poverty is a great curse. It is the biggest hurdle in the way of economic development. Ranger Nurkse in ''Problems of Capital Formation in Underdeveloped Countries'' describes 'vicious circle of poverty as the basic cause of under-development of poor countries. According to him, a country is poor because it is poor. Being poor, a country has little ability or incentive to save. The low of saving leads to low level of investment and to deficiency of capital. The low of investment leads to low level of productivity. When the productivity per worker is low, the real income will obviously be low and so there poverty and vicious circle is complete.
On the side of demand when people have low real income the demand for goods is bound to be small. In the small size of market, there is no incentive of invest in real or human capital. When the rate of investment is low, the productivity of the factors of production is bound to be low. Low productivity leads to low per capital income which is rapidly absorbed by the rising population growth. The country, therefore, remained poor.
The vicious circle of underdevelopment
Lower per capita incomes make it extremely difficult for poor nations to save and invest, a condition that perpetuates low productivity and low incomes. Furthermore, rapid population growth may quickly absorb increases in per capita real income and thereby may negate the possibility of breaking out of the underdevelopment circle.
How to break this vicious circle of poverty?
Remaining poor is certainly no crime. The accepting of poverty and allowing it to continue is certainly a crime. Briefly, the vicious circle of poverty can be broken in developing countries including Pakistan by adopting following measures.
(1) Increase in savings. The vicious of circle of poverty can be broken by making serious efforts in increasing the volume of real savings both at the level of in development the govt. The govt. can also mobilize foreign savings for capital formation country.
(2) Higher per capital growth rate. The per capital growth rate should be higher than the rate of growth of population. This objective be achieved by increasing the level of employment in the country and reducing the rate of population growth. If the rate of increase in real per capital income is the same as the rate of growth of population, the real income per person will remain unchanged.
(3) Efficient use of natural resources. The less developed countries (LDC) are not making the efficient use of the natural resources available to them. At present the multi national companies (MNCs) of the advanced countries are exploiting these resources more for their own economic benefits. The economic advantages of the natural resources must pass on to the benefits of the poor masses of the LDCs.
(4) Employment of human resources. Many of the less developing countries including Pakistan are faced with serious unemployment problem. The quality of labour force is also poor. The low level of literacy, malnutrition, absence of proper medical care etc are all barriers to economic development Effective measures have to be taken for sufficient investment in human capital to break the poverty barrier of the LDCs.
(5) Increasing the stock of capital goods. The LDCs can come out of the vicious circle pf poverty if the wealthy class is motivated to make their savings available for investment in productive activates rather than using their wealth on the purchase of urban real estates, precious metals etc.
(6) Technological advance. The people in less developed countries (LDCs) can break the poverty barrier by adopting and applying advance technologies which are appropriate to the resources available to them.
(7) Role of the advanced nations. The advanced nations san help the less developed countries in breaking the poverty barrier by:
(i) expanding volume of trade with them.
(ii) increasing the flow of private and public capital in basic infrastructure.
(iii) provision of direct aid in basic social sectors such as education, health etc.
(iv) provision of soft loans for development.
(v) writing off loans.
(8) Role for the government. The government in the less developed country is in the key position to deal effectively with social institutional obstacles to growth and breaking out the vicious circle of poverty. It can greatly root out political corruption and bribery. It can provide incentives to save and invest. It can increase agricultural production by introducing effective land reforms in the country.
Vicious Circle of Poverty A'' Country is poor become it is poor:
Another major cause of economic backwardness is the vicious circle of poverty. Due to backwardness there is not optimum use of resources and due to this reason goods are not produced on the principle of specialisation and division of labour and hence production remains low. Low level of production is due to imperfect markets. Therefore, the level of income of the people is low and hence, level of savings is low. Low level of savings is responsible for low level of investment as a result capital formation rate remains low and problem of shortage of capital arises in these countries and therefore, shortage of capital is the major cause of their underdevelopment.
onesmo jason on February 13, 2018:
LDCs are also poor due to global inequality that exist between developed and under developed countries
mbunda castro on July 01, 2016:
this is actually satisfying for you led me into the class to learn something that i had lttle knowledge of it
george mlela on June 14, 2016:
to be frank the sermon is open my mind and transform my economy thinking to be rich and much thinking about how to over come my poverty problem in my country
james nyambura on November 18, 2015:
The coverage is outrageous...
rahul@one on November 02, 2015:
such a good article 4 undrstnd.........@
UtteloBox on August 11, 2015:
Unquestionably believe that which you said. Your favourite reason appeared to be at the net the easiest thing to understand of. I say to you, I definitely get irked whilst people think about worries that they plainly don’t recognize about. You managed to hit the nail upon the highest as neatly as defined out the entire thing without having side effect , folks could take a signal. Will likely be back to get more. Thanks
femmy on April 02, 2015:
nice work !!!!keep it up!!!!!!!
Nuru Joseph on December 02, 2014:
Its real, many less developed countries lie on that circle of poverty also it is inevitable to come out on that circle.
mgaya on November 07, 2014:
real a good article
ayesha butt on October 26, 2014:
BConnect on March 25, 2014:
It's really a good article.
a.k on March 21, 2014:
real good work
Oscar Mkisi on December 17, 2013:
The theory is very important because helps the society how to overcome the problems to the underdeveloped countries.
daniel mushi on November 14, 2013:
really the man has tried a lot to explain about how situation is in developing countries.the only thing to do we as the people in LDCs we should try to follow what have been indicated. MUCH RESPECT TO YOU MR.NURKS; the intelligent man.
Philimon Kafugugu from zanzibar on April 09, 2013:
thanks ragnar nurskse for giving good idea for developed countries inorder to achive poverty or minimise
Emmanuel on March 26, 2013:
I totally agree with Ranger Nurkes from the general point of view. As an individual and being a victim of poverty from a poverty stricken country governed by a corrupt and self centered leaders, i would rather say that "A poor country is poor because its people are poor". The people are poor in terms of education, productivity, investment, savings and worse of all ignorance. If individuals can make the right decisions at the right time to get themselves out of the vicious cycle, then poor countries would find themselves out of this same cycle even before they know it. How long shall we wait for our governments to change before we do? What if it changes from frying pan to fire? If we do it as individuals by simply identifying our SWOT (strength, weakness, opportunities and threads), we can then eliminate WT and maximize our SO to alleviate poverty. The consequences will then reflect on the country as a whole. This article is an eye opener and i really appreciate its writer.
steriotroma on March 07, 2013:
My partner and i helpful to acquire at the top of life however these days I've built up the amount of resistance.
vinodh on February 04, 2013:
SO NICE.. IT IS VERY HELPFUL TO STUDENTS TO LEARN THEMSELVES. THANK YOU..
matongo festo and sevelin katoto on January 19, 2013:
the only solution to break out f vircle is by restructuring the interaction of the Developing Nations and those Developed ones
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chande ismail form udom on November 27, 2012:
nice work........ i lake it...... thank you so much
iram on November 14, 2012:
good work thanks
chizi on October 17, 2012:
good work done
Kayumba Triphon from Marangu ttc on September 25, 2012:
Yuster on September 25, 2012:
thanks very much presenter.
Uzair on June 06, 2012:
"A country is poor because it is poor" is an obsolete notion. New generally acceptable cause of poverty is wording as "A country is poor because her leadership is corrupt and incompetent", Japan, Malaysia and China raised from ground because of competent leadership.
Nature has endowed Pakistan with following natural resources:
1. Second largest salt mine at Khewra.
2. Second largest coal reservoirs at Thar.
3. Fifth largest gold mines at Reko Diq.
4. Seventh largest copper mines Reko Diq .
5. Eleventh largest wheat producer.
6. Twelfth largest rice producer.
7. Seventh country of the world with nuclear power.
Rich in Natural Gas (27th in World Reserve Ranking)
Excellent natural irrigated system
Best super fertile soil.
Gwadar sea port of economic & strategically importance.
Northern areas -- Paradise on earth
Pakistan is rich in cited resources but is poor due to nothing but merely of poor leadership!
fff on June 02, 2012:
good job u guys
Sharon JK on April 26, 2012:
THANK U NURKSE FOR SUCH GOOD JOB.YOU REALLY HELB US STUDENTS
Tej Prakas Joshi on April 22, 2012:
ramboruiz on April 12, 2012:
There is a vicious, self-reinforcing cycle of poverty associated with mental illness. You become poor. Sometimes through circumstances well beyond your control, such as losing your job, or perhaps because of a pre-existing mental illness or health concerns.
So you seek out government assistance to help you through the tough times.
But living in poverty for any significant length of time increases all sorts of risk factors for health and mental health problems. You are more stressed, worrying about money constantly, and how you’re going to pay the bills or have enough money to eat. You eat worse because bad, processed food is so often cheaper than nutritional food. If you can still afford to live on your own, you will likely do so in a neighborhood more prone to violence, exposing you to more trauma and risk for personal violence.
It’s a vicious circle where both poverty seems linked to greater rates of mental illness, and in some cases, certain kinds of mental illness seem linked to a greater likelihood of living in poverty.
Nyanja Lawrence on April 12, 2012:
MARCUS EREFAA on March 31, 2012:
THANKS FOR THIS GREAT INFORMATION ON HOW BREAK POVERTY MOSTLY AFRICA NATION WHERE WE HAVE MORE POVERTY AND LAZY PEOPLE WHO DON,T WHAT WORK BUT NEED MONEY BUT GREATEST PROBLEMS IS LOW LEVEL OF PRODUCTIVITY AND LOW CAPITAL FORMATION A high LEVEL OF UNEMPLOYMENT IN THE LCDS
Muhammad Waseem on February 22, 2012:
Thanks for the writing about vicious cycle ...
Munili kawawbwa UDOM on February 10, 2012:
It's helped me a lot. Thank's
Niringiyimana Jean Baptiste on February 07, 2012:
thanks be to those who posted such an information.It is quite helpful,especially for learners who are interested in economic development matters.so,I wish you to have a specific chance and go on providing us the useful knowledge.
Prof Rashid Amin on January 31, 2012:
It's is necessry to development of a country...
shivdaspandey on January 30, 2012:
nice work for l.d.c and other related sector
halim lawal on January 04, 2012:
this is a very nice and understandable work
revocatus emy on December 27, 2011:
nice work and it is a good perspective for development
Baraka Athanas on December 14, 2011:
I've real appreciated the presentation.It had satisfied my thirsty on NURKSE's theory.
japheth dastan on December 07, 2011:
this perspective is good not only for students but the expansion of knowledge for other members in the society
DOMINIC MBOGO[UDSM] on November 23, 2011:
NICE WORK IT REAL HELPED ME
BRYAN JONATHAN on November 03, 2011:
YOU GUYS REALLY HELPED US A lot THANKS
GNelson from Florida on August 23, 2011:
Very good hub. Well thought out.
justmesuzanne from Texas on August 04, 2011:
Nice work! Voted up and interesting! :)
Barbara from Stepping past clutter on July 06, 2011:
saif, I appreciate the work you have done concerning poverty in underdeveloped nations. I think your assumptions are informative with one exception:
I would like to point out that within developed nations, the middle class is now experiencing effects of poor health care, unemployment, powerlessness.
In the US,for example, Wall Street has laid the burden of its debt folly on workers, while rich and powerful corporation executives see an increase in annual bonuses and take jobs overseas to underdeveloped nations where workers cost less. The expanded middle class poverty renders governments ineffective, as infrastructures collapse. I suppose you might equate these elite with bandits of the Wild West, taking without giving.
These global elite are folk with money and little accountability. They do not value loyalty to their country of origin; decisions reflect the bottom line. They have sucked their mother countries dry.
Perhaps you could tweak your number 7 to read, "Role of the Global Elite".
ravenlt04 from Atlanta, GA on June 15, 2011:
Thanks for sharing. You seem to have some good pointers for starting to turn things around as far as poverty is concerned. I wish someone in power would listen to us! :)
Fuller-Life from Washington, DC on June 01, 2011:
Very important topic. Great hub! I agree with most of your points. I should also add that the major hinderance to individuals breaking free from poverty is not believing that they actually can come out of it and be wealthy. Labling one as poor has a negative psychological impact on their motivation and consequently their general performance, creativity and dreams. I believe that this is why most poor countries are poor and continue to be poor because they see themselves as poor and therefore, perform poorly by setting mediocre standards for themselves, which equally translates into mediocre trade agreements with rich countries. So the cycle continues. Great hub and looking forward to more.
Chibuzo Melvin Mobis from Nigeria on May 26, 2011:
I totally agree with all the points you shared in this hub.Voted up.
Amy Becherer from St. Louis, MO on May 24, 2011:
Saif, the U.S. is suffering now, too. Unemployment remains stubbornly stuck. I was laid off one-year ago and at that time unemployment was over 9% and it hasn't moved. And, yes, I can no longer spend like I did. I am in survival mode and I am not alone. Fuel rose to over $4/gallon, making some job opportunities impossible if the distance was too great to afford the commute. Employers are paying minimum wage now, making it economically impossible to afford rent and groceries on the little left to take home. Many have lost their homes because the banks will not loan money, even to those still working. Food banks are running on empty and some unemployed now eat every other day. States are going bankrupt and the deeper the situation, the less it seems possible to dig back out. Great article and I plan on reading more of your writing on this topic. Thank you, Saif.
MSantana from Madison Wisconsin on May 24, 2011:
Saif-thanks for writing about potential solutions to break the cycle of poverty.
Loves To Read on May 15, 2011:
Good hub saif, raising very real issues of the poverty in underdeveloped countries. Sadly there are always those financially better off and government bodies who collect 90 percent of the countries finances then use them to support 10 percent of the population
stars439 from Louisiana, The Magnolia and Pelican State. on May 13, 2011:
Important hub. More should be done to help underdeveloped countries become better in order to provide benefits, training, and jobs for everyone who can work. Good hub. Everyone deserves a life. God Bless.
Goodpal on May 09, 2011:
Poverty is a multidimensional issue, although lack of income and money is generally associated with it. In developing countries, structural factors related to politics, culture, and economy perpetuate the vicious cycle of poverty. The only way to eradicate poverty is to create more employment opportunity on the one hand, and take steps to eliminate inequalities of gender, class, race or caste. Poor are vulnerable and insecure, so they need social security nets and easy access to education and healthcare. These steps empower them and finally help them come out of poverty.
Corruption has a significant demoralizing impact on people, particularly the poor. It makes them feel helpless, powerless, and voiceless. So good governance goes a long way in eliminating poverty.
larrybo from Brookfield WI (USA) on January 13, 2011:
this is a subject I'm much interested in. I believe the development of wealth to be a cultural phenomenon, that can take place anywhere once basic survival needs have been met. As per William Bernstein in "The Birth of Plenty" the four criteria are (1) Rule of Law (2) Freedom for Rational Thought (3) Capital Markets (4) Efficient Communication and Transportation Systems. I believe any population that creates these four sityations will become wealthy
kato , J. Rwakyo. on January 11, 2011:
this work is a scolarly one; it poses out the vicious cycle. I hope it will be completed by addition of the critiques on the vicious cycle theory.