My primary source for this history is the wonderful book Great Tales from English History by Robert Lacey.


James A Watkins (author) from Chicago on October 04, 2015:

Thank you Brian Langston for the awesome accolades!

Brian Langston from Languedoc Roussillon on October 03, 2015:

Loved this delightful vignette of C18th England James- History with the boring bits taken out and the gory bits left in. A man after my own heart!

James A Watkins (author) from Chicago on February 11, 2013:

klidstone1970— You are quite welcome. I am so glad that you enjoyed my Hub. Thank for visiting and commenting. :)


இڿڰۣ-- кιмвєяℓєу from Niagara Region, Canada on February 08, 2013:

I enjoyed this very much, James. Thank you.

James A Watkins (author) from Chicago on August 10, 2011:

billyaustindillon— I too wonder what Thomas Paine would say, my friend. I suppose the multicultural experiment has failed, yes?

Thank you for taking the time to read my Hub. I very much appreciate your excellent comments. :D

billyaustindillon on August 09, 2011:

James most interesting reading in the backdrop of the three days of rioting in London. I wonder what Thomas Paine would have to say?

James A Watkins (author) from Chicago on July 28, 2011:

chamilj— Hello! You are very welcome. I sincerely appreciate the voted up! Thank you for taking the time to read my Hub.

chamilj from Sri Lanka on July 27, 2011:

Hi James,

Thanks for sharing valuable information of the history of England. Voted up!

James A Watkins (author) from Chicago on June 22, 2011:

platinumOwl4— Jefferson is a complicated man. What you pointed out is somewhat hypocritical, yes. A lot of his ideas were not matched by his life, and a lot of his quotes appear to take opposite sides of issues. I suppose he was flawed—but brilliant.

Good observation. Thank you for the compliments. :-)

platinumOwl4 on June 21, 2011:

Thomas Jefferson author of the Declaration of Independence " We hold these truths to be self-evident that ALL MEN are created Equal Unless they are consider chattel, and he refuse to except that an African-American had the same mental capabilities as a Caucasian male. However, he did believe that Sally his ex or deceased wife's half sister had the same capabilities as a Caucasian woman. Sound a little hypocritical. Great article James A Watkins and this is only an observation.

James A Watkins (author) from Chicago on June 11, 2011:

Thelma Alberts— Thank you! And you are welcome. I too love history, especially British history. Welcome to the Hub Pages Community! :-)

Thelma Alberts from Germany on June 10, 2011:

Great hub. I love reading about british history especially those of the royalty. It´s a very informative and educational hub. Thank you.

James A Watkins (author) from Chicago on June 04, 2011:

DeBorrah K. Ogans! Great to see you here my dear.

Yes, Queen Anne is a tragic figure. I'm not sure what the message is on that one. She is strikingly pretty, I think.

I am glad you had your interest piqued by the sections on Wollstonecraft and the Mutiny on the Bounty. The truth is stranger than fiction! :D

Thank you so much for reading my work. I am ever grateful to you for your gracious compliments. And you are most welcome.

Elder DeBorrah K Ogans on June 01, 2011:

James A Watkins, This was a concise an remarkably captivating presentation of 18th Century England history! What tragic multiple sequences of fatal birthing trauma for Queen Anne to endure! All those children and yet still no heir… There is a message here somewhere?

You have touched on a plethora of significant points! Interesting details on what actually took place on “Mutiny on the Bounty” The actual circumstances are much more interesting rather than what I have seen portrayed in films… The Truth is always so much better! Mary Wollstonecraft was quite the character, her name is so fitting! What an ambivalent woman…! How very interesting for her daughter to have wrote Frankenstein, no wonder… So much more here to ponder! Your exceptional writing inspires one to peer deeper into history!

Wonderful narrative as always, Professor! Again great presentation! Thank you for sharing your gift! In HIS Love, Grace, Joy, Peace and many Blessings!

James A Watkins (author) from Chicago on June 01, 2011:

tracykarl99— Welcome back! I've made a note to come by and read your new Hubs. Good to hear from you again.

I have done a massive amount of work for $100 a month. If HubPages can repair its relationship with Google that should double. I have tried to put out three Hubs a week. I am taking a break from Hubbing right now to concentrate on finishing my first book. But I'll be back.

I appreciate your gracious comments. And you are most welcome.

Tracy from San Francisco on May 28, 2011:

James, I love British history. This is a great sketch of some of the pivotal events and people. I laughed out loud at your description of Johnson - not one of my favorites but definitely an important figure!

I'm reading your hubs for inspiration. Wasn't making any money here, but have decided to try again. Not sure what the secret is - You seem to have the right combination of quality and quantity. A hub a day? What makes Google happy??

Thanks for still being here:)

James A Watkins (author) from Chicago on May 22, 2011:

angie ashbourne— Thank you, Angie, for expressing your appreciation of my work here. I appreciate it!


angie ashbourne on May 21, 2011:

Hi! Well done! I learned some history today. Angie

James A Watkins (author) from Chicago on April 26, 2011:

kashmir56— Thank you for the compliments, my friend! I very much appreciate your encouragement. It warms the heart to see you have visited. :)

Thomas Silvia from Massachusetts on April 25, 2011:

Hi James, all great interesting stuff on 18th century Britain, i remember learning some of this back in my school days . It was nice to refresh my memory !

Awesome hub !!!

James A Watkins (author) from Chicago on April 24, 2011:

cballi316— Very pleasing to the eye, right? I am glad that you found this Hub to be interesting. Thank you for letting me know.

James A Watkins (author) from Chicago on April 23, 2011:

Tamila Roberts— Welcome to the Hub Pages Community! I see you just joined a few days ago. I will come by soon to check out your Hubs.

I must confess that it is true I did a lot of research before writing this article.

Thank you for your gracious comments. And you are welcome.

James A Watkins (author) from Chicago on April 23, 2011:

Mrs. J. B.— Thank you! I could not ask for a more ringing endorsement of my work. I surely appreciate you for reading my article on 18th Century England and leaving behind your lovely accolades. :)

James A Watkins (author) from Chicago on April 23, 2011:

mtsi1098— I am well pleased to have been of service. Thank you very much for the kind compliments. I appreciate it.

cballi316 from USA on April 22, 2011:

I had to look up the meaning of "bonnie". That a term I use. Very interesting hub!

Tamila Roberts from Canada on April 22, 2011:

You really sharpened my mind with your interesting subject. I feel greatly in debt of your remarkable writing skills. I learned so much today about that topic, you must have done a pretty wide research on the matter. Thank you for displaying this.

James A Watkins (author) from Chicago on April 21, 2011:

Dim Flaxenwick— You are most welcome, my friend. I cannot tell you how much I appreciate your laudatory affirmation and encouragement. Producing these Hubs is hard work and to see it appreciated is gratifying. Thank you very much for making my day. :-)

James A Watkins (author) from Chicago on April 21, 2011:

creativeone59— You are welcome, my dear lady. Thank you ever much for taking the time to read my article and respond. God Bless You!


Mrs. J. B. from Southern California on April 21, 2011:

BRAVO!!!! Beautifully written, well researched and very educational.. I was captivated from start to finish...

mtsi1098 on April 21, 2011:

absolutely have no idea the gaps of history that you just filled in for me...Great job!

Dim Flaxenwick from Great Britain on April 20, 2011:

This brillint hub has proved the point l tried to make recently in one of my hubs.i.e. that writers like you give us rich, mounds of information without the drivel that we smetimes have to wade through in books or even online. You say so much, yet keep it consice,. Love your work,. This hub was splendid. Thank you.

Benny Faye Ashton Douglass from Gold Canyon, Arizona on April 19, 2011:

Thank you James my friend, for all all the wonderful stories and information with variety, Thank you for sharing . Godspeed. creativeone59

James A Watkins (author) from Chicago on April 19, 2011:

Jackie Lynnley— Your sister? Do I know her here on HubPages?

No need to promise not to say more. You may say anything you want here my dear.

Thank you very much for the kind compliments. I appreciate the new information about the Quakers. When I proceed on with my History of Christianity and write about the 19th century perhaps I will have new information about the Quakers. A whole lot of new sects arose in the 18th century. It should be quite a story. :-)

James A Watkins (author) from Chicago on April 19, 2011:

Toronto Realtor— Yes, yes it was. And yes, yes they were. Thank you for taking the time to read my work. I appreciate your remarks.

James A Watkins (author) from Chicago on April 19, 2011:

Wesman Todd Shaw— Thank you for your kind compliments. It appears King George II had porhpyria, an inherited physical disorder that manifests itself in madness.

I appreciate the visit and your comments, brother.

James A Watkins (author) from Chicago on April 19, 2011:

no body— You are welcome. I am so glad to read your analysis of my Hub because what you wrote matches my intentions. That is gratifying. I especially liked this that you wrote:

"It is like one of those Time-Life Music collections with just all the right songs."

HA! I love it! Thank you. :)

James A Watkins (author) from Chicago on April 19, 2011:

Jackie Lynnley— You are welcome. No, I don't know everything . . . yet. :D

So, Daniel Boone's folks quit the Quakers. Interesting. I wonder if there are still Quakers today?

Thank you for coming back to fill in those blanks for us. I appreciate your diligence.

James A Watkins (author) from Chicago on April 19, 2011:

stars439— Thank you!! Thank you very much! :D

James A Watkins (author) from Chicago on April 19, 2011:

Cogerson— You are quite welcome. Thank you for expressing your appreciation of my work here. I am gratified to read your remarks.

James A Watkins (author) from Chicago on April 19, 2011:

prasetio30— You are welcome. I appreciate your kind and thoughtful words, my friend. Thank you for the visit, comments, rated up, blessings, and hugs. It is always a distinct pleasure to receive your remarks. :)


Jackie Lynnley from the beautiful south on April 18, 2011:

It is really quite long and drawn out, more your type story so I won't go into it other than the Quaker appears to me to be like many other where a whole church is formed on one man going out and getting a new revelation, I can never believe this has happened so many times. They seem nice enough people, very simple and plain which I am sure is biblical to a point but a little wishy washy about what thy are called and there are many names they call themselves by, so no wonder they seemed to have disappeared, the different groups. Speaking of women's rights they were for that until too many came up against them for it. There is plenty interesting to read but I wouldn't want to write about it. Right now my sister has to write one to set someone straight who looked right over verses and said the opposite and I am sure you know how she can be when people do things like that to try to make her look the fool. Great hub as always James and it may appear I don't half read them but just like bible study the facts you give me make my mind jump to many other places and only a very good writer I like to read can do that, but I won't comment more I promise.

Toronto Realtor from Toronto on April 18, 2011:

It was really a wild era..Britain reaching the climax of its power...

Wesman Todd Shaw from Kaufman, Texas on April 16, 2011:

Every segment could make an outstanding hub! Queen Anne, so much sorrow! I wonder how she survived all of that herself!

Captain Cook - amazing. I'd prefer to stay with the women myself. Tahitian treat indeed!

Was it ever determined what condition that King George the Third had?

Robert E Smith from Rochester, New York on April 16, 2011:

Thank you brother for taking me back to grade school and high school. You always manage to take all the snippets that I have thought were the most interesting. It is like one of those Time-Life Music collections with just all the right songs.

Jackie Lynnley from the beautiful south on April 16, 2011:

Well from what I read it appears that Squire Boone (Daniel's father) quit the Quakers because they threw his sister, Sarah (same name as his wife) out of the church because she was seeing a German who was not a Quaker. Apparently they were family people since I think almost if not everyone in the family quit the Quakers.

Jackie Lynnley from the beautiful south on April 16, 2011:

I was taught to not ask questions as a kid so now I am full of them, I will look into that, thank you! I just assumed you knew everything, save me some time, lol.

stars439 from Louisiana, The Magnolia and Pelican State. on April 16, 2011:

Wonderful hub James. God Bless You.

UltimateMovieRankings from Virginia on April 15, 2011:

Great hub, wow I had never heard the bad hygiene of Thomas Payne....great research as always.....thanks for sharing

prasetio30 from malang-indonesia on April 15, 2011:

Thank you for both the sharing and the research. You always find such interesting subjects to share with us, James. This one is no exception. I always learn something "new" from you. You are my online teacher in History lesson. Rated up... God bless you!

Blessing and hugs,

James A Watkins (author) from Chicago on April 14, 2011:

Dolores Monet— I agree with you that Queen Anne was bloody gorgeous.

I think many movies have been made about Captain Bligh. :D

Thank you very much for your attention to my Hub. I appreciate you! :D

James A Watkins (author) from Chicago on April 14, 2011:

SUSIE405— You are welcome. I sincerely appreciate your kind compliments. I too love history. :-)

James A Watkins (author) from Chicago on April 14, 2011:

Hello, hello,— You are welcome. I haven't heard theories proposed that King George III was poisoned or drugged. That is an interesting possibility.

Thank you for your gracious compliments. I appreciate your readership.

James A Watkins (author) from Chicago on April 14, 2011:

Alastar Packer— Thank you for your comments. I enjoy hearing from you.

James A Watkins (author) from Chicago on April 13, 2011:

b. Malin— And I always look forward to what you have to say about my Hubs. You are right that history repeats itself. Something old and something new. Sometimes we learn; sometimes we don't. Well, I thank you for your warm words. :)

James A Watkins (author) from Chicago on April 13, 2011:

CMerritt— Mr. Paine apparently had a putrid stench about his person. Excellent writer though.

I sure appreciate your ongoing encouragement of my writing, my friend. Thank you for reading this Hub.

James A Watkins (author) from Chicago on April 13, 2011:

Clare-Louise— You are most welcome. Thank you for your kind compliments. I am well pleased that you enjoyed this piece of work. Welcome to the Hub Pages Community! :-)

James A Watkins (author) from Chicago on April 13, 2011:

lilyfly— You are welcome, Lily. Yes, you are right about the porphyria. Your comments brought a broad smile to my face. I always enjoy your choice of words. Thanks again.


Dolores Monet from East Coast, United States on April 13, 2011:

Hi, James - whoah, you've got a lot of info here and I want to make a sensible comment that does not wander all over the place but I can't. Queen Ann was drop dead gorgeous. Capt Bligh was quite something. I wonder if they made a movie about him? I seem to recall reading that the bunch who stayed on Picturn (was it?) island, did not fare so well, being drunk and debauched most of the time. Then there was some big scandal not long ago about the descendants and their debauched behavior. Anyway, great hub!

James A Watkins (author) from Chicago on April 13, 2011:

Jackie Lynnley— What happened to the Quakers is an outstanding question and one that had not dawned on me me to ponder. I don't know what happened to them. I'll have to find out. Good one!!

I've never heard a bad word about a Quaker either. Let me know if you find the answer to this puzzle.

James A Watkins (author) from Chicago on April 13, 2011:

lilyfly— No worries, Lily. I only meant she was the first queen of the newly named "Britain" not of England. But I appreciate your amazing powers of observation. Thanks for keeping me on my toes. :D


James A Watkins (author) from Chicago on April 13, 2011:

drbj— Thank you for calling this "One of my best." Coming from an outstanding writer such as yourself this is high praise indeed. I sincerely appreciate your affirmation of my work. And yes, I too am saddened by the story of Queen Anne. She was a beautiful woman.

SUSIE405 from Delray Beach, Florida on April 13, 2011:

Great hub. Very well researched and written. I love history and expecially English royalty. Thanks

James A Watkins (author) from Chicago on April 13, 2011:

Dusty Snoke— Thank you for expressing your appreciation of my work. This is, to be sure, the Reader's Digest version of events. Good of you to come. :-)

James A Watkins (author) from Chicago on April 13, 2011:

viking305— You are quite welcome. I appreciate your kind compliments. I am glad to receive good words from a fellow history lover. Thank you for reading my work.

James A Watkins (author) from Chicago on April 13, 2011:

CMHypno— Yes, a lot can and does happen in 100 years, my friend. I so appreciate you for visiting my Hub and leaving behind your warm words. :)

James A Watkins (author) from Chicago on April 13, 2011:

Harlan Colt— Thank you, Harlan. As you might have guessed, I am a big history buff too. I am well pleased to have found a kindred spirit.

Thank you for reading my latest work. I appreciate your remarks.


Hello, hello, from London, UK on April 13, 2011:

Another masterpiece with many information I learned from. Thank you. Do you think King George III was poisoned or drugged? He went mad but also had stomach cramps etc. which made me suspicious.

Alastar Packer from North Carolina on April 12, 2011:

Your most welcome James. Don't mean to sound like a know it all, its just the 18th is a fave.

James A Watkins (author) from Chicago on April 12, 2011:

charmgirl— You are quite welcome. Yes, it is thought King George III had poryphia, as you noted. Thank you for your kind comments. Good to hear from you. :)

James A Watkins (author) from Chicago on April 12, 2011:

Alastar Packer— I appreciate the compliments. I'm glad I provided some new material for you to ruminate over. I haven't read an entire book on the Jacobites either. Thank you for visiting and commenting.

James A Watkins (author) from Chicago on April 12, 2011:

Radioguy— I am well pleased to meet a kindred spirit. I love history too. Thank you for your kind compliments.

James A Watkins (author) from Chicago on April 12, 2011:

Vladimir Uhri— You are most welcome, brother. Thank you for making your presence known.

James A Watkins (author) from Chicago on April 12, 2011:

Marcella Glenn— I agree that is very sad. Imagine the grief that was borne by Queen Anne. Thank you for reading my Hub.

James A Watkins (author) from Chicago on April 12, 2011:

aguasilver— John! Hello, my friend. Good to see you. Yes, I know spices were a big item at one time. Salt was more valuable than gold at some points in history. Perhaps nutmeg, too.

I agree with you that the East India Company would be a heckuva topic for a Hub.

Thank you for that tip, brother. Always good to have you stop in.

James A Watkins (author) from Chicago on April 12, 2011:

GusTheRedneck— I am well pleased to have provoked a chuckle, or even a chortle. Thank you for your kind words, my friend. I appreciate the visitation. It is always a pleasure to hear your soothing voice, Gus.

James :D

b. Malin on April 12, 2011:

What a wonderful History Lesson on Merry Old England...It boggles the mind, so much fact. I guess History always repeats its self, Re: the poverty-stricken matter who's in charge. I always look forward to coming to your Hub Page James.

Chris Merritt from Pendleton, Indiana on April 12, 2011:

Okay, you have informed me of 3 centuries of England...and they were ALL very entertaining and informing.

Like always, James, I enjoyed this hub!


Never dreamed that Paine was a "stinky" person with scavies.....hmmm.

Clare-Louise from Birmingham UK on April 12, 2011:

Hi James Great hub! I enjoyed that a lot and learnt quite a bit at the same time. the bit about 'the ignored poverty-stricken people in Britain' reminded me of nowadays! haha! thanks for a highly entertaining lesson!!

lilyfly on April 11, 2011:

Utterly delightful, and brightened my day... King George was mad due to "Porphyria", which, even now, is almost impossible to diagnose, the urine has a faint bluish hue. God, I wish we had erudite men where I live... If you can spell it, you can have it, but I'm sure your wife wouldn't like that! haha! Thanks again.... lily

Jackie Lynnley from the beautiful south on April 11, 2011:

This is a very interesting hub. I wonder why so many gave up being a Quaker, you know I think almost if not all the Boone's did but I could never find a reason. Some almost as soon as they got here so it must have been an intention before getting here. Guess I should go study Quakers, huh? Never remember hearing any bad about them.

lilyfly on April 11, 2011:

I think you mean that the last Stuart woman was the last Stuart Queen, not the first queen of England, Bloody Mary, then Elizabeth 1rst preceded her in the 1600's. Now I'll get back to a Bloody Good Read, as all your pieces are.... lily

drbj and sherry from south Florida on April 11, 2011:

You make history come alive with your fascinating hubs, James, and this is one of your best. I'm still commiserating with poor Queen Anne who bore all those children and still had no heir. Rated way up there, my man.

Dusty Snoke from Chattanooga, TN on April 11, 2011:

A great read. I enjoyed all the information. Keep sharing. I like getting 100 years of history in a short read.

L M Reid from Ireland on April 11, 2011:

I am another history fanatic. So I couldn't help but love this hub.

You picked some fasinating charactors from 18th century England to write about.

Great info and enjoyable read,thanks

CMHypno from Other Side of the Sun on April 11, 2011:

Interesting hub on 18th century Britain, James. A lot can happen in 100 years in this country!

Harlan Colt from the Rocky Mountains on April 11, 2011:


I am a big history buff - this is awesome. I never knew that about mutiny on the bounty. This reminds of that bathroom reader book on history lol.

Great job!

- Harlan

charmgirl on April 10, 2011:

Thanks for the history lesson James-there were quite a few odd bods! George 111 had porfiria didn't he? I learnt more about the history of my country from your Hub-thanks James

Alastar Packer from North Carolina on April 10, 2011:

You know James i've read bios and other materials on every subject in this very fine article except Wesley and Clarkson so i learned some new things; but have had trouble finding a good, detailed book on the Jacobite Rebellion. Oh well, one can't know.This is an excellently laid out Hub. Sounds school [teacher-ish] but really mean it.

Radioguy from Maine on April 10, 2011:

Being a lover of history, I love well written material on historical characters and your piece is excellent!

James A Watkins (author) from Chicago on April 10, 2011:

gramarye— Thank you!! Thank you very much! :D

James A Watkins (author) from Chicago on April 10, 2011:

Lynn S. Murphy— Thank you for being my first visitor. Welcome to HubPages, my fellow Floridian. I love history too. I'm glad you like this Hub. :-)

Vladimir Uhri from HubPages, FB on April 10, 2011:

Thanks James.

Marcella Glenn from PA on April 10, 2011:

Queen Anne's life in regard to children was sad.

John Harper from Malaga, Spain on April 10, 2011:

Whilst this was all going on, a Scot called Francis Light, a long serving soldier/sailor in the employ of the East India Company (now there's a hub James)landed where I live in Penang and founded Georgetown in 1749, dying 8 years later as Sir Francis Light and leaving his partners to clean up in the spice industry, which was the dot com of it's time.... what a time, when men could just go out and take what was unoccupied, and make it there own.

Gustave Kilthau from USA on April 10, 2011:

James - It is always fun and instructive to read your articles. This one is no exception. I got a nice chuckle out of the descriptions of some of the oddballs and charlatans you described, for they reminded me of some of those running around today.

Gus :-)))

gramarye from Adelaide - Australia on April 09, 2011:

I love 18th C Britain - really interesting!

Lynn S. Murphy on April 09, 2011:

wow.I love history and this is just fascinating. I love tidbits. wonderful hub.

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